2011–2012 APPA National Pet Owners
U.S. pet-ownership estimates
• 78.2 million—Number of owned dogs
• 46 percent—Percentage of households that own at least one
• 60 percent—Percentage of owners with one dog
• 28 percent—Percentage of owners with two dogs
• 12 percent—Percentage of owners with three or more dogs
• 1.7—Average number of owned dogs per household
• 21 percent—Percentage of owned dogs who were adopted
from animal shelters
• $248—Average annual amount spent by dog owners on routine
• 78 percent—Percentage of owned dogs who are spayed or
• Even—Proportion of male to female owned dogs
• 86.4 million—Number of owned cats
• 39 percent—Number of households that own at least one cat
• 52 percent—Percentage of owners with more than one cat
• 2.2—Average number of owned cats per household
• 21 percent—Percentage of owned cats who were adopted from
an animal shelter
• $219—Average annual amount spent by cat owners on routine
• 88 percent—Percentage of owned cats who are spayed or
• 80 percent vs. 65 percent—The difference in number of owned
female cats and owned male cats, respectively
“Paro has the appearance of a baby harp seal. Previous attempts to develop
cat-robot and dog-robot (Shibata et al., 1999) demonstrated the inadequacy
of these models in supporting interaction dynamics. The physical appearance
of these robots turned out to be unsuccessful in meeting human being
expectations during the interaction. The unlikeness from real cats and dogs
was so evident to compromise any possibility of engagement with the
robots. The baby seal model was therefore attempted. The choice was
inspired by the idea to reproduce an unfamiliar animal that could barely
create expectations in the human agent during the interaction. The design of
Paro tried to balance the need to guarantee the likeliness with a real baby
seal with the capability to stimulate exploration and sustain interaction. In
this perspective a considerable effort was devoted to the design of eyes and
gaze and all the facial expressions in general. The body is equally harmonious
and balanced in all its parts. In designing Paro, a particular attention was
devoted to create an impressive tactile experience…”
Defining the Problem – Key Questions
The engineering design process starts with the
problem at hand:
• What is the problem or need?
• Who has the problem or need?
• Why is it important to solve?
• [Who] need(s) [what] because [why].
Establishing the Design Requirements
Specify Requirements: Design requirements state the
important characteristics that your solution must meet to
succeed. One of the best ways to identify the design
requirements for your solution is to analyze the concrete
example of a similar, existing product, noting each of its
Design Brief – A Tool for Establishing Design
• A description of the target user.
• A definition of the problem to be solved. [Who]
need(s) [what] because [why].
• A description of how existing products are used and
why they fail to address the problem.
• A list of all the requirements for the proposed design.
Types of Design Requirements
Cost - Purchase, Use, Repair,…
Geometry - Size, Curvature,…
Physical Characteristics - Weight, Density,
Input - Energy, Gas, Labor,….
User Requirements - Use, Learning,
Aesthetics - Style, Colour, Texture,…..
Performance - Accuracy, Strength,
Output - Pollution, Side effects, Power,….
Environmental Requirements -