1
Referencing Style
Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
“There is no way to get experience
except through experience.”
Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 2
Terminology:
 Citation
 Refrence
 Bibliography
 Dissertation
 Thesis
 Research Report
Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 3
4
Referencing Style
 The Vancouver system – used in medical and scientific journal
 The Harvard system
 Chicago manual ...
5
Referencing Style contd..
Why do we need reference?
 To give credit to the ideas/works of other authors.
 To allow oth...
6
Referencing Style contd..
Plagiarism
Examples:
 the verbatim copying of others work without
acknowledgement.
 the clos...
7
Referencing Style contd..
Sources of Information
1. Book
2. Journal
3. Newspaper / magazine
4. Conference paper/proceedi...
8
Referencing Style contd..
Elements in the reference list
1. Author
2. Title of document
3. Date ( year of publication)
4...
9
10
Referencing Style contd..
Format of book in various system
APA: Surname, initial. (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publis...
11
Referencing Style contd..
Format of journal in various system
APA: surname, initial. (year). Title of article. Title
of...
12
The Vancouver system
Reference List- Book
Format: surname initial. Title. Edition. Place: Publisher; year. P.
page numb...
13
The Vancouver system contd..
B. Reference List- Book
More than six author
3. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser S...
14
The Vancouver system contd..
Conferences
Format: surname Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor's surname
Initials, edito...
15
The Vancouver system contd..
Journal
Format:
surname Initials, surname Initials. Title of article. Title
of Journal. [a...
16
The Vancouver system contd..
Electronic Journal (online journal)
Format:
surname Initials. Title of article. Abbreviate...
17
The Vancouver system contd..
Website
Format:
Author/Editor/Organisation's name . Title of the page
[homepage on the Int...
18
Example of reference list written in Vancouver style:
Reference list
1. Dybvig DD, Dybvig M. Det tenkende mennesket.
Fi...
Thank you
Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 19
20
APA STYLE GUIDE
For the Fifth Edition
Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
21
APA Citation Style
Journal or Magazine Article
(use for journals that start each issue with page one)
Wilcox, R. V. (19...
22
Article from an Internet Database
(for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official
site)
Mersho...
23
Encyclopedia Article
Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana
(Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbur...
24
Reference List
Book with one author.
What is included in a Reference list entry:
 Author(s). (Date of publication). Ti...
25
Thank you for your
participation
Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
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6. referencing styles

  1. 1. 1 Referencing Style Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  2. 2. “There is no way to get experience except through experience.” Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 2
  3. 3. Terminology:  Citation  Refrence  Bibliography  Dissertation  Thesis  Research Report Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 3
  4. 4. 4 Referencing Style  The Vancouver system – used in medical and scientific journal  The Harvard system  Chicago manual of style  American Psychological Association (APA)- Psychology, education and other social sciences  American Medical Association (AMA) – Medicine & biological sciences  Modern Language Association (MLA)- literature & arts Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  5. 5. 5 Referencing Style contd.. Why do we need reference?  To give credit to the ideas/works of other authors.  To allow others (readers) to find the original sources easily (cited reference)  To make the work informative. (Quality)  To get recognition & authentication of the work.  To address the issue of plagiarism Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  6. 6. 6 Referencing Style contd.. Plagiarism Examples:  the verbatim copying of others work without acknowledgement.  the close paraphrasing of others work by simply changing a few words of altering the order of presentation.  the unacknowledged quotation of phrases.  PROGRAMME: IThenticate and Turn it in Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  7. 7. 7 Referencing Style contd.. Sources of Information 1. Book 2. Journal 3. Newspaper / magazine 4. Conference paper/proceedings 5. Annual report 6. Institutional / Government publication 7. Electronic sources- Website, CD-ROM, Databases 8. Theses/ Reports/ unpublished works Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  8. 8. 8 Referencing Style contd.. Elements in the reference list 1. Author 2. Title of document 3. Date ( year of publication) 4. place of publication 5. Edition 6. Periodicity (volume/ issue/ part number) 7. Series Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10 Referencing Style contd.. Format of book in various system APA: Surname, initial. (year). Title. Edition. Place: Publisher. Vancouver: surname initials. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; year. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  11. 11. 11 Referencing Style contd.. Format of journal in various system APA: surname, initial. (year). Title of article. Title of journal in italics, volume number (issue/part), pages. Vancouver: surname initials. Title of article. Title of journal in abbreviated date/year;volume(issue):pages. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  12. 12. 12 The Vancouver system Reference List- Book Format: surname initial. Title. Edition. Place: Publisher; year. P. page number. (series title; volume number). Example: (one to six author) 1. Mehta RS, Mandal GN. Nursing concept: fundamental of nursing. Kathmandu: Makalu Books and Stationers; 2005. For chapter (in editorial works) 2. Yadav BK. In: Mehta RS, Mandal GN, editors. Nursing concept: fundamental of nursing. Kathmandu: Makalu Books and Stationers; 2005. p. 125 - 35. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  13. 13. 13 The Vancouver system contd.. B. Reference List- Book More than six author 3. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, et al., editors. Harrison,s principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New york: McGraw Hill, Medical; 2008. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  14. 14. 14 The Vancouver system contd.. Conferences Format: surname Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor's surname Initials, editor. Title of the Conference; Date of conference; Place of publication: Publisher's name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers. Example: Anderson JC. Current status of chorion villus biopsy. In: Tudenhope D, Chenoweth J, editors. Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the Australian Perinatal Society; 1986: Brisbane, Queensland: Australian Perinatal Society; 1987. p. 190-6. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  15. 15. 15 The Vancouver system contd.. Journal Format: surname Initials, surname Initials. Title of article. Title of Journal. [abbreviated] year/dateYear Month date;Volume Number(Issue number):page numbers. Example: 1. Pass RF, Zhang C, Evans A, Simpson T, Andrews W, Huang M, et al. Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection. N Engl J Med 2009 Mar 19;360(12):1191-99. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  16. 16. 16 The Vancouver system contd.. Electronic Journal (online journal) Format: surname Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated Title of Journal [serial online]. Year of publication Month day [cited Year Month Day]; Volume Number(Issue number):[about number of pages or screens]. Available from: URL: Example: Aylin P, Bottle A, Jarman B, Elliott, P. Paediatric cardiac surgical mortality in England after Bristol: descriptive analysis of hospital episode statistics 1991-2002. BMJ [serial on the Internet]. 2004 Oct 9;[cited 2004 October 15]; 329:[about 10 screens]. Available from: URL: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7470/825 Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  17. 17. 17 The Vancouver system contd.. Website Format: Author/Editor/Organisation's name . Title of the page [homepage on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher's name; [updated yr month day; cited yr month day]. Available from: Example: HeartCentreOnline [homepage on the Internet]. Boca Raton, FL: HeartCentreOnline, Inc.; c2000-2004 [updated 2004 May 23; cited 2004 Oct 15]. Available from: http://www.heartcenteronline.com/ Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  18. 18. 18 Example of reference list written in Vancouver style: Reference list 1. Dybvig DD, Dybvig M. Det tenkende mennesket. Filosofi- og vitenskapshistorie med vitenskapsteori. 2nd edition. Trondheim: Tapir akademisk forlag; 2003. 2. Bick, J. 101 Thing You Need to Know about Internet Law [electronic book]. New York: Three Rivers Press; 2000 [cited 30 March, 2004]. Avalible at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ntnu/. 3. Beizer JL, Timiras, ML. Pharmacology and drug management in the elderly. 2nd edition. In: Timirad PS, ed. Physiological basis of aging and geriatrics. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1994. pp. 279- 284. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  19. 19. Thank you Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS 19
  20. 20. 20 APA STYLE GUIDE For the Fifth Edition Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  21. 21. 21 APA Citation Style Journal or Magazine Article (use for journals that start each issue with page one) Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star trek: The next generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), 53-65. Dubeck, L. (1990). Science fiction aids science teaching. Physics Teacher, 28, 316-318. Journal or Magazine Article (use for journals where the page numbering continues from issue to issue) Newspaper Article Di Rado, A. (1995, March 15). Trekking through college: Classes explore modern society using the world of Star trek. Los Angeles Times, p. A3. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  22. 22. 22 Article from an Internet Database (for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site) Mershon, D. H. (1998, November-December). Star trek on the brain: Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86, 585. Retrieved July 29, 1999, from Expanded Academic ASAP database. Book Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books. Book Article or Chapter James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  23. 23. 23 Encyclopedia Article Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier. Website (for more details, see the American Psychological Association's official site) Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved October 8, 1997, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club Web site: http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/ 503r.html Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  24. 24. 24 Reference List Book with one author. What is included in a Reference list entry:  Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of book. City of publisher: Publisher.  Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the mind. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
  25. 25. 25 Thank you for your participation Dr. R S Mehta, MSND, BPKIHS
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