ACI Creativity and Design Day 4
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Creativity and innovation methods

Creativity and innovation methods

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ACI Creativity and Design Day 4 ACI Creativity and Design Day 4 Presentation Transcript

  • Creativity and Design 4. Creativity in Design Dr. Ricardo Sosa & Dr. Kristin L. Wood http://www.aci-institute.com/index.php/web/master_program/ProgStructure/5/104
  • Creativity and Design The objective of this course is to introduce students to the basics of product design, including issues relating to product form and function, as well as aesthetics and experience. Students will learn how to integrate creative ideas into product designs that would appeal to consumers. Cutting edge and relevant issues in product designs will be discussed. Special emphasis will also be placed on examining product designs in an Asian cultural context.
  • http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html
  • 4 Innovations: Recent History Edison Telegraph Wright Brothers Biplane Gutenberg Printing Press Kilby’s Integrated Circuit Ford Model T
  • 5 Innovations: Recent History 1938 Electronic TelevisionSputnik Satellite Sony Walkman Trevithick's Steam Locomotive Waterwheel
  • 6 Current Innovations Black & Decker Alligator Lopper Transition Drivable Airplane Autonomous Humanoid Robots MEMS Devices Paint Roller
  • 7 Current Innovations RevoPower Wheel North Face Boa Shoe Laser-guided Scissors Self-wetting Paint Roller www.nandahome.com www.makezine.com www.popsci.com
  • Ideation Activity • Phase I of Design with Transactional Problems – Phase I Problem
  • Creativity and Design 4. Creativity in Design • Explorations in Creative Product Design http://www.aci-institute.com/index.php/web/master_program/ProgStructure/5/104
  • How does design impact our daily lives? What is creativity & design? http://www.webmastergrade.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Abstract-Design.jpg
  • What are the most influential innovations in history? http://gocoinventions.com/html/about.html
  • What are possible avenues to express our imagination? How do we enhance our creativity individually and in teams? How can we make a difference & change the world?
  • Our Journey… An Interactive E-Book Presentation Beginnings Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V … Epilogue Pic reference: http://secretsatsixth.livejournal.com/
  • Prologue-Beginnings PROLOGUE: Beginnings Sensing Design in Our Engineered World Prologue: Beginnings
  • Exploration Activity • Consumer Shoe Market – Customer needs and product attributes – Engineering Context – The Future…
  • SENSING DESIGN IN OUR ENGINEERED WORLD: FOOTWEAR DESIGN Aesthetic Stylish Ergonomic Thematic Long-Life Reasonable Cost Functional Savvy Helpful Unique Athletic
  • THE WEAR EQUATION WEAR = MATERIAL CONSTANT x PRESSURE VELOCITY x
  • SENSING DESIGN IN OUR ENGINEERED WORLD: QuillReed Metal Nib Fountain Ballpoint Multi Color Mono Poly Continuum ??? ? Ink Pen Design
  • Ideation Activity • List ideas for creating a next generation multi-color pen • Discuss your ideas in 2s or 3s around your area
  • CONTINUUM PEN Concept pen by Jinsun Park
  • SMART YO-YO DESIGN
  • Automating process of towel dispensing: • Many previous designs required physical contact with device • Need process that prevents the transfer of germs; improve hygiene AUTOMATION DESIGN .
  • Chapter I: Interactive E-Book Presentation Chapter 1: Aircraft Products UAVs-RPA Prologue: Beginnings Chapter 1
  • AIRCRAFT PRODUCTS: UAVS - RPA • History • A New Generation of Aircraft: •Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or Remote Piloted Aircraft
  • UAV - RPA • Intelligence-Surveillance- Reconnaissance (ISR) • Search and Rescue • Natural Disaster Relief • Safety of Human Personnel • Aircraft with avionics and sensors to control flight, travel and loiter to way points, and transmit imagery and other information Need Genesis
  • Lone Star Challenge: The Mission Create a long duration, autonomous surveillance device for urban environments • The Challenge: – 24 hr surveillance • Important Needs: – Autonomous (high level commands) – Total system weight <10 lbs – No tether data links – Transport by a team of 3 people 29 2007 - 2008
  • Lone Star Challenge: Customer Needs Prospective Customers • Military personnel • Search and rescue operators • Firefighters • RC plane hobbyists Top Derived Needs • Long life • Durability in crashes • Ease of control • Ease of setup • Portability • Maneuverability • Covert • Flexible system 30 2007 - 2008
  • Chosen Concept Description Concept chosen was a Distributed Automata System which consists of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) dropping sensory pods 2007 - 2008
  • Lone Star Challenge 2007 - 2008
  • •Need: Pioneer an innovative remote piloted aircraft to provide sustained low energy expenditure ISR and enhanced capabilities for missions AIRCRAFT PRODUCTS: PERCHING UAV
  • StickyPad Aircraft: Sub-Systems 4 Sub-Systems: • Attach System • Perching Line • Detach System • Re-takeoff System
  • Perching – StickyPad Aircraft
  • • Need: • Video quality captured by UAVs is vital for the success of any surveillance mission. • Wind gusts can render the video information useless • Gusts also cause deviations in the flight path of the MAV, creating collisions with trees, buildings or other objects AIRCRAFT PRODUCTS: GUST- RESISTANT WINGS
  • Aircraft Products: Gust Resistant Wings
  • AIRCRAFT PRODUCTS: TRANSFORMER MICRO-AERIAL VEHICLES TACMAV (53 cm wing span) uses flexible wings which can be folded around its fuselage allowing it collapse and be stored in a 13 cm diameter tube carried soldier's backpack
  • Digitally Designed and Manufactured Aerial Platforms Computer-Aided DesignDESIGN MANUFACTURING Water jetting FEM/FEA Stress Analysis 3D Printing Laser cutting Advanced Gesture ControlCONTROL
  • Nature-Inspired Flying Craft • Maple seed – Nature’s “helicopters”
  • Chapter II: Interactive E-Book Presentation Chapter 2: Assistive Technologies Prologue: Beginnings Chapter 1 Chapter 2
  • 15% of US Population has a “disability”
  • Assistive Technologies Switch activated ball thrower (Green, et al., 2000) Assistive bowling device (Cox, et al., 1999) Assistive key handler (Shimek, et al., 2001).
  • Need: to create an automated assistive guitar to facilitate a person with disabilities to communicate through the medium of music ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: ASSISTIVE STRING INSTRUMENTS Music therapy developmentally facilitates individuals to share their knowledge of new skills with others
  • Chapter III: Interactive E-Book Presentation Chapter 3: Products for Developing Countries Prologue: Beginnings Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
  • 86% of the world lives in a developing country 4 Billion live on less than $4/day (PPP) http://www.gaia-photos.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/zal_p12.jpg
  • PDC: Powered Parachute Project • Working with Indigenous people Technology and Education Center (ITEC), Steve Saint – Founder • Lack of Transportation in Third World Countries – Frontier Environments – Limited Roads – Lack of adequate runways – Limited trained pilots • Make a flying vehicle that can also drive
  • 53 PDC: I-TEC – Indigenous Peoples Technology and Education Center • Founder Steve Saint partly raised by Waodani2 • Empower indigenous peoples through technology and education (1) itecusa.org/who.htm; (2) www.endofthespear.com; (3) http://www.itecusa.org/pds.htm 35 lbm portable dental chair and drill3 Off-road/aerial four-passenger vehicle (experimental) Non-verbal medical training materials
  • PDC: Jungle Transportation Options Walk slow (~ ½ mph or 0.2 m/s) Boat/Car limited to rivers/roads Solution “flying car” powered parachute Airplane complex & $$$ for jungle dwellers
  • PDC: Powered Parachute
  • School of Engineering and Engineering Technology
  • $ PDC: LeTourneau Engineering Global Solutions (LEGS) Ability to manufacture with locally available tools Bethany Crippled Children's Clinic in Kenya, Bangladesh, Sierra Leon. • Band saw • Drill press • Vacuum • Dremel tool inexpensivemaintenance free excellent functionality Provide leg prosthetic device to developing countries
  • PDC: Engineering Service with LEGS Timothy Doris Peter Kenyan Children with a L.E.G.S. Prosthetic
  • PDC: LeTourneau Engineering Global Solutions (LEGS)
  • • Nearly one in five child deaths – about 1.5 million each year – is due to diarrhea. • Diarrhea kills more young children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. • Drinking contaminated water also leads to reduced personal productive time, with widespread economic effects. • Need: Develop personal water filtration devices to improve access to clean water supplies and improve quality of life. PRODUCTS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: LIFESTRAW™
  • More than 1 Billion without Clean Water
  • Women & Children Work for Water
  • Life-Changing Innovative Design LifeStraw™
  • Life Straw Process
  • Chapter IV: Interactive E-Book Presentation Chapter 4: Energy Harvester Products Prologue: Beginnings Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
  • Develop an autonomous network of health monitoring sensors and communication hubs to assess bridge safety and prevent catastrophic failure ENERGY HARVESTERS: WIRELESS SENSOR NODE DESIGN
  • Bridge Health Monitoring There are 600,000 bridges in the United States 150,000 are labeled structurally deficient Aging infrastructure created a need for better inspection methods to prevent catastrophic failure IH-35 in Minneapolis
  • Overall Objective • Develop in-situ energy sources to support long-term monitoring of highway bridges – Evaluate potential energy sources – Investigate alternative energy storage – Develop innovative concepts for energy harvesting – Design, build, and evaluate prototypes – Integrate most promising concepts into monitoring system
  • 25.8 % of U.S. bridges are structurally deficient in 2006 and worsening.
  • Bridge Types 1 2 3
  • System Design Power monitoring system from bridge vibrations Energy Harvester Strain gage WSN Node WSN Router WSN Gateway Strain gage WSN Node Energy Harvester Host Controller Energy Harvester
  • Vibration Energy Harvesters from Everyday Life Paradiso, J. and Starner, T., “Energy Scavenging for Mobile and Wireless Electronics,” Pervasive Computing, January-March 2005.
  • Average Power Requirements 0.000001 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Router 100 Hz rainflow 30 Hz rainflow 1/sec 1/min 1/hour 1/day 1/month Sample Rate AveragePower(mW) always on deep sleep turn off Power Requirements • End node ~0.5 mW (long-term average) • Router node ~200 mW • Gateway ~5-10 W
  • Bridge Frequency Analysis 16 December 2010 74 Power Spectrum of Several Locations Min, Max, RMS Accelerations with Location To see change of ωn with location Same frequencies not dominant at all locations Varying magnitude with location
  • Prototype 16 December 2010 75 CAD Prototype Components • New combination of linear & nonlinear system Mounting [2]
  • Next Generation Design 16 December 2010 76 Exploded View • 1/3 the volume, ½ the parts, easy adjustment, assembly, & mounting Mounting Iso View
  • Supplying Power Alternatives to Remote Communities ENERGY HARVESTERS: SPARC
  • 2008-09 Water Wheel Testing • Potential Energy • Kinetic Energy – Darrieus – Propeller – Water wheels
  • Test: Compare Final Systems Lake Pull: Stock System vs. SPARC (27.5°Al Shroud + Filter) 1.1 2.1 3.1 4.1 5.1 6.1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0 Stream Velocity [mph] GeneratorPowerOutput[Watts] PowerIncrease Stream Velocity [m/s] System Improvement, % Manufactured System SPARC Improved System
  • ENERGY HARVESTERS: SINGAPORE SOLAR PARK – MARINA BARRAGE
  • ENERGY HARVESTERS: SINGAPORE BREEZE SHELTERS – MARINA BAY
  • Chapter V: Interactive E-Book Presentation Chapter 5: Amusement Park Rides Prologue: Beginnings Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5
  • No water theme park is complete without a long run on a water slide, but what do you do when you don't have the room? Let the laws of physics give you a ride! The team puts together an amazing, fun- filled "slide-in-a-ring" and then turns on the hose for some aquatic fun. AMUSEMENT PARK RIDES: ACORN’S PERPETUAL MOTION WATER SLIDE
  • Ideation Activity • Generate / Sketch Ideas: Water Park Slides – Assume very little water available (a hose or small water tank) – Assume very little space (perhaps the size of a merry-go- round or Ferris wheel) – …
  • Amusement Park Rides: Acorn’s Water Slide
  • Amusement Park Rides: Acorn’s Water Slide
  • Amusement Park Rides: Acorn’s Water Slide
  • Amusement Park Rides: Acorn’s Water Slide
  • Amusement Park Rides: Acorn’s Water Slide
  • Amusement Park Rides: Acorn’s Water Slide
  • Amusement Park Rides: Acorn’s Water Slide
  • Amusement Park Rides: Acorn’s Water Slide
  • AMUSEMENT PARK RIDES: SINGAPORE FLYER
  • Chapter VI: Interactive E-Book Presentation Prologue: Beginnings Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 6: Robotic Systems
  • ROBOTIC SYSTEMS
  • ROBOTIC SYSTEMS: HIGHLY MOBILE ROBOTS
  • Design for Highly Mobile Robots • Why? – Urban Search and Rescue • Involves human dangers including physical harm, difficult access and hazardous materials • Japan’s east coast post tsunami disaster, radioactive rubble, missing persons • 9-11 New York City post terrorist disaster – Outdoor ISR, Search and Rescue, Recreation • Exploration of caves and tunnel – Searching for illegal activity or activity of interest – Tool for spelunking, exploring new cavities for potential future human exploration – Perimeter Monitoring • Collapsed Mine Rescue and Exploration – Verifying survivor location to aide proper rescue drilling – 2010 Chililean and New Zealand Disasters
  • Design Requirements: Evaluating the Scenarios 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • Design Requirements: Evaluating the Scenarios DEVICE MUST COPE WITH: HAZARDOUS MATERIAL (RADIOACTIVE OR OTHER) RESTRICETED POINTS OF ACCESS LARGE DEBRIS CAUSING LEDGES AND CREVICES ROCKY, MUDDY, SANDY, OR SMOOTH TERRAIN
  • Design Requirements: Summary 1. Insertion / Retraction through 8 in (20cm) borehole 2. Negotiate rubble, mud, & rough terrain 3. Negotiate 2 foot vertical obstacles and crevices
  • Highly Mobile Robots Solutions: Conceptual Mobility Enhancers
  • Solution: Conceptual Embodiment, Crevice 1 2 3 4 5
  • Solution: Prototype
  • Highly Mobile Robots FanBot PogoBot
  • Highly Mobile Robots
  • Chapter VII: Interactive E-Book Presentation Epilogue Prologue: Beginnings Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 7: Biomedical – Biomechanics Devices
  • Compliant Prosthetic Sockets • Develop an efficient CAD/CAE/CAM framework to fabricate prosthetic sockets  Interface between prosthesis and limb  Selective compliance for increased comfort socket attachment fitting pylon prosthetic foot
  • Significance of the Work • 400,000 living limb amputees in US alone • 60,000 new amputees added annually • 97% could benefit from prostheses to assist locomotion • 70,000 new prosthetists needed to meet needs with current technology • Use of CAD/CAM techniques is only way to meet need
  • Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) • Rapid Prototyping technique  Complex geometries with minimal cost penalty  Socket created directly from subject-specific geometry  Allows direct integration of socket with other components  Mating features between socket and pylon
  • Incorporation of spiral slots • Slots can be directly implemented within socket wall through straightforward CAD operations • Back wall is needed to protect feature and keep smooth outer appearance • Void space between walls can be filled with cushioning material
  • SLS Socket Test
  • Epilogue: Interactive E-Book Presentation Epilogue Prologue: Beginnings Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Epilogue Epilogue: A Snapshot of the Future: Engineering Grand Challenges
  • ENGINEERING GRAND CHALLENGES OF THE 21st Century
  • Improve Urban Infrastructure: Singapore’s Helix Bridge http://www.cnngo.com/singapore/play/worlds-first-curved-double-helix-bridge-marina-bay-505668
  • Creativity and Design 4. Creativity in Design • Teamology http://www.aci-institute.com/index.php/web/master_program/ProgStructure/5/104
  • 117
  • 118
  • 119 OVERVIEW OF MBTI • 4 letters define the “type” • Describes how a person prefers to interact with their environment • Various tests exist to define “type”  E(for Extrovert) or… I (for Introvert)  S (for Sensor) or… N (for iNtuitor)  T (for Thinker) or… F (for Feeler)  J (for Judger) or… P (for Perceiver)
  • 120 MBTI “There is a great deal of human nature in people.” - Mark Twain
  • 121 MBTI: Design Team Roles OB OBSERVER Sees all sides IS SI SE ES EN NE NI IN S N I E INSPECTOR Detects & corrects errors. INVESTIGATOR Gets facts & know-how. MODELMAKER Builds & tests rough prototypes. TEST PILOT Pushes performance envelope. ENTREPENEUR Explores new products and methods. INNOVATOR Synthesizes new products. VISIONARY Imagines various product forms and uses. STRATEGIST Speculates on project & product future. INFORMATION-GATHERING IT TI TE ET EF FE FI IF T F I E REVIEWER Compares results with goals. SIMULATOR Analyzes performance & efficiency. SCHEDULER Sets deadlines & breaks bottlenecks. COORDINATOR Focuses effort & saves time. DIPLOMAT Harmonizes team, client, & customer. CONCILIATOR Detects and fixes interpersonal issues. NEEDFINDER Evaluates human factors & consumer issues. CRITIC Addresses aesthetic & moral issues. DECISION-MAKING ME MEDIATOR Referees conflicts
  • 122 6-Hats Overview • 6 “Hat Colors” represent 6 Communication styles, originally from business management • Instrument created to determine preferred hat(s) • Provides basis for algorithm to choose and understand teams • Edward DeBono, Six Thinking Hats, Little & Brown, 1985 • Instrument Creator: Dr. Dan Jensen at USAFA
  • 123 6-Hats Overview White Hat * I focus on objective facts. * I enter into a discussion without preconceived ideas on a solution Red Hat * I have good intuition * I think emotions should play a significant role in decision making Yellow Hat * I usually see the positive side * I tend to see the valuable contributions in people’s ideas
  • 124 6-Hats Overview Black Hat * I can quickly see why an idea will not work * I like to play the “devil’s advocate” Green Hat * I am creative * I am good at finding new approaches to solving a problem Blue Hat * I like to lead the problem solving process * I focus on the big picture, summarize and draw conclusions
  • 125 Extended Overview of 6-Hats Communication Styles/Roles White Hat I focus on objective facts. I enter into a discussion without preconceived ideas on a solution I seek to know that facts of a situation I seek to know the statistical evidence concerning a decision I try to think totally objectively about a situation I seek to differentiate between facts and opinions I am more interested in facts than opinions Red Hat My feelings sway my decisions I have good intuition I often have hunches about the best decision My personal opinions play a significant role in my decision making process I listen to my emotions when making decisions I am suspicious of other people’s decision making process I think emotions should play a significant role in decision making Yellow Hat I usually see the positive side of things I can often see the good parts of even a bad idea I am usually optimistic that a new idea will work I tend to see the valuable contributions in people’s ideas I believe that most new ideas have significant value I usually “look on the bright side” of a problem My comments are usually positive and constructive Black Hat I can quickly see why an idea will not work I often can tell an idea will not work by judging from past experience I like to play the “devil’s advocate” I can usually see the pitfalls in an idea I can readily detect poor logic in someone’s argument I find it easy to be critical of other’s ideas I am often pessimistic of others ideas Green Hat I am creative I often generate new ways of thinking about a problem I easily think “outside of the box” I am good at finding new approaches to solving a problem I am constantly thinking of alternatives I am not likely to settle for the “status quo” I can easily generate new concepts Blue Hat I like to lead the problem solving process I tend to think as much about the problem solving process as the problem itself I focus on the big picture, summarize and draw conclusions I find myself trying to keep the group focused I tend to try to optimize the group problem solving process I often help the group clearly define the problem I often find myself orchestrating the group
  • Creativity and Design 4. Creativity in Design • Ideation-Creativity Methods http://www.aci-institute.com/index.php/web/master_program/ProgStructure/5/104
  • Cognitive Model
  • Analogy Exercise • Consider a number of cases – A Design Problem / Opportunity… – An Analogy – A Solution…
  • 129 Examples of Analogy Device that allows repeatable printing Problem Description Analogy Concept Wine Press Gutenberg Printing Press
  • 130 Examples of Analogy Device that provides pseudorandom frequency changes for transmission encryption Problem Description Analogy Concept Player Piano Frequency-hopping Radio Transmission
  • 131 Examples of Analogy Device that temporarily secures two materials without adhesives and is reusable VelcroCockle Burr Problem Description Analogy Concept
  • 132 Examples of Analogy Device that secures and cuts unwieldy materials such as tree branches Black & Decker Alligator LopperAlligator Jaws Problem Description Analogy Concept
  • Examples of Analogy Device that can traverse large distances over rough, uneven terrain utilizing wind power as the source for locomotion Mars Exploration Robot Tumbleweed Problem Description Analogy Concept
  • Examples of Analogy Portable device that provides both hand-held and hands-free lighting Problem Description Analogy Concept B&D Snake LightKing Cobra
  • Examples of Analogy New sail that includes appropriate flexibility but also rigidity Ship Sails Bat Wing Problem Description Analogy Concept
  • Examples of Analogy Increases passive cooling in public spaces “Airfoil Shape Structures” Airfoil Problem Description Analogy Concept
  • 137 Distant Design Analogy Example: Analogy between two devices (Distant domain) Vegetable Peeler Pick-up winder to create coiled wire pick-ups for an electric guitar
  • 138 Biological Analogy from Functional Similarity www.raymondchow.ca/ gallery/leaf.jpg Bipolar Plate VeinsFlow Field Lamina (Blade) Analogous Functions: ‘distribute fluid: guide fluid: disperse fluid’
  • 139 Concept Generation (Ideation) Methods • Human beings have an innate ability for problem solving by synthesis and analogy • Synthesis – combining existing parts into novel combinations (creativity) • Analogy – illustration or extraction of an idea by means of another familiar idea that is similar or parallel to it in some significant features • Most systems design is a synthesis / analogy from knowledge of physical principles and existing designs
  • 140 • Engineers are typically well trained in fundamental knowledge, but little training in synthesis leading to innovation • Theory – innovation is not a single “light bulb” event, but a series of many complementary insights purposefully guided towards desired results • Goal of concept generation methods: increase skills in concept generation (synthesis and analogy) Concept Generation (Ideation) Methods
  • 141 Concept Generation (Ideation) Methods Advantages of methods: • Amplify concept generation ability • Guide process towards desired results • Diminish preconceived solutions (obstacles, since first ideas are rarely “best”) • Overcome “group think” and design fixation
  • 142 Ideation Methods Formal Concept Generation Methods Intuitive Directed (Logical) Group Only Group or Individual Brainstorming Synectecs Progressive Methods Sequential PMI K-J 6-3-5 Gallery Method C-Sketch Storyboarding Affinity Method Morphological Analysis Check Listing Action-Verbs Design Catalogs TIPS (TRIZ) Inversion Forward Steps Factorization & Combinations Axiomatic Principles Physical Effects Solution Principles Information Gathering Information Gathering
  • 143 Overview of the Methods Two Categories of CG Methods: 1. Intuitive methods – facilitate divergent thinking, resulting in many ideas 2. Directed methods – systematic approach to using known information to generate solutions
  • 144 Agenda for Our Study  Classical Brainstorming: Guidelines for Idea Generation  Brainstorming with Mind Maps  Morphological Analysis  External Search  Design by Analogy (DbA)  SCAMPER: Idea Generators for Intuitive Concept Generation  6-3-5 / CSketch (a brainwriting technique)
  • 145 Basic Guidelines for Idea Generation: Applies to all Idea Ideation Methods • Suspended judgment of ideas • Present all ideas, including the bad or silly ones • Wild and Crazy Ideas are good • Build from others’ ideas: Piggy Backing and Leap Frogging • Strive for quality and quantity • Review the problem at the beginning of the session; re-represent the problem especially in action
  • 146 Brainstorming Method: The Basics Brainstorming (Mode of Communication: Verbal):  Select a facilitator and scribe  Review / Re-represent the problem ~10 minutes - (task clarification, CN’s, specifications, etc.)  Rapid idea generation: facilitator uses categories of ideas to piggy-back and leap-frog  When ideas trickle, either stop or use idea generators (analogies, physical principles, etc.)
  • 147 Brainstorming Exercises • Design Problem I: “System to prevent the entrance of insects (bugs) to a home or other residence” • Design Problem II: “System to detect golf ball hit from the tee box”
  • Ideation Exercise • In teams of 4-5 persons, generate as many solutions as possible to the “Detect Golf Ball” problem • Time Limit: 15 minutes • Share the ideas with the class
  • 149 Golf-Ball Detection Problem: Merely a List… Bright colored ball Electronic Grid with ball emitter Sound horn in ball Exploding ball Golf lessons GPS System Scent-Human Scent-Dog Virtual golf Pressure sensitive ground String attached to ball Smoke trail Shorter golf course Putt-Putt golf Spotters paced every 10 m Colored golf course Trajectory calculation system Robotic arm hits ball Mini-camera in ball Light emitting ball Ball shoots flare Plexiglassside walls on golf course Funnel shaped golf course Speaker in ball; use microphone to call yourself
  • 150 Agenda for Our Study  Classical Brainstorming: Guidelines for Idea Generation  Brainstorming with Mind Maps  Morphological Analysis  External Search  Design by Analogy (DbA)  SCAMPER: Idea Generators for Intuitive Concept Generation  6-3-5 / CSketch (a brainwriting technique)
  • 151 Advancing a Brainstorming Session: Mind Maps • Step 1: Write Problem in the center • Step 2: Add ideas: cluster into hierarchical groupings – Look for categories!! – Groupings help lead to more ideas – Documents brainstorming – Power of technique – utilizes fact that ideas in memory are linked by association
  • 152 Golf-Ball Detection Problem: A Mind Map Detect Golfball Human Golf Lessons Take Series of Pictures In Flight Beep Trail Smoke Trail Change Game Putt- Putt Golf Robotic Arm Hits Ball Mylar Field Virtual/ Video Golf Shorter Golf Course Play at Night Glowin the Dark Ball Detects Human Change Human Binoculars Mimi Camera in Ball Shoot Laser BeamBack Hear Beeper w/Ear Phones Proximity Sensor, Beep when Close Detect Angle & Speed: Calculate Trajectory Accelerometer Radar Gun Strain Gage Rate if Angle Change Handle Orientation Gyroscope Inclinometer Change Ball Ball Inflates String Attached to Ball Ball Becomes Bigger Jumping Ball Continuous Vertical Bounce Emit a Signal Passive Emitter Active Emitter Bright Colors Magnetic Ball Smell: Human Detects Dog Detects Scent Sound Horn in BallGPS Eject Smoke Exploding Ball Radio Signal LED Array in Ball Wave Flag Beep Speaker in Ball, Use Microphone to Call Yourself Eject Ink Collar & Antenna Analogy: Fish Finder Measure with Speed of Sound: Time to Hit Ground Analogies Hunting Bird Dog Torpedo Radar Golf Course Systems Artillery Field Observers: Spotters Course Characteristics Radar System Light Beams Video Cameras FollowBall (TV Display) Electronic Grid Camera Grid Mylar Course Pressure Sensitive Ground Add Plexiglass or Nets to Sides of Fairways Funnel Shape to Course Change Course Colors
  • Ideation Exercise • In teams of 4-5 persons, generate as many solutions as possible to the “Prevent Pest in Home” problem • Utilize Brainstorming with Mindmapping • Time Limit: 15 minutes • Share the ideas with the class
  • 154 Include Pictures in Mind Maps
  • 155 A Sticky Note Mind Map
  • 156 Agenda for Our Study  Classical Brainstorming: Guidelines for Idea Generation  Brainstorming with Mind Maps  Morphological Analysis  External Search  Design by Analogy (DbA)  SCAMPER: Idea Generators for Intuitive Concept Generation  6-3-5 / CSketch (a brainwriting technique)
  • 157 Morph Matrix Functions Current Solution Apply finger force shaped top, bent bottom Convert to large force pivot Move file into place pivot out file Stop motion teeth hit Release force spring of bent body
  • 158 Morph Matrix Functions Current Solution New Solution 1 New Solution 2 Apply finger force shaped top, bent bottom shaped top and bottom Convert to large force pivot linkage Move file into place pivot out file file on arm slide arm out Stop motion teeth hit mechanical stop Release force spring of bent body
  • 159 Morph Matrix Functions Current Solution New Solution 1 New Solution 2 Hydraulic Solution Electrical / Magnetic Apply finger force shaped top, bent bottom shaped top and bottom Convert to large force pivot linkage Move file into place pivot out file file on arm slide arm out Stop motion teeth hit mechanical stop Release force spring of bent body piston magnet
  • 160 Morph Matrix Example
  • 161 Morph Matrix Example: Ways to Store Energy
  • 162 Remove Bilge Water water, impurities water, impurities natural energy, shock, wave action noise, vibration (?) secured? ”primed?", clogged monitor water level Morph Matrix Example: Bilge Water Removal System
  • 163 Natural Energy Water, Debris Impurities Clogged? Water Debris, Impurities Noise?, Vibrations Energy Type Motion? Fluid Motion Air, Water "Purified Water" Primed? Solids/ Solutions Water, Air Chemical Energy Chem. Energy Collect debris/ impurities Transform energy Store or retain energy Energize water Capture or collect energy Eject waterPrevent entrance of debris Prevent Impurities Inhibit backflow Channel water Channel water Permit debris/impurities removal Import water Provide corrosion and UV protection Morph Matrix Example: Bilge Water Removal System
  • 164 Sub-functions Mechanical Fluid Electrical Principles Principles Capture Energy Transform Energy Import Water Transport Water PrinciplesPrinciples Principles Energy Misc. Principles Wave - Spring Wave - Pendulum Wind - Vanes Wind - Cups Float - Dock Multiple Floats Solar PanelsBatteries Salt-Water Concentration Reactive Compounds Salter DuckWave - Elastic Reservoir - Rain Ocean - Pressure Wave - Bladder Boat Movement Suction Flowing Water Moving Column Delta Temperature Capacitor Four Bar Pendulum Cam Universal Joint Bevel Gear Spur Gears Wind Mill Belts-Sprokets Crank-Shaft Rack-n-Pinion Vaporize Atomize Lift Ferris Wheel Archimedes Screw Shovel Syphon Solidify-Freeze Absorb-Sponge Absorb-Chemical Ferris Wheel Archimedes Screw Piston Tube Pressure Pressure Head Steam Atomizer Mass-Spring Spin-Centrifugal Funnel Water-Column Carousel Channel Weir Inhibit Backflow Ball Valve Butterfly Valve Flapper Valve Water Column Water Piston Fountain One-Way Resistance Actuated Valve Solenoid Prevent Debris/ Impurities Screen Permeable Membrane Absorb-Sponge Chemical Bond Oil Eaters Skimmer PropellerTorsional Spring Squeeze Bladder Morph Matrix Example: Bilge Water Removal System
  • 165 Morph Matrix Example: Bilge Water Removal System
  • 166 Morph Matrix Example: Bilge Water Removal System
  • 167 Morph Matrix Example: Bilge Water Removal System
  • 168 Agenda for Our Study  Classical Brainstorming: Guidelines for Idea Generation  Brainstorming with Mind Maps  Morphological Analysis  External Search  Design by Analogy (DbA)  SCAMPER: Idea Generators for Intuitive Concept Generation  6-3-5 / CSketch (a brainwriting technique)
  • 169 External Search: Information Sources Published Media People Worldwide Web Analogies Benchmarking Nature Product Function Product Architecture Patents Journals Product Information Textbooks Consumer Product Periodicals Government Reports Customers Experts Professionals in Field Trade Summaries Mfgs. Listings Information Research Services
  • 170 Agenda for Our Study  Classical Brainstorming: Guidelines for Idea Generation  Brainstorming with Mind Maps  Morphological Analysis  External Search  Design by Analogy (DbA)  SCAMPER: Idea Generators for Intuitive Concept Generation  6-3-5 / CSketch (a brainwriting technique)
  • 171 Bio-Inspired Design-by-Analogy Example “Wings Take to the Water,” 2000, BBC News Reed, 2006, “The Future of Shipping”, Popular Science Collapsible Sail
  • 172 Example of Analogy: Same domain analogy Liquid measuring device with convenient to read measurement scales New Measuring Cup Historical Patent for this problem Problem Description Analogy Concept
  • 173 Distance Design Analogy Example: Analogy between two devices (Distant domain) Vegetable Peeler Pick-up winder to create coiled wire pick-ups for an electric guitar
  • 174  The mapping of features of one thing to a design problem you are trying to solve  Anytime you take information from an example you have seen before  Can be same domain or distant domain What is a Design Analogy?
  • Design by Analogy (DbA): Word Tree Method 175
  • What is Design by Analogy? Leonardo’s drawings for flying machines/devices based on the analogy of bat wings
  • Semantic Retrieval Consider a nuclear chain reaction based on physics concepts… Similar concepts exist in how we store an retrieve information in our brain… One concept activates others… Thus, we need a method/technique to enhance our creativity and assist us in retrieving analogous ideas based on concepts and experiences stored in our memories… A tremendously helpful technique utilizes the tool known as VisualThesaurus™
  • http://www.visualthesaurus.com/ 6salc.mty@servicios.itesm.mx innovacion
  •  Interactive dictionary and thesaurus which creates word maps What is the Visual Thesaurus? Example: Sleep
  • Understanding the Display
  • A Design Problem… How to acquire, listen, organize, access and share music The CD was the solution!! But if you want to listen to different artists, you have to carry several CDs and constantly recharge your CD player
  • • To solve the transactional design problem, we seek to generate re- representations of the problem, memory retrieval mechanisms for analogous ideas, and actual analogous solutions. Keywords Trees Blackbox 1. Functional Requirements 2. Customer Requirements 3. Statement Keywords How to acquire, listen, organize, access and share music Access Acquire Listen Organize Arrange Store Keywords Design Problem…
  • Design Problem…
  • Design Problem… Using different levels of VisualThesaurus
  • Solutions From VisualThesaurus… To This…. Or even this…. From This…
  • WordTree Analogy Method Overview Problem Descriptors (problem statement / mission statement, CNs, functions) Create Multiple Problem Statements Rotational Brainwritng: Search for Analogies and Solutions Round 1:Problem Statements R2: Single Words from Tree R3: Patent Results and Researched Analogies(Google) Continue with Design Process Identify Potential Analogies Create WordTrees (Re-represent the problem) 1. Team Generates Using Sticky Note WordTrees by Rotational Brainwriting 2. WordNet results 3. Combine Team results with WordNet results Identify Analogous Domains Patent Search Analogous Domain Research Analogies Functional Model
  • Finished Sticky Note WordTree
  • Prepare for Storage Example Results
  • Analogies for a Towel Folder • cogging • douse (douse a sail) • raking • sandblasting • stickle • sheet metal design (metal folding) • napkin folding • origami
  • Automated Design for a Towel Folder
  • WordTree Analogy Method Overview Problem Descriptors (problem statement / mission statement, CNs, functions) Create Multiple Problem Statements Rotational Brainwritng: Search for Analogies and Solutions Round 1:Problem Statements R2: Single Words from Tree R3: Patent Results and Researched Analogies(Google) Continue with Design Process Identify Potential Analogies Create WordTrees (Re-represent the problem) 1. Team Generates Using Sticky Note WordTrees by Rotational Brainwriting 2. WordNet results 3. Combine Team results with WordNet results Identify Analogous Domains Patent Search Analogous Domain Research Analogies Functional Model
  • 194 Agenda for Our Study  Classical Brainstorming: Guidelines for Idea Generation  Brainstorming with Mind Maps  Morphological Analysis  External Search  Design by Analogy (DbA)  SCAMPER: Idea Generators for Intuitive Concept Generation  6-3-5 / CSketch (a brainwriting, brainsketching technique)
  • SCAMPER Method Substitute Combine Adapt Modify / Distort Put to other use Eliminate Rearrange/ Reverse
  • SCAMPER Questions… Substitute Adapt • What can be substitute? • Can the rules be changed? • Other process or procedure? • Other place? • Other approach? • What else instead? • What else is like this? • What other idea does this suggest? • What other part can be changed? And exchanged for what? • Change characteristics of a component? • Who could we emulate?
  • SCAMPER Questions… Modify / Distort • What we can be magnified, made larger, or extended? • What can be exaggerated? Overstated? • How about greater frequency? • How can this be altered for the better? • Change meaning, color, motion, sound, odor, form, or shape? Change the name? • What changes can be made in the plans? In the process? In the marketing? Rearrange/ Reverse • What other arrangements might be better? • Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout? Other sequence? Change the order? • Change pace or schedule? • What are the opposites? What are the negatives? • Should I turn it around? Up instead of down? Consider it backwards? • Reverse roles? Do the unexpected?
  • 198
  • How to acquire, listen, organize, access and share music A Design Problem… The CD was the solution!! But if you want to listen to different artists, you have to carry several CDs and constantly recharge your CD player
  • Generating Solutions… Adapt • What else is like this? • What other part can be changed? • Who could we emulate? … Who else organize, allow access and share things?.... A LIBRARY!
  • Solutions From scAmper, using “Library”… From this…. To This…. Or even this….
  • Ideation Activity • Phase II of Design with Transactional Problems – Phase II Problem and SCAMPER Information – Survey
  • 204 Agenda for Our Study  Classical Brainstorming: Guidelines for Idea Generation  Brainstorming with Mind Maps  Morphological Analysis  External Search  Design by Analogy (DbA)  SCAMPER: Idea Generators for Intuitive Concept Generation  6-3-5 / CSketch (a brainwriting, brainsketching technique)
  • 205 6-3-5 / Csketch Method (Brainwriting) • Procedure (Mode of Communication: graphical): 6 – group members 3 – ideas (sketches & keywords) per paper (sub-round #1, 15 minutes) 5 – complete rounds of exchanging papers (5-10 min/exchange*6 people*5 round =2.5-5 hours for 5 rounds)
  • 206 6-3-5 / Sketch Method Guidelines • Each rotation allows adding to and synthesizing (combining) ideas • Avoid negative written comments • No talking! (Emphasizes sketching) • Sketches with brief keywords
  • 207 6-3-5 / CSketch Method
  • 208 6-3-5 / CSketch Case Study: Power ScrewDriver
  • 209 6-3-5 / CSketch Case Study: Power ScrewDriver
  • 210 6-3-5 / CSketch Case Study: Power Driver Primary Functions from the Functional Model • Convert EE  torque • Import hand • Increase torque • Actuate electricity • Change torque • Couple Bit
  • 211 6-3-5 / Csketch Sub-Round 1 Motor Epicyclic Motor Actuator Switch Actuator Switch Actuator Switch Battery Battery Battery Bit Storage Bit Bit Bit Storage Hand Grip Hand Grip Hand Grip Screw Chuck Spring Chuck Spring Chuck Worm Drive Battery Cavity/Latch
  • 212 6-3-5 CSketch, Second Rotation
  • 213 Design Problem Design a d evice to q u ickly sh ell p ean u ts in p laces like Haiti an d West Afr ican Custom er Needs 1 .Low cost 2 .Easy to m an u factu r e 3 .Qu ickly sh ellin g of a lar ge q u an tity of 4 .Rem ove th e sh ell with m in im al d am age p ean u ts Functions 1 .Im p or t en er gy 2 .Br eak th e sh ell 3 .Sep ar ate th e p ean u t fr om th e sh ell Peanut Sheller Product Development
  • 214 Water Mill by a Waterfall Cam Grate Hopper Graduated Concentric Crushing Surfaces Conveyor Collection Bin Hand Crank Vertical Crushing Plate Water Mill by a Waterfall Cam Grate Hopper Graduated Concentric Crushing Surfaces Conveyor Collection Bin Hand Crank Vertical Crushing Plate
  • 215 Boiling Water Water Mill by a Waterfall Cam Vertical Crushing Plate Grate Hopper Graduated Concentric Crushing Surfaces Conveyor Collection Bin Hand Crank Conveyor Drive Grate Fire Water Inlet Hopper Vertical Crushing Plate Hopper Boiling Water Water Mill by a Waterfall Cam Vertical Crushing Plate Grate Hopper Graduated Concentric Crushing Surfaces Conveyor Collection Bin Hand Crank Conveyor Drive Grate Fire Water Inlet Hopper Vertical Crushing Plate Hopper
  • Ideation Activity • C-Sketch – In groups of 4-5 persons, discuss and review the design problem – First five (5) minutes: Mindmap as many solutions as possible – Next five (5) minutes: sketch three (3) diverse ideas on a sheet of paper. – Rotate paper to your right. – Next five (5) minutes: modify and evolve ideas on the rotated paper OR add an entirely new idea inspired by the ideas drawn on the page – Rotate and repeat… – Design Problems: • “Incentivize sustainable home or office energy use, including the layout and implement of smart grid systems”
  • 217 1. Choose top priority functions 2. Brainstorm / Mind Map intuitive ideas 3. External Search for additional ideas 4. Create morph matrix of combined results 5. Perform 6-3-5 / CSketch by seeding with morph matrix Overall Ideation Methodology
  • Theory of Inventive Problem Solving: TIPS / TRIZ • History: – Creator: Genrich S. Altshuller (pen name Altov) • First Invention: Scuba Diving Equipment When 14 Years of Age • Soviet Navy Officer and Patent Expert • 1940’s, Post World War II – Russian Jew; placed in intellectual camp to Stalin – Camp composed of engineers and cognitive psychologists – Developed Science of Design based on study of patents (>200,000 patents; >300 person years) – Theory based on the concept of contradictions, conflicts, and negative correlations as inventive problems
  • Theory of Inventive Problem Solving: TIPS / TRIZ • Types / Levels of Patents: – Level 1: Routine design problems solved by methods well known within the specialty. No invention needed. About 32% of the solutions fell into this level. – Level 2: Minor improvements to an existing system, by methods known within the industry. Usually with some compromise. About 45% of the solutions fell into this level. – Level 3: Fundamental improvement to an existing system, by methods known outside the industry. Contradictions resolved. About 18% of the solutions fell into this category. – Level 4: A new generation that uses a new principle to perform the primary functions of the system. Solution found more in science than in technology. About 4% of the solutions fell into this category. – Level 5: A rare scientific discovery or pioneering invention of essentially a new system. About 1% of the solutions fell into this category.
  • Theory of Inventive Problem Solving: TIPS / TRIZ • Main Elements: – Laws of System Evolution (8) – Generalized Engineering Parameters (39) – Design Principles (40) – TIPS Parameter Matrix – Physical Effects (>1000) – S-Fields – Systematic Methodology
  • Generalized engineering parameters for describing product metrics. 1 Weight of moving object 21 Power 2 Weight of stationary object 22 Energy loss 3 Length of moving object 23 Substance loss 4 Length of stationary object 24 Information loss 5 Area of moving object 25 Waste of time 6 Area of stationary object 26 Quantity of a substance 7 Volume of moving object 27 Reliability 8 Volume of stationary object 28 Accuracy of measurement 9 Velocity 29 Manufacturing precision 10 Force 30 Harmful actions affecting the design object 11 Stress or pressure 31 Harmful actions generated by the design object 12 Shape 32 Manufacturability 13 Stability of object's composition 33 User friendliness 14 Strength 34 Repairability 15 Duration of action generalized by moving object 35 Flexibility 16 Duration of action generalized by stationary object 36 Complexity of design object 17 Temperature 37 Difficulty to control or measure 18 Brightness 38 Level of automation 19 Energy consumed by moving object 39 Productivity 20 Energy consumed by stationary object
  • TIPS’ Design Principles (1-20) to solve engineering conflicts. 1 Principle of segmentation Divide the object into independent parts that are easy to disassemble, increase the degree of segmentation as much as possible 2 Principle of removal Remove either the disturbing part or the necessary part from the object 3 Principle of local quality Change the object's or environment's structure from homogeneous to non-homogeneous. Let different parts of the object carry different functions. 4 Principle of asymmetry Make object asymmetrical, or increase asymmetry 5 Principle of joining Merge homogeneous objects or those intended for contiguous operations. 6 Principle of universality Let one object perform several different functions. Remove redundant objects. 7 The nesting principle Place one object inside another, which in turn is placed in a third, etc., or, let an object pass through a cavity into another 8 Principle of counterweight Attach an object with lifting power or use the interactions with the environment, e.g., aerodynamic lift. 9 Principle of preliminary counteraction Perform a counter-action to the desired action before the desired action is performed 10 Principle of preliminary action Perform the required action before it is needed, or set up the objects such that they can perform their action immediately when required 11 Principle of introducing protection in advance Compensate for the low reliability of an object by introducing protections against accidents before the action is performed 12 Principle of equipotentiality Change the conditions such that the object does not need to be moved up or down in the potential field 13 Principle of opposite solution Implement the opposite action of what is specified. make a moving part fixed and the fixed part mobile. Turn the object upside down. 14 Principle of spheroidality Switch from linear to curvilinear paths, from flat to spherical surfaces, etc. Make use of rollers, ball bearings, spirals. Switch from direct to rotating motion. Use centrifugal force. 15 Principle of dynamism Make the object or environment able to change to become optimal at any stage of work. Make the object consist of parts that can move relative to each other. If the object is fixed, make it movable. 16 Principle of partial or excessive action If 100% is unobtainable, try for slightly less or slightly more. 17 Principle of moving into a new dimension Increase the object's degree of freedom. Use a multi-layered assembly instead of a single layer. Incline the object or turn it on its side. Use the other side of an area. 18 Use of mechanical vibrations Make the object vibrate. Increase the frequency of vibration. Use resonance, piezovibrations, ultrasonic, or electomagnetic vibrations. 19 Principle of periodic action Use periodic or pulsed actions, change periodicity. Use pauses between impulses to change the effect. 20 Principle of uninterrupted useful effect Keep all parts of the object constantly operating at full power. Remove test or set-up runs.
  • TIPS’ Design Principles (21-40) to solve engineering conflicts. 21 Principle of rushing through Carry out a process or individual stages of a process at high speed. 22 Principle of turning harm into good Use harmful factor to obtain a positive effect. Remove a harmful factor by combining it with other harmful factors. Strengthen a harmful factor to the extent where it ceases to be harmful. 23 The feedback principle Introduce feedback. If there already is feedback, change it. 24 The go between principle Use an intermediary object to transfer or transmit the action. Merge the object temporarily with another object that can be easily taken away. 25 The self service principle The object should service and repair itself. Use waste products from the object to produce the desired actions. 26 The copying principle Instead of unavailable. complicated or fragile objects, use a simplified cheap copy. Replace an object by its optical copy, make use of scale effects. If visible copies are used, switch to infra-red or ultra-violet copies. 27 Cheap short life instead of expensive longevity Replace an expensive object that has long life with many cheap objects having shorter life. 28 Replacement of a mechanical pattern Replace a mechanical pattern by an optical, acoustical or odor pattern. Use electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields to interact with the object. Switch from fixed to movable fields changing over time. Go from unstructured to structured fields. 29 Use of pneumatic or hydraulic solutions Use gaseous or liquid parts of an object instead of solid parts. 30 Using flexible membranes and fine membranes Replace traditional constructions with those made from flexible membranes or thin film. Isolate an object from its environment using flexible membranes or thin film 31 Using porous materials Make the object porous or use porous elements, e.g., inserts, covers, etc. If the object is already porous, fill the pores in advance with some useful substance. 32 The principle of using color Change the color or translucency of an object or its surroundings. Use colored additives to observe certain objects or processes. If such additives are already used, employ luminescence traces. 33 The principle of homogeneity Interacting objects should be made of the same material, or material with identical properties. 34 The principle of discarding and regenerating parts Once a part has fulfilled its purpose and is no longer necessary, it should automatically be discarded or disappear, e.g., evaporate, or change its shape. Parts that become useful after a while should be automatically generated. 35 Changing the aggregate state of an object Change state, e.g., solid to liquid. Use pseudostates and intermediary states, e.g., elastic solid bodies. 36 The use of phase changes Use phenomena occurring in phase changes, e.g., use of volume changes, heat dissipation, etc. 37 Application of thermal expansion Use expansion or contraction of materials by heat. Use materials with different thermal expansion coefficients. 38 Using strong oxidation agents Replace air with enriched air or replace enriched air with oxygen. Treat the air or oxygen with ionizing radiation. Use ionized oxygen. Use ozone. 39 Using an inert atmosphere Replace the normal environment with an inert one or a vacuum. 40 Using composite materials Switch from homogeneous materials to composites.
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35. 10. 40 11. 2. 13 3 3. 27. 16. 40 16 6. 27. 19. 16 1. 40. 35 35. 34. 38 39. 3. 35. 23 19. 18. 36. 40 16 27. 16. 18. 38 10 28. 20. 10. 16 3. 35. 31 34. 27. 6. 40 10. 26. 24 17 36. 22. 6. 38 22. 35. 32 15. 19. 9 15. 19. 9 3. 35. 39. 18 35. 38 34. 39. 40. 18 35. 6. 4 2. 28. 36. 30 35. 10. 3. 21 35. 39. 19. 2 14. 22. 19. 32 1. 35. 32 10. 30. 22. 40 19. 13. 39 19. 18. 36. 40 32. 30. 21. 16 19. 15. 3. 17 2. 14. 17. 25 21. 17. 35. 38 21. 36. 29. 31 35. 28. 21. 18 3. 17. 30. 39 19. 35. 3. 10 32. 19. 24 24 18 19. 1. 32 2. 35. 32 19. 32. 16 19. 32. 26 2. 13. 10 10. 13. 19 26. 19. 6 32. 30 32. 3. 27 35. 19 2. 19. 6 32. 35. 19 32. 1. 19 32. 35. 1. 15 32 19. 16. 1. 6 13. 1 1. 6 19. 1. 26. 17 1. 19 11. 15. 32 3. 32 19 12. 18. 28. 31 12. 28 15. 19. 25 35. 13. 18 8. 15. 35 16. 26. 21. 2 23. 14. 25 12. 2. 29 19. 13. 17. 24 5. 19. 9. 35 28. 35. 6. 18 19. 24. 3. 14 2. 15. 19 6. 19. 37. 18 12. 22. 15. 24 35. 24. 18. 5 35. 38. 19. 18 34. 23. 16. 18 19. 21. 11. 27 3. 1. 32 20 19. 9. 6. 27 36. 37 27. 4. 29. 18 35 19. 2. 35. 32 28. 27. 18. 31 3. 35. 31 10. 36. 23 21 8. 36. 38. 31 19. 26. 17. 27 1. 10. 35. 37 19. 38 17. 32. 13. 38 35. 6. 38 30. 6. 25 15. 35. 2 26. 2. 36. 35 22. 10. 35 29. 14. 2. 40 35. 32. 15. 31 26. 10. 28 19. 35. 10. 38 16 2. 14. 17. 25 16. 6. 19 16. 6. 19. 37 10. 35. 38 28. 27. 18. 38 10. 19 35. 20. 10. 6 4. 34. 19 19. 24. 26. 31 32. 15. 2 32. 2 22 15. 6. 19. 28 19. 6. 18. 9 7. 2. 6. 13 6. 38. 7 15. 26. 17. 30 17. 7. 30. 18 7. 18. 23 7 16. 35. 38 36. 38 14. 2. 39. 6 26 19. 38. 7 1. 13. 32. 15 3. 38 35. 27. 2. 37 19. 10 10. 18. 32. 7 7. 18. 25 11. 10. 35 32 23 35. 6. 23. 40 35. 6. 22. 32 14. 29. 10. 39 10. 28. 24 35. 2. 10. 31 10. 18. 39. 31 1. 29. 30. 36 3. 39. 18. 31 10. 13. 28. 38 14. 15. 18. 40 3. 36. 37. 10 29. 35. 3. 5 2. 14. 30. 40 35. 28. 31. 40 28. 27. 3. 18 27. 16. 18. 38 21. 36. 39. 31 1. 6. 13 35. 18. 24. 5 28. 27. 12. 31 28. 27. 18. 38 35. 27. 2. 31 15. 18. 35. 10 6. 3. 10. 24 10. 29. 39. 35 16. 34. 31. 28 35. 10. 24. 31 24 10. 24. 35 10. 35. 5 1. 26 26 30. 26 30. 16 2. 22 26. 32 10 10 19 10. 19 19. 10 24. 26. 28. 32 24. 28. 35 10. 28. 23 25 10. 20. 37. 35 10. 20. 26. 5 15. 2. 29 30. 24. 14. 5 26. 4. 5. 16 10. 35. 17. 4 2. 5. 34. 10 35. 16. 32. 18 10. 37. 36. 5 37. 36. 4 4. 10. 34. 17 35. 3. 22. 5 29. 3. 28. 18 20. 10. 28. 18 28. 20. 10. 16 35. 29. 21. 18 1. 19. 21. 17 35. 38. 19. 18 1 35. 20. 10. 6 10. 5. 18. 32 35. 18. 10. 39 24. 26. 28. 32 35. 38. 18. 16 10. 30. 4 24. 34. 28. 32 24. 26. 28. 18 26 35. 6. 18. 31 27. 26. 18. 35 29. 14. 35. 18 15. 14. 29 2. 18. 40. 4 15. 20. 29 35. 29. 34. 28 35. 14. 3 10. 36. 14. 3 35. 14 15. 2. 17. 40 14. 35. 34. 10 3. 35. 10. 40 3. 35. 31 3. 17. 39 34. 29. 16. 18 3. 35. 31 35 7. 18. 25 6. 3. 10. 24 24. 28. 35 35. 38. 18316 18. 3. 28. 40 3. 2. 28 33. 30 27 3. 8. 10. 40 3. 10. 8. 28 15. 9. 14. 4 15. 29. 28. 11 17. 10. 14. 16 32. 35. 40. 4 3. 10. 14. 24 2. 35. 24 21. 35. 11. 28 8. 28. 10. 3 10. 24. 35. 19 35. 1. 16. 11 11. 28 2. 35. 3. 25 34. 27. 6. 40 3. 35. 10 11. 32. 13 21. 11. 27. 19 36. 23 21. 11. 26. 31 10. 11. 35 10. 35. 29. 39 10. 28 10. 30. 4 21. 28. 40. 3 32. 3. 11. 23 11. 32. 1 28 32. 35. 26. 28 28. 35. 25. 26 28. 26. 5. 16 32. 28. 3. 16 26. 28. 32. 3 26. 28. 32. 3 32. 13. 6 28. 13. 32. 24 32. 2 6. 28. 32 6. 28. 32 32. 35. 13 28. 6. 32 28. 6. 32 10. 26. 24 6. 19. 28. 24 6. 1. 32 3. 6. 32 3. 6. 32 26. 32. 27 10. 16. 31. 28 24. 34. 28. 32 2. 6. 32 5. 11. 1. 23 29 28. 32. 13. 18 28. 35. 27. 9 10. 28. 29. 37 2. 32. 10 28. 33. 29. 32 2. 29. 18. 36 32. 28. 2 25. 10. 35 10. 28. 32 28. 19. 34. 36 3. 35 32. 30. 40 30. 18 3. 27 3. 27. 40 19. 26 3. 32 32. 2 32. 2 13. 32. 2 35. 31. 10. 24 32. 26. 28. 18 32. 30 11. 32. 1 30 22. 21. 27. 39 2. 22. 13. 24 17. 1. 39. 4 1. 18 22. 1. 33. 28 27. 2. 39. 35 22. 23. 37. 35 34. 39. 19. 27 21. 22. 35. 28 13. 35. 39. 18 22. 2. 37 22. 1. 3. 35 35. 24. 30. 18 18. 35. 37. 1 22. 15. 33. 28 17. 1. 40. 33 22. 33. 35. 2 1. 19. 32. 13 1. 24. 6. 27 10. 2. 22. 37 19. 22. 31. 2 21. 22. 35. 2 33. 22. 19. 40 22. 10. 2 35. 18. 34 35. 33. 29. 31 27. 24. 2. 40 28. 33. 23. 26 26. 28. 10. 18 31 19. 22. 15. 39 35. 22. 1. 39 17. 15. 16. 22 17. 2. 18. 39 22. 1. 40 17. 2. 40 30. 18. 35. 4 35. 28. 3. 23 35. 28. 1. 40 2. 33. 27. 18 35. 1 35. 40. 27. 39 15. 35. 22. 2 15. 22. 33. 31 21. 39. 16. 22 22. 35. 2. 24 19. 24. 39. 32 2. 35. 6 19. 22. 18 2. 35. 18 21. 35. 22. 2 10. 1. 34 10. 21. 29 1. 22 3. 24. 39. 1 24. 2. 40. 39 3. 33. 26 4. 17. 34. 26 32 28. 29. 15. 16 1. 27. 36. 13 1. 29. 13. 17 15. 17. 27 13. 1. 26. 12 16. 4 13. 29. 1. 40 35 35. 13. 8. 1 35. 12 35. 19. 1. 37 1. 28. 13. 27 11. 13. 1 1. 3. 10. 32 27. 1. 4 35. 16 27. 26. 18 28. 24. 27. 1 28. 26. 27. 1 1. 4 27. 1. 12. 24 19. 35 15. 34. 33 32. 24. 18. 16 35. 28. 34. 4 35. 23. 1. 24 1. 35. 12. 18 33 25. 2. 13. 15 6. 13. 1. 25 1. 17. 13. 12 1. 17. 13. 16 18. 16. 15. 39 1. 16. 35. 15 4. 18. 31. 39 18. 13. 34 28. 13. 35 2. 32. 12 15. 34. 29. 28 32. 35. 30 32. 40. 3. 28 29. 3. 8. 25 1. 16. 25 26327. 13 13. 17. 1. 24 1. 13. 24 35. 34. 2. 10 2. 19. 13 28. 32. 2. 24 4. 10. 27. 22 4. 28. 10. 34 12. 35 17. 27. 8. 40 25. 13. 2. 34 1. 32. 35. 23 34 2. 27. 35. 11 2. 27. 35. 11 1. 28. 10. 25 3. 18. 31 15. 32. 13 16. 25 25. 2. 35. 11 1 34. 9 1. 11. 10 13 1. 13. 2. 4 2. 35 1. 11. 2. 9 11. 29. 28. 27 1 4. 10 15. 1. 13 15. 1. 28. 16 15. 10. 32. 2 15. 1. 32. 19 2. 35. 34. 27 32. 1. 10. 25 2. 28. 10. 25 11. 10. 1. 16 10. 2. 13 25. 10 35 1. 6. 15. 8 19. 15. 29. 16 35. 1. 29. 2 1. 35. 16 35. 30. 29. 7 15. 16 15. 35. 29 35. 10. 14 15. 17. 20 35. 16 15. 37. 1. 8 35. 30. 14 35. 3. 32. 6 13. 1. 35 2. 16 27. 2. 3. 35 6. 22. 26. 1 19. 35. 29. 13 19. 1. 29 18. 15. 1 15. 10. 2. 13 35. 28 3. 35. 15 35. 13. 8. 24 35. 5. 1. 10 36 26. 30. 34. 36 2. 26. 35. 39 1. 19. 26. 24 26 14. 1. 13. 16 6. 36 34. 26. 6 1. 16 34. 10. 28 26. 16 19. 1. 35 29. 13. 28. 15 2. 22. 17. 19 2. 13. 28 10. 4. 28. 15 2. 17. 13 24. 17. 13 27. 2. 29. 28 20. 19. 30. 34 10. 35. 13. 2 35. 10. 28. 29 6. 29 13. 3. 27. 10 13. 35. 1 2. 26. 10. 34 26. 24. 32 37 27. 26. 28. 13 6. 13. 28. 1 16. 17. 26. 24 26 2. 13. 18. 17 2. 39. 30. 16 29. 1. 4. 16 2. 18. 26. 31 3. 4. 16. 35 36. 28. 40. 19 35. 36. 37. 32 27. 13. 1. 39 11. 22. 39. 30 27. 3. 15. 28 19. 29. 25. 39 25. 34. 6. 35 3. 27. 35. 16 2. 24. 26 35. 38 19. 35. 16 19. 1. 16. 10 35. 3. 15. 19 1. 18. 10. 24 35. 33. 27. 22 18. 28. 32. 9 3. 27. 29. 18 27. 40. 28. 8 26. 24. 32. 28 38 28. 26. 18. 35 28. 26. 35. 10 14. 13. 28. 17 23 17. 14. 13 35. 13. 16 28. 10 2. 35 13. 35 15. 32. 1. 13 18. 1 25. 13 6. 9 26. 2. 19 8. 32. 19 2. 32. 13 28. 2. 27 23. 28 35. 10. 18. 5 35. 33 24. 28. 35. 30 35. 13 11. 27. 32 28. 26. 10. 34 28. 26. 18. 23 39 35. 26. 24. 37 28. 27. 15. 3 18. 4. 28. 38 30. 7. 14. 26 10. 26. 34. 31 10. 35. 17. 7 2. 6. 34. 10 35. 37. 10. 2 28. 15. 10. 36 10. 37. 14 14. 10. 34. 40 35. 3. 22. 39 29. 28. 10. 18 35. 10. 2. 18 20. 10. 16. 38 35. 21. 28. 10 26. 17. 19. 1 35. 10. 38. 19 1 35. 20. 10 28. 10. 29. 35 28. 10. 35. 23 13. 15. 23 35. 38 1. 35. 10. 38 1. 10. 34. 28 32. 1. 18. 10 TIPSParameterMatrix The rows of the matrix represent “What should be improved” versus the columns that represent “What deteriorates”
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 1 15. 8. 29. 34 29. 17. 38. 34 29. 2. 40. 28 2. 8. 15. 38 8. 10. 18. 37 10. 36. 37. 40 10. 14. 35. 40 1. 35. 19. 39 28. 27. 18. 40 5. 34. 31. 35 6. 29. 4. 38 19. 1. 32 35. 12. 34. 31 12. 36. 18. 31 6. 2. 34. 19 5. 35. 3. 31 10. 24. 35 10. 35. 20. 28 3. 26. 18. 31 3. 11. 1. 27 28. 27. 35. 26 28. 35. 26. 18 2 10. 1. 29. 35 35. 30. 13. 2 5. 35. 14. 2 8. 10. 19. 35 13. 29. 10. 18 13. 10. 29. 14 26. 39. 1. 40 28. 2. 10. 27 2. 27. 19. 6 28. 19. 32. 22 35. 19. 32 18. 19. 28. 1 15. 19. 18. 22 18. 19. 28. 15 5. 8. 13. 30 10. 15. 35 10. 20. 35. 26 19. 6. 18. 26 10. 28. 8. 3 18. 26. 28 10. 1. 35. 17 3 15. 8. 29. 34 15. 17. 4 7. 17. 4. 35 13. 4. 8 17. 10. 4 1. 8. 35 1. 8. 10. 29 1. 8. 15. 34 8. 35. 29. 34 19 10. 15. 19 32 8. 35. 24 1. 35 7. 2. 35. 39 4. 29. 23. 10 1. 24 15. 2. 29 29. 35 10. 14. 29. 40 28. 32. 4 10. 28. 29. 37 4 35. 28. 40. 29 17. 7. 10. 40 35. 8. 2. 14 28. 1 1. 14. 35 13. 14. 15. 7 39. 37. 35 15. 14. 28. 26 1. 40. 35 3. 35. 38. 18 3. 25 12. 8 6. 28 10. 28. 24. 35 24. 26 30. 29. 14 15. 29. 28 32. 28. 3 2. 32. 10 5 2. 17. 29. 4 14. 15. 18. 4 7. 14. 17. 4 29. 30. 4. 34 19. 30. 35. 2 10. 15. 36. 28 5. 34. 29. 4 11. 2. 13. 39 3. 15. 40. 14 6. 3 2. 15. 16 15. 32. 19. 13 19. 32 19. 10. 32. 18 15. 17. 30. 26 10. 35. 2. 39 30. 26 26. 4 29. 30. 6. 13 29. 9 26. 28. 32. 3 2. 32 6 30. 2. 14. 18 26. 7. 9. 39 1. 18. 35. 36 10. 15. 36. 37 2. 38 40 2. 10. 19. 30 35. 39. 38 17. 32 17. 7. 30 10. 14. 18. 39 30. 16 10. 35. 4. 18 2. 18. 40. 4 32. 35. 40. 4 26. 28. 32. 3 2. 29. 18. 36 7 2. 26. 29. 40 1. 7. 35. 4 1. 7. 4. 17 29. 4. 38. 34 15. 35. 36. 37 6. 35. 36. 37 1. 15. 29. 4 28. 10. 1. 39 9. 14. 15. 7 6. 35. 4 34. 39. 10. 18 10. 13. 2 35 35. 6. 13. 18 7. 15. 13. 16 36. 39. 34. 10 2. 22 2. 6. 34. 10 29. 30. 7 14. 1. 40. 11 25. 26. 28 25. 28. 2. 16 8 35. 10. 19. 14 19. 14 35. 8. 2. 14 2. 18. 37 24. 35 7. 2. 35 34. 28. 35. 40 9. 14. 17. 15 35. 34. 38 35. 6. 4 30. 6 10. 39. 35. 34 35. 16. 32. 18 35. 3 2. 35. 16 35. 10. 25 9 2. 28. 13. 38 13. 14. 8 29. 30. 34 7. 29. 34 13. 28. 15. 19 6. 18. 38. 40 35. 15. 18. 34 28. 33. 1. 18 8. 3. 26. 14 3. 19. 35. 5 28. 30. 36. 2 10. 13. 19 8. 15. 35. 38 19. 35. 38. 2 14. 20. 19. 35 10. 13. 28. 38 13. 26 10. 19. 29. 38 11. 35. 27. 28 28. 32. 1. 24 10. 28. 32. 25 10 8. 1. 37. 18 18. 13. 1. 28 17. 19. 9. 36 28. 1 19. 10. 15 1. 18. 36. 37 15. 9. 12. 37 2. 36. 18. 37 13. 28. 15. 12 18. 21. 11 10. 35. 40. 34 35. 10. 21 35. 10. 14. 27 19. 2 35. 10. 21 19. 17. 10 1. 16. 36. 37 19. 35. 18. 37 14. 15 8. 35. 40. 5 10. 37. 36 14. 29. 18. 36 3. 35. 13. 21 35. 10. 23. 24 28. 29. 37. 36 11 10. 36. 37. 40 13. 29. 10. 18 35. 10. 36 35. 1. 14. 16 10. 15. 36. 28 10. 15. 36. 37 6. 35. 10 35. 34 6. 35. 36 36. 35. 21 35. 4. 15. 10 35. 33. 2. 40 9. 18. 3. 40 19. 3. 27 35. 39. 19. 2 14. 24. 10. 37 10. 35. 14 2. 36. 25 10. 36. 37 37. 36. 4 10. 14. 36 10. 13. 19. 35 6. 28. 25 3. 35 12 8. 10. 29. 40 15. 10. 26. 3 29. 34. 5. 4 13. 14. 10. 7 5. 34. 4. 10 14. 4. 15. 22 7. 2. 35 35. 15. 34. 18 35. 10. 37. 40 34. 15. 10. 14 33. 1. 18. 4 30. 14. 10. 40 14. 26. 9. 25 22. 14. 19. 32 13. 15. 32 2. 6. 34. 14 4. 6. 2 14 35. 29. 3. 5 14. 10. 34. 17 36. 22 10. 40. 16 28. 32. 1 32. 30. 40 13 21. 35. 2. 39 26. 39. 1. 40 13. 15. 1. 28 37 2. 11. 13 39 28. 10. 19. 39 34. 28. 35. 40 33. 15. 28. 18 10. 35. 21. 16 2. 35. 40 22. 1. 18. 4 17. 9. 15 13. 27. 10. 35 39. 3. 35. 23 35. 1. 32 32. 3. 27. 15 13. 19 27. 4. 29. 18 32. 35. 27. 31 14. 2. 39. 6 2. 14. 30. 40 35. 27 15. 32. 35 13 18 14 1. 8. 40. 15 40. 26. 27. 1 1. 15. 8. 35 15. 14. 28. 26 3. 34. 40. 29 9. 40. 28 10. 15. 14. 7 9. 14. 17. 15 8. 13. 26. 14 10. 18. 3. 14 10. 3. 18. 40 10. 30. 35. 40 13. 17. 35 27. 3. 26 30. 10. 40 35. 19 19. 35. 10 35 10. 26. 35. 28 35 35. 28. 31. 40 29. 3. 28. 10 29. 10. 27 11. 3 3. 27. 16 3. 27 15 19. 5. 34. 31 2. 19. 9 3. 17. 19 10. 2. 19. 30 3. 35. 5 19. 2. 16 19. 3. 27 14. 26. 28. 25 13. 3. 35 27. 3. 10 19. 35. 39 2. 19. 4. 35 28. 6. 35. 18 19. 10. 35. 38 28. 27. 3. 18 10 20. 10. 28. 18 3. 35. 10. 40 11. 2. 13 3 3. 27. 16. 40 16 6. 27. 19. 16 1. 40. 35 35. 34. 38 39. 3. 35. 23 19. 18. 36. 40 16 27. 16. 18. 38 10 28. 20. 10. 16 3. 35. 31 34. 27. 6. 40 10. 26. 24 17 36. 22. 6. 38 22. 35. 32 15. 19. 9 15. 19. 9 3. 35. 39. 18 35. 38 34. 39. 40. 18 35. 6. 4 2. 28. 36. 30 35. 10. 3. 21 35. 39. 19. 2 14. 22. 19. 32 1. 35. 32 10. 30. 22. 40 19. 13. 39 19. 18. 36. 40 32. 30. 21. 16 19. 15. 3. 17 2. 14. 17. 25 21. 17. 35. 38 21. 36. 29. 31 35. 28. 21. 18 3. 17. 30. 39 19. 35. 3. 10 32. 19. 24 24 18 19. 1. 32 2. 35. 32 19. 32. 16 19. 32. 26 2. 13. 10 10. 13. 19 26. 19. 6 32. 30 32. 3. 27 35. 19 2. 19. 6 32. 35. 19 32. 1. 19 32. 35. 1. 15 32 19. 16. 1. 6 13. 1 1. 6 19. 1. 26. 17 1. 19 11. 15. 32 3. 32 19 12. 18. 28. 31 12. 28 15. 19. 25 35. 13. 18 8. 15. 35 16. 26. 21. 2 23. 14. 25 12. 2. 29 19. 13. 17. 24 5. 19. 9. 35 28. 35. 6. 18 19. 24. 3. 14 2. 15. 19 6. 19. 37. 18 12. 22. 15. 24 35. 24. 18. 5 35. 38. 19. 18 34. 23. 16. 18 19. 21. 11. 27 3. 1. 32 20 19. 9. 6. 27 36. 37 27. 4. 29. 18 35 19. 2. 35. 32 28. 27. 18. 31 3. 35. 31 10. 36. 23 21 8. 36. 38. 31 19. 26. 17. 27 1. 10. 35. 37 19. 38 17. 32. 13. 38 35. 6. 38 30. 6. 25 15. 35. 2 26. 2. 36. 35 22. 10. 35 29. 14. 2. 40 35. 32. 15. 31 26. 10. 28 19. 35. 10. 38 16 2. 14. 17. 25 16. 6. 19 16. 6. 19. 37 10. 35. 38 28. 27. 18. 38 10. 19 35. 20. 10. 6 4. 34. 19 19. 24. 26. 31 32. 15. 2 32. 2 22 15. 6. 19. 28 19. 6. 18. 9 7. 2. 6. 13 6. 38. 7 15. 26. 17. 30 17. 7. 30. 18 7. 18. 23 7 16. 35. 38 36. 38 14. 2. 39. 6 26 19. 38. 7 1. 13. 32. 15 3. 38 35. 27. 2. 37 19. 10 10. 18. 32. 7 7. 18. 25 11. 10. 35 32 23 35. 6. 23. 40 35. 6. 22. 32 14. 29. 10. 39 10. 28. 24 35. 2. 10. 31 10. 18. 39. 31 1. 29. 30. 36 3. 39. 18. 31 10. 13. 28. 38 14. 15. 18. 40 3. 36. 37. 10 29. 35. 3. 5 2. 14. 30. 40 35. 28. 31. 40 28. 27. 3. 18 27. 16. 18. 38 21. 36. 39. 31 1. 6. 13 35. 18. 24. 5 28. 27. 12. 31 28. 27. 18. 38 35. 27. 2. 31 15. 18. 35. 10 6. 3. 10. 24 10. 29. 39. 35 16. 34. 31. 28 35. 10. 24. 31 24 10. 24. 35 10. 35. 5 1. 26 26 30. 26 30. 16 2. 22 26. 32 10 10 19 10. 19 19. 10 24. 26. 28. 32 24. 28. 35 10. 28. 23 25 10. 20. 37. 35 10. 20. 26. 5 15. 2. 29 30. 24. 14. 5 26. 4. 5. 16 10. 35. 17. 4 2. 5. 34. 10 35. 16. 32. 18 10. 37. 36. 5 37. 36. 4 4. 10. 34. 17 35. 3. 22. 5 29. 3. 28. 18 20. 10. 28. 18 28. 20. 10. 16 35. 29. 21. 18 1. 19. 21. 17 35. 38. 19. 18 1 35. 20. 10. 6 10. 5. 18. 32 35. 18. 10. 39 24. 26. 28. 32 35. 38. 18. 16 10. 30. 4 24. 34. 28. 32 24. 26. 28. 18 26 35. 6. 18. 31 27. 26. 18. 35 29. 14. 35. 18 15. 14. 29 2. 18. 40. 4 15. 20. 29 35. 29. 34. 28 35. 14. 3 10. 36. 14. 3 35. 14 15. 2. 17. 40 14. 35. 34. 10 3. 35. 10. 40 3. 35. 31 3. 17. 39 34. 29. 16. 18 3. 35. 31 35 7. 18. 25 6. 3. 10. 24 24. 28. 35 35. 38. 18316 18. 3. 28. 40 3. 2. 28 33. 30 27 3. 8. 10. 40 3. 10. 8. 28 15. 9. 14. 4 15. 29. 28. 11 17. 10. 14. 16 32. 35. 40. 4 3. 10. 14. 24 2. 35. 24 21. 35. 11. 28 8. 28. 10. 3 10. 24. 35. 19 35. 1. 16. 11 11. 28 2. 35. 3. 25 34. 27. 6. 40 3. 35. 10 11. 32. 13 21. 11. 27. 19 36. 23 21. 11. 26. 31 10. 11. 35 10. 35. 29. 39 10. 28 10. 30. 4 21. 28. 40. 3 32. 3. 11. 23 11. 32. 1 28 32. 35. 26. 28 28. 35. 25. 26 28. 26. 5. 16 32. 28. 3. 16 26. 28. 32. 3 26. 28. 32. 3 32. 13. 6 28. 13. 32. 24 32. 2 6. 28. 32 6. 28. 32 32. 35. 13 28. 6. 32 28. 6. 32 10. 26. 24 6. 19. 28. 24 6. 1. 32 3. 6. 32 3. 6. 32 26. 32. 27 10. 16. 31. 28 24. 34. 28. 32 2. 6. 32 5. 11. 1. 23 29 28. 32. 13. 18 28. 35. 27. 9 10. 28. 29. 37 2. 32. 10 28. 33. 29. 32 2. 29. 18. 36 32. 28. 2 25. 10. 35 10. 28. 32 28. 19. 34. 36 3. 35 32. 30. 40 30. 18 3. 27 3. 27. 40 19. 26 3. 32 32. 2 32. 2 13. 32. 2 35. 31. 10. 24 32. 26. 28. 18 32. 30 11. 32. 1 30 22. 21. 27. 39 2. 22. 13. 24 17. 1. 39. 4 1. 18 22. 1. 33. 28 27. 2. 39. 35 22. 23. 37. 35 34. 39. 19. 27 21. 22. 35. 28 13. 35. 39. 18 22. 2. 37 22. 1. 3. 35 35. 24. 30. 18 18. 35. 37. 1 22. 15. 33. 28 17. 1. 40. 33 22. 33. 35. 2 1. 19. 32. 13 1. 24. 6. 27 10. 2. 22. 37 19. 22. 31. 2 21. 22. 35. 2 33. 22. 19. 40 22. 10. 2 35. 18. 34 35. 33. 29. 31 27. 24. 2. 40 28. 33. 23. 26 26. 28. 10. 18 31 19. 22. 15. 39 35. 22. 1. 39 17. 15. 16. 22 17. 2. 18. 39 22. 1. 40 17. 2. 40 30. 18. 35. 4 35. 28. 3. 23 35. 28. 1. 40 2. 33. 27. 18 35. 1 35. 40. 27. 39 15. 35. 22. 2 15. 22. 33. 31 21. 39. 16. 22 22. 35. 2. 24 19. 24. 39. 32 2. 35. 6 19. 22. 18 2. 35. 18 21. 35. 22. 2 10. 1. 34 10. 21. 29 1. 22 3. 24. 39. 1 24. 2. 40. 39 3. 33. 26 4. 17. 34. 26 32 28. 29. 15. 16 1. 27. 36. 13 1. 29. 13. 17 15. 17. 27 13. 1. 26. 12 16. 4 13. 29. 1. 40 35 35. 13. 8. 1 35. 12 35. 19. 1. 37 1. 28. 13. 27 11. 13. 1 1. 3. 10. 32 27. 1. 4 35. 16 27. 26. 18 28. 24. 27. 1 28. 26. 27. 1 1. 4 27. 1. 12. 24 19. 35 15. 34. 33 32. 24. 18. 16 35. 28. 34. 4 35. 23. 1. 24 1. 35. 12. 18 33 25. 2. 13. 15 6. 13. 1. 25 1. 17. 13. 12 1. 17. 13. 16 18. 16. 15. 39 1. 16. 35. 15 4. 18. 31. 39 18. 13. 34 28. 13. 35 2. 32. 12 15. 34. 29. 28 32. 35. 30 32. 40. 3. 28 29. 3. 8. 25 1. 16. 25 26327. 13 13. 17. 1. 24 1. 13. 24 35. 34. 2. 10 2. 19. 13 28. 32. 2. 24 4. 10. 27. 22 4. 28. 10. 34 12. 35 17. 27. 8. 40 25. 13. 2. 34 1. 32. 35. 23 34 2. 27. 35. 11 2. 27. 35. 11 1. 28. 10. 25 3. 18. 31 15. 32. 13 16. 25 25. 2. 35. 11 1 34. 9 1. 11. 10 13 1. 13. 2. 4 2. 35 1. 11. 2. 9 11. 29. 28. 27 1 4. 10 15. 1. 13 15. 1. 28. 16 15. 10. 32. 2 15. 1. 32. 19 2. 35. 34. 27 32. 1. 10. 25 2. 28. 10. 25 11. 10. 1. 16 10. 2. 13 25. 10 35 1. 6. 15. 8 19. 15. 29. 16 35. 1. 29. 2 1. 35. 16 35. 30. 29. 7 15. 16 15. 35. 29 35. 10. 14 15. 17. 20 35. 16 15. 37. 1. 8 35. 30. 14 35. 3. 32. 6 13. 1. 35 2. 16 27. 2. 3. 35 6. 22. 26. 1 19. 35. 29. 13 19. 1. 29 18. 15. 1 15. 10. 2. 13 35. 28 3. 35. 15 35. 13. 8. 24 35. 5. 1. 10 36 26. 30. 34. 36 2. 26. 35. 39 1. 19. 26. 24 26 14. 1. 13. 16 6. 36 34. 26. 6 1. 16 34. 10. 28 26. 16 19. 1. 35 29. 13. 28. 15 2. 22. 17. 19 2. 13. 28 10. 4. 28. 15 2. 17. 13 24. 17. 13 27. 2. 29. 28 20. 19. 30. 34 10. 35. 13. 2 35. 10. 28. 29 6. 29 13. 3. 27. 10 13. 35. 1 2. 26. 10. 34 26. 24. 32 37 27. 26. 28. 13 6. 13. 28. 1 16. 17. 26. 24 26 2. 13. 18. 17 2. 39. 30. 16 29. 1. 4. 16 2. 18. 26. 31 3. 4. 16. 35 36. 28. 40. 19 35. 36. 37. 32 27. 13. 1. 39 11. 22. 39. 30 27. 3. 15. 28 19. 29. 25. 39 25. 34. 6. 35 3. 27. 35. 16 2. 24. 26 35. 38 19. 35. 16 19. 1. 16. 10 35. 3. 15. 19 1. 18. 10. 24 35. 33. 27. 22 18. 28. 32. 9 3. 27. 29. 18 27. 40. 28. 8 26. 24. 32. 28 38 28. 26. 18. 35 28. 26. 35. 10 14. 13. 28. 17 23 17. 14. 13 35. 13. 16 28. 10 2. 35 13. 35 15. 32. 1. 13 18. 1 25. 13 6. 9 26. 2. 19 8. 32. 19 2. 32. 13 28. 2. 27 23. 28 35. 10. 18. 5 35. 33 24. 28. 35. 30 35. 13 11. 27. 32 28. 26. 10. 34 28. 26. 18. 23 39 35. 26. 24. 37 28. 27. 15. 3 18. 4. 28. 38 30. 7. 14. 26 10. 26. 34. 31 10. 35. 17. 7 2. 6. 34. 10 35. 37. 10. 2 28. 15. 10. 36 10. 37. 14 14. 10. 34. 40 35. 3. 22. 39 29. 28. 10. 18 35. 10. 2. 18 20. 10. 16. 38 35. 21. 28. 10 26. 17. 19. 1 35. 10. 38. 19 1 35. 20. 10 28. 10. 29. 35 28. 10. 35. 23 13. 15. 23 35. 38 1. 35. 10. 38 1. 10. 34. 28 32. 1. 18. 10 TIPSParameterMatrix The rows of the matrix represent “What should be improved” versus the columns that represent “What deteriorates” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 15. 8. 29. 34 29. 17. 38. 34 29. 2. 40. 28 2. 8. 15. 38 8. 10. 18. 37 10 37 2 10. 1. 29. 35 35. 30. 13. 2 5. 35. 14. 2 8. 10. 19. 35 13 10 3 15. 8. 29. 34 15. 17. 4 7. 17. 4. 35 13. 4. 8 17. 10. 4 1. 35 4 35. 28. 40. 29 17. 7. 10. 40 35. 8. 2. 14 28. 1 1. 35 5 2. 17. 29. 4 14. 15. 18. 4 7. 14. 17. 4 29. 30. 4. 34 19. 30. 35. 2 10 36 6 30. 2. 14. 18 26. 7. 9. 39 1. 18. 35. 36 10 36 7 2. 26. 29. 40 1. 7. 35. 4 1. 7. 4. 17 29. 4. 38. 34 15. 35. 36. 37 6. 36 8 35. 10. 19. 14 19. 14 35. 8. 2. 14 2. 18. 37 24 9 2. 28. 13. 38 13. 14. 8 29. 30. 34 7. 29. 34 13. 28. 15. 19 6. 38 10 8. 1. 37. 18 18. 13. 1. 28 17. 19. 9. 36 28. 1 19. 10. 15 1. 18. 36. 37 15. 9. 12. 37 2. 36. 18. 37 13. 28. 15. 12 18 11 11 10. 36. 37. 40 13. 29. 10. 18 35. 10. 36 35. 1. 14. 16 10. 15. 36. 28 10. 15. 36. 37 6. 35. 10 35. 34 6. 35. 36 36. 35. 21 12 8. 10. 29. 40 15. 10. 26. 3 29. 34. 5. 4 13. 14. 10. 7 5. 34. 4. 10 14. 4. 15. 22 7. 2. 35 35. 15. 34. 18 35. 10. 37. 40 34 10 13 21. 35. 2. 39 26. 39. 1. 40 13. 15. 1. 28 37 2. 11. 13 39 28. 10. 19. 39 34. 28. 35. 40 33. 15. 28. 18 10. 35. 21. 16 2. 40 14 1. 8. 40. 26. 1. 15. 15. 14. 3. 34. 9. 40. 10. 15. 9. 14. 8. 13. 10. 18. 10
  • Theory of Inventive Problem Solving: TIPS / TRIZ • Basic Methodology: 1. Determine the conflict(s) in the design problem. 2. Formulate as conflicts in generalized engineering parameters (refer to table). 3. Determine the intersections of the TIPS Parameter Matrix for the number indices of the engineering parameters (refer to matrix). 4. Read the principles that apply to help solve the problem (or simply try all 40 design principles (refer to tables). 5. Use the design principles to develop creative solutions to the conflict(s), referring to the examples of the design principles as analogies and by carrying out an extensive search for physical effects (refer to table) that satisfy the design principle. 6. Sketch and refine the idea(s), such as through the 6-3-5 / CSketch Method, so that it may be integrated into the entire product concept.
  • TIPS Application I • Domain: Clothes Iron – Conflict / Contradiction: Heavy weight to remove wrinkles (adhesion of clothing fibers) but desire low human force to operate (ergonomics) – Generalized Parameters: Weight of Moving Object (#1) vs. Force (#10) – TIPS Parameter Matrix Indicates Principles: 8, 10, 18, 37 – Exemplar inventive concepts from principles: segmented iron, counter weighted iron, clam shell iron press, eccentric weight iron with vibration isolation, ultrasonic iron vibrating water molecules, heated iron or steam iron
  • TIPS Application II • Domain: Metal Shot Manufacturing – Conflict / Contradiction: Directing shot versus wear on piping (ducting) and acoustic noise generated – Generalized Parameters: Duration of action generalized by moving object (#15) vs. Energy consumed by moving object (#19) – TIPS Parameter Matrix Indicates Principles: 6, 28 Pipe Shot Figure 10.13. Conflict for a pipe transport system. Pipe Shot MagnetsProtective Shot Layer Figure 10.14. Generated solution to resolve conflict.
  • TIPS Application III • Domain: Fingernail Clipper Product – Conflict / Contradiction: need to import the hand (large dimensions and surface area for comfort and nail access) versus the need for compact storage – Generalized Parameters: User Friendliness (#33) vs. Area of Stationary Object (#6) – TIPS Parameter Matrix Indicates Principles: 15 Figure 10.15. Fingernail clipper concept, with the need for compact stor
  • TIPS Application IV • Domain: Cat Litter Box – Conflict / Contradiction: litter to surround and encapsulate cat waste vs. separate the waste easily from the litter (easy cleaning) – TIPS Parameter Matrix Indicates Principles: 7, 13 Figure 10.16a. Inventive solution to the waste filtration function of a ca product
  • Creativity and Design 4. Creativity in Design • Idea Representation http://www.aci-institute.com/index.php/web/master_program/ProgStructure/5/104
  • 233 Jigsaw Exercise: Activity Diagram Compare & Choose Saw Beginning of Life Cycle Test Trial Saws Purchase Saw Transport Saw Termination of Life Cycle Dispose or Recycle Saw Unpackage Saw Set-Up Saw Stow Saw Maintain Saw Retrieve Blade Stow Blade Insert Blade Stow Battery Load Battery into Charger Retrieve Battery Align Material & Saw Prepare to Cut Cut Material Load Battery Watch Cut Adjust Cut Move Saw Stop Sawing Move Saw Clean Work Area
  • 234 Product Prototype Cases Keurig individual serving coffee brewer
  • 235 Product Prototype Cases
  • 236 Product Prototype Cases Keurig coffee brewer industrial design prototype. The parts are completely non-functional solid blocks, but the prototype conveys the look and feel.
  • 237 Product Prototype Cases 100 dpi Keurig coffee brewer experimental prototype.
  • 238 Product Prototype Cases 100 dpi Keurig coffee brewer alpha prototype.
  • 239 Product Prototype Cases 100 dpi Keurig coffee brewer beta prototype.
  • 240 Idea Representation • Novel Umbrella Concepts:
  • 241 Idea Representation
  • What chapter will you add to your ebook? What story will you tell? How will you design our World?