APA STYLE GUIDE For the Fifth Edition Ram Sharan Mehta Medical-Surgical Nursing Department
WHAT IS THE APA STYLE? A method of identifying sources used to write a paper. Uses author and date citation in text. This is referred to as “parenthetical” documentation.
What is a citation? A citation is the use of someone else’s material in your work. What is cited in the body of your paper must match exactly an entry in the reference list.
What is a Reference list? A Reference list contains all the references cited in the paper. The Reference list provides a way for others to find the original documents which you have cited.
Reference List Place the list of references cited at the end of the paper. Center the title, Reference(s), an inch from the top of the page. Begin each entry flush with the left margin. Indent subsequent lines five to seven spaces. Double space both within and between entries (not shown here due to space constraints).
Reference List: Authors List alphabetically by the author’s last name. The last name is spelled out. For first name and/or middle name, initials are used. If the author is unknown, alphabetize by title. Example: Cummings, S. T.
Reference List: Authors If you have more than one work by a particular author, order them by publication date, oldest to newest. Example: 1991 would appear before 1996.
Reference List: Authors When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation as the first author of a group, list the one author entries first.
Reference List: Authors If no author is given for a particular source, alphabetize using the title of the work, which will be listed in place of the author, and use a shortened version of the title in parenthetical citations.
Reference List: Authors Group authors: Alphabetize group authors by the first significant word of the name. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher. Example: American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Reference List Book with one author. What is included in a Reference list entry: Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of book. City of publisher: Publisher. Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the mind. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. In text citation: (Carter, 1998)
Reference List CHAPTERS IN BOOKS Author(s) of chapter. (Date of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s), Title of book (page numbers). City of publisher: Publisher. Stern, J. A., & Dunham, D. N. (1990). The ocular system. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 513-553). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. In text citation: (Stern & Durham, 1990).
Reference List Journals with Continuous Pagination: Volume begins with page number 1 and each issue continues the numbering of the pages to the end of the volume. No issue number is given for a journal with continuous pagination. EXAMPLE: Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologist, 48, 574-576. *The commas between title and volume number are in italics.
Reference List Journals with Pagination by Issue: Each issue begins with page number 1. EXAMPLE: Sellard, S., & Mills, M. E. (1995). Administrative issues for use of nurse practitioners. Journal of Nursing Administration, 25(5), 64-70. *The volume number is in italics. The issue number is not in italics. There is no space between the volume number and issue number. 25 is the volume number and 5 is the issue number.
Reference List Magazines: Give the date shown on the publication- month for monthlies or month and day for weeklies. Names of months are spelled out. Give the volume number, if given. Example: Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.
Reference List Newspapers: If an article is not on continuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma. Example: Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Reference List:Electronic sources What is included in a Reference list entry: Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Title of the periodical, volume number,(issue number), page number(s). Retrieved month day, year from name of database. *It is no longer necessary to give the web address for databases that the library has a subscription for. The name of the database is sufficient.
Reference List Electronic Sources: Example from InfoTrac Velmans, M. (1999). When perception becomes conscious. British Journal of Psychology, 90, 543-566. Retrieved May 25, 2001, from the Expanded Academic ASAP database.
Reference List: Web pages Two guidelines should be followed in using Web resources: Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited – whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages. Provide addresses that work.
Reference List: Web pages What is included in an entry: Author/editor. (Date of page creation or last revision). Full title of the web page. Retrieved date, from URL
Reference List:Web pages Example: Green, C. (2000, April 16). History & philosophy of psychology web resources. Retrieved May 22, 2001, from http://www.yorku.ca/dept/psych/orgs/resource. htm