• Effective leadership is not about
making speeches or being liked;
leadership is defined by results
R S MEHTA, MSND 2
•Discover new knowledge
•Seek answers to questions
3Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
“Scientists are rated by
what they finish, not by
what they attempt”
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Common Research Process
DESIGN AND EXCUTING PHASE
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Chapter 2 - Literature review
Chapter 3 – Methodology
Chapter 4 - Data analysis
Chapter 5- Discussion
Chapter 6- Conclusion
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6Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
Critique Nursing Studies:
• Important questions that are part of intellectual
research critique are:
1. What are the major strengths of the study?
2. Major weakness of the study?
3. Findings of the study are accurate
reflection of reality.
4. Significance of the findings for nurses.
5. Findings consistence with previous study.
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Reading for Understanding
• Choosing an article
• Reading the abstract
• Reading the introduction
• Reading the method section
• Reading the results section
• Reading the discussion
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How to critically review a paper?
• What the hypotheses? How many are there?
Are they clearly stated? Is the number tested
appropriate? Is there a salient central theme
of the paper or are they scattered? Are you
convinced by the authors of the significance of
their topic and questions?
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• What methods are used? Are they
appropriate to test the hypotheses? Are the
questionnaires well established? Are they
appropriate? Is the subject selection
• What findings are reported? Do they
support the hypotheses?
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• How did the authors interpret the findings? Do
you agree with them? Are there other
alternative explanations that they may have
missed, and that may threaten the internal
validity of their interpretation/conclusion? How
could have they done their study differently?
• How a scale of 1 to 7 (1=at not all, 4=average,
7=best), how would you rate the 1) overall
significance, 2) the presentation clarity, 3) the
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• Length of critique: no longer than 2 pages
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Guidelines for Critical Analysis of Research
Report: Critiquing Criteria
• Read the research study from beginning to
end in terms of elements of research process
and compare each element to the established
criteria. Critique the study by giving answers
to the following questions raised as follows:
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Statement of the Research Problem &
• Is the problem clearly stated to identify the
research variables, settings and Populations?
• Does the purpose clarify the focus of the
problem to be stated?
• Are the findings of previous studies/existing
literature used to generate the research
problem and purpose?
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Objective and Hypothesis:
• Are they appropriately expressed?
• Are they linked to research purposes?
• Are the variables identified?
• Are there uncontrolled variables to confound
the findings to the study?
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Conceptual / Theoretical Framework:
• Does the conceptual framework describe and define
the concepts of interest?
• Are the relationships among variable clearly stated?
• Is the model of framework provided for the clarity?
• Does the framework reflect all the variables of the
• Is it consistent with what is being studied?
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• Are the variables defined on the basis of
previous research or theories?
• Is the operational definition consistent with
Limitations of the study:
• Are the biases present in the study
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• Are the previous studies related to research
problem identified and described?
• Is the current knowledge of research problem
• Are the references current?
• Is it organized to demonstrated progressive
development of idea through previous
• Does it provide rationale for the study?
• Are primary sources mainly used?
• Does it follow the purposes of the study?
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Population and Sample:
• Are the setting and the population in which
findings to be generalized clearly identified?
• Is the sample representative?
• Is sample size sufficiently large?
• Is the sample selection procedure clearly
• Is the human rights protected in carrying out
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• Are all data collection instruments identified?
• Is the rationale for selection is given?
• Is the method used appropriate to the problem being
• Does it measure the variables as defined?
• Does it describe how it was developed?
• Is it reported how the validity and reliability had
• Were the observers trained how to use it, if they
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• Was the instrument pre-tested?
• Was the use of statistic appropriate?
• Was the level of measurement for each variable
• Are the same phenomena/variables being observed
as described in problem instrument?
• Where the procedures for data collection
• Where institutional permission obtained?
• Is there enough information present to come into
• Is the presentation of data adequate and agree with
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Data Analysis and Interpretation:
• Are all of the results pertaining each hypothesis
• Are the results presented objectively/
• Has the level of significance reported/
• Does the table have appropriate heading and precise
labels and the figures agree with the text?
• Are the results interpreted in the context of ht
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Conclusion, Implications and
• Was it reported whether findings supported /
not supported the hypothesis?
• What generalizations were made?
• Was the relevance of research to nursing and
other field identified?
• Was a recommendation for future research
• Was it reported what study had validity fro
generalization and replication of there study in
another research setting?
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• To know how to suggest is the
great art of teaching.
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