ACI Creativity and Design 2014 Day 2


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  • ACI Creativity and Design 2014 Day 2

    1. 1. Creativity and Design Day 2: Product form and function
    2. 2. Day 2: Creativity and Design The objective of this course is to introduce students to the basics of product design, including issues relating to product form and function, as well as aesthetics and experience. Students will learn how to integrate creative ideas into product designs that would appeal to consumers. Cutting edge and relevant issues in product designs will be discussed. Special emphasis will also be placed on examining product designs in an Asian cultural context. From:
    3. 3. “Our global design network draws upon inspiration from major cities in the US, Europe, Japan, China and India to predict and lead worldwide trends”
    4. 4.
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    10. 10.
    11. 11.
    12. 12. User Experience Function Aesthetics
    13. 13. TheDesignExperience:TheRoleofDesignandDesignersintheTwenty-firstCentury
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Dean Kamen: Big Idea “a fairly big problem in transportation”
    16. 16. “I’m a pedestrian” (09:56) “We knew that the technology would not be as hard to develop as an attitude” (10:56)
    17. 17. Apple G4 Cube
    18. 18. Needs Assessment Activity • How to find out what people really need/want?
    19. 19. -Break-
    20. 20. Renate Fruchter
    21. 21. FROM ISLANDS TO awareness to appreciation to UNDERSTANDING Fruchter, R. (2001). Dimensions of teamwork education, International Journal of Engineering Education, 17(4/5), 426-430.
    22. 22. Some rights reserved by Joseeivissa 2.0 ISLAND
    23. 23. “engineers are so square-minded and only do numbers, they aren't creative like us" ISLANDS “designers don't know much; they come up with crazy unfeasible fluff, but can embellish our great solutions”
    24. 24. Some rights reserved by Imahinasyon Photography AWARENESS
    25. 25. “engineers do solve problems and some can be inventive, let's ask them about x technical problem" AWARENESS “artsy stuff can be useful, great design makes our awesome solutions usable, let's see what they do”
    26. 26. APPRECIATION
    27. 27. “there are huge differences across engineering areas, they know x amazing stuff but are trained in y limiting ways” APPRECIATION “designers can help a team be all creative, they are able to see things differently and bring value to technology”
    28. 28. Some rights reserved by ilkin UNDERSTANDING
    29. 29. “I learned x and y engineering concept, technique, tool, etc. I can contribute in the technical areas of a project” UNDERSTANDING “I learned x and y design concept, technique, tool, etc. I can contribute in the creative areas of a project”
    30. 30. Ficus benghalensis: aerial prop roots that grow into thick woody trunks which, with age, can become indistinguishable from the main trunk
    31. 31. Islands-to-Understanding Activity • What is the role of _________ (your area of expertise) in New Product Development? • Write down your individual response • Discuss in teams of 3 • Present your conclusions
    32. 32. Danger: Designing Products Your Customers' Customers Will Love
    33. 33. Abductive Logic • Inference to the best explanation • Premises that lead to “what if?” statements
    34. 34. Think abductively • D: ‚Aristotle is mortal‛ • I: ‚All swans are white‛ • A: ‚Our new idea will be a success‛
    35. 35. Rotman Design Challenge 2013
    36. 36. R3Doodler Kickstarter Video
    37. 37.
    38. 38. (Goel 1995)
    39. 39. “…when I first entered the company I often said that I wanted to make the sort of games you could play with your grandmother. I had an image of games not feeling out of place in the living room. Of course, this could have been around the fireplace, at the dining table, the coffee table, or anywhere. I just wanted to make a game that would be fun for the entire family. Recently, I've found myself sitting all alone, starting up a game and feeling a bit cut off from the world. I wanted to change this. That is, I wanted to make gaming a little less lonely. In my mind, the Wii Remote belongs on the coffee table. I spent a long time discussing with a whole range of people about what we could do to achieve this”
    40. 40. “As we talked, the concept of "fun for the entire family" gradually took form in our minds. We didn't want any member of the family to feel left out, either through not understanding the Wii or feeling it had nothing to do with them. An all-too- common trend in gaming is for the user to play a game they like for hours and hours until they complete it, and then never touch it again. This was something we wanted to avoid. Therefore, our working concepts were "fun for the entire family", and "a console that will be used every day". We tried to make sure that our discussions never strayed far from these concepts”
    41. 41. “One of my criteria for what I consider to be a good game is that it must be fun for bystanders to watch. A lot of the video games that Nintendo has made and have become popular were like that. Everyone“… doesn't mean that there are four controllers and you all play simultaneously, but it's about how everyone standing around watching one person play are holding their breath and laughing at the player's mistakes. (laughs) The meaning of "Everyone" is that everyone enjoys it.” Listening to everyone here talk about Wii reminds me that the most important thing was clearly defining our vision. Even if it was a vision without a precedent.”
    42. 42. Cultivate good failure
    43. 43. ‚Babe‛ Ruth hit 714 home runs in his career (1914-1935) (He also struck out 1,330 times in this period)
    44. 44. “Alfred Nobel was full of ideas; he said ‘If I have a thousand ideas a year, and only one turns out to be good, I am satisfied’. I, too, am full of ideas, and I would be satisfied with one good idea per year” Dr. Linus Pauling
    45. 45. Project for TetraPak Mexico (1997-1998) Museum in a Bus Fernando Prieto / Ricardo Sosa
    46. 46. Project for TetraPak Mexico (1997-1998)
    47. 47. Marketing brief: Design a “classroom in a bus” where children learn about recycling Project for TetraPak Mexico (1997-1998)
    48. 48. Project for TetraPak Mexico (1997-1998)
    49. 49. ‘ROBOT GRACIOUS GAIT’ RoboMods Sosa, R., Mohan, R.E., Rojas, N. and Nansai, S.
    50. 50. KANSEI across SCALES SUTD for SC @ JEM Sosa, R., Lee, J.B., Albarran, D., Otto, K., Chia, H.M.L, Kabincalan, R.P., Poh, W.Y., Haruki, S., Toh, H.P., Clifford, M. K. (2013) Scaling Kansei in Engineering Product Development (forthcoming) Varying the radius and the tension on the elastic rope, the assembly can be fine-tuned to capture the Kansei of the desired wave movement Elastic rope Transformation of a Mechanism From: torsion of a steel cable (Order of Magnitude: 10-1 m) To: elongation of an elastic rope (Order of Magnitude: 101 m)
    51. 51. Sydney Opera House Jørn Utzon
    52. 52. Abductive Reasoning Activity • Is the R3Doodler going to be a successful product? • Write down your individual response • Discuss in teams of 3 • Present your conclusions
    53. 53. Mark Wolters on Why do companies design new products?
    54. 54. -Break-
    55. 55. Strengths •Advantages of Asian companies (internal) over competitors Weaknesses •Disadvantages of Asian companies (internal) over competitors Opportunities •External conditions that companies can exploit in their design strategies Threats •External conditions that limit design in companies Design in Asia: Assumptions Activity • Teams: prepare a SWOT chart to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Asian design
    56. 56. Bloomberg Apr 15, 2013. Andrew Roberts in Paris at 1. Demand is changing in Asia, with consumers favoring fresh designs over ubiquitous logos [yet] almost half of Chinese shoppers think well-known labels offer better quality, versus 16 percent of Americans (McKinsey) 2. The region’s association with mass production and knockoffs has damaged its luxury credentials 3. Hermes gets cashmere from Mongolia and weaves it into scarves in Nepal 4. The upshot is that while Asians accounted for half of worldwide luxury purchases in 2012, according to consultant Bain & Co., “just a fraction” of last year’s $272 billion in sales came from Asian brands (Luxe) 5. Korea’s Couronne is helping change perceptions of made-in- Asia luxury with its colorful, logo-light designs 6. Buying Asian brands “is the next step”: established luxury goods companies are increasingly looking at Asia for acquisitions (Bryan Garnier) 7. Chinese adults under 35 consider the style of a product more important than who makes it (Bain) 8. Domestic brands drawing on local traditions and cultures “are starting to emerge”
    57. 57. China Design Now
    58. 58. Design in Singapore
    59. 59.
    60. 60.
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    62. 62.
    63. 63.
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    66. 66.
    67. 67. Design in Asia “Asia is a convergence of multi-faceted cultures from countries such as China, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. Rich in their own cultural and historical heritage, despite their differences, these countries individually present a unique cultural character and identity that render their own interpretations of Asian design. This year the judges are pleased to have seen a record high of 728 entries from 25 countries”
    68. 68. Design in Asia • APPAREL and ACCESSORY DESIGN • Everyday Apparel (Men’s wear, women’s wear, children’s wear, etc.) • Functional Apparel (Sportwear, protective clothing, etc.) • Fashion Accessories (Shoes, jewellery, spectacles, bags, etc.) • COMMUNICATION DESIGN • Interactive / Digital Media (Digital installations, websites, CDs and DVD- ROMs, mobile applications, etc.) • Packaging • Publications (Books, magazines, annual reports and other publications, etc.) • Posters and Promotional Materials (Posters, postcards, direct mailings, etc.) • Typography • PRODUCT and INDUSTRIAL DESIGN • Household Appliances (Household and kitchen appliances, lighting, etc.) • Homeware (Items and accessories for the home, including kitchenware, furniture, etc.) • Professional and Commercial Products (Office and business equipment, such as furniture, lighting, etc.) • Computers and Communications Products (Computer equipment and peripherals, phones, etc.) • Leisure and Entertainment Products (Sports equipment, audio and visual equipment, toys and games, etc.) • ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN • Home and Residential Spaces • Commercial Spaces (Work and retail spaces) • Hospitality and Leisure Spaces (Hotels, restaurants, bars, saunas, etc.) • Culture, Public and Exhibition Spaces (Institutional and public spaces, exhibit designs, etc)
    69. 69. Design in Asia • Overall Excellence • Creative design • Innovative skill • Original concept • Reinventing Design Systems • Aesthetic style • Ergonomic structure • Use of technology • Practicality & User friendliness • Good performance • Environmentally sustainable • Asian Styling • Forerunner in Asia • Setting trends in Asian lifestyles • Invigorating Asian living • Distinctive Asian character • Serving the needs of Asian markets • Inspiring the next generation of Asian designers and design trends • Commercial and Societal Success • Increasing sales and market share • Broadening customer base • Establishing new markets • Reducing manufacturing costs • Improving productivity and profitability • Shortening the lead time to market • Improving corporate image • Achieving specific business objectives • Advancing social cohesion • Inspiring social interest
    70. 70. Akihiko Okamoto “The concept itself first appeared quite a number of years ago in response to user comments such as this: 'SLR cameras can take good pictures, but because they are so heavy and bulky, they end up being left at home. It would be nice to be able to take photographs at close to SLR quality levels using a compact-size camera.'
    71. 71.
    72. 72. “The design concept that Sun and Suzuki used for this product was "Daifuku", a rice cake with a white outer layer and a sweet bean paste inside that can slightly be seen from the outside”
    73. 73. Jeff Dah-Yue Shi: Eco-friendly bamboo furniture design While the front view of the chair is like a bamboo tunnel at the bottom, the side view is similar to the Chinese character “君 ”(the seat as “口” and the back as “尹”), which denotes “a noble man”. In brief, Chair Jun Zi reflects both symbol and symbolic meaning of the Chinese character “君”.
    74. 74.
    75. 75. “Ren” is one of the most important concepts in Chinese tradition which could also perfectly convey the spirit of “Good Design”. “Ren” means caring for others, caring for the people. Meanwhile, good and outstanding designs also benefit the majority of the people, wherein the goodwill of design is reflected. At this stage, the developing China and its population need good design more than ever before”
    76. 76. “Asian design” creates homogeneity where there may in fact be little or none, and ignores the often transnational nature of design practices and products. To claim that contemporary designers in India, China, and Japan share a design language that is specifically “Asian” is questionable” Dr Christine Guth, Head of Asian History of Design & Material Culture (Royal College of Art/Victoria & Albert Museum), London
    77. 77. “the real issue is that it’s not merely about designing a product, but an all encompassing 360 degree design strategy that satisfies all aspect of the company’s requirements”
    78. 78. “…harnesses the taste and quality of European breads and incorporates them with a variety of Asian flavours, such as drunken longan, black sesame, spinach and sweet potato.”
    79. 79.
    80. 80. “Can Asian designers imagine a different future and not repeat the mistakes made that originated [in the West] as far back as the Industrial Revolution?”
    81. 81. “The current Generation Y of Asian designers have grown up in an era of prosperity and relative stability while living seamlessly and integrated into a global culture of media, travel, communication and social networks. Many have also studied in the West and are exposed to the history, theories and practices of design largely from the West that have dominated design discourse”
    82. 82. Design in Asia Activity • Write down an individual statement about the role of design in Asia • Present your argument in a 2-minute pitch • Form pairs based on opposite/differing views • Develop a shared view that complements both ideas
    83. 83. Design in Asia
    84. 84.
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    86. 86.
    87. 87.
    88. 88. Face-kini
    89. 89. “The ability to understand customers”
    90. 90.
    91. 91.
    92. 92. -Break-
    93. 93. Original price: 99 cents. Final price: $157.50
    94. 94.
    95. 95. Design Anthropology
    96. 96. Jan Chipchase: Design anthropology
    97. 97. Albany Gomez, Diana Amaya, Servando López, Martha Avilés
    98. 98. Albany Gomez, Diana Amaya, Servando López, Martha Avilés
    99. 99.
    100. 100.
    101. 101. !
    102. 102. Impact Form + Function + Meaning
    103. 103. Function Why products work that way?
    104. 104. Abstracting and decomposing a product into functions Function: “a statement of a clear, reproducible relationship between the available input and the desired output –independent of any specific form” Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
    105. 105. Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
    106. 106. Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
    107. 107. Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
    108. 108. Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
    109. 109. 124 Functional Representation 1. System boundaries should be carefully chosen and used consistently (starting with BB) 2. All functions should be verb-noun-[modifier] (e.g. import electricity) 3. All functions should be independent of objects (nouns) in the device. (turn gears  change energy) 4. All functions should be device functions, not user functions. (If unavoidable, double-box user functions). 5. Prolific functions should be mapped with a ground symbol. (E.g. “dissipate heat” shown only once). 6. Combine redundant functions. Completeness 1. Refine into as low-level functions as possible, without unnecessary detail. 2. Do functions adequately show fulfillment of given customer needs? 3. Do functions adequately show given flows traveling from entrance to exit? 4. Are the functions of each component in the product shown? Cross-checks 1. Conservation of energy and mass, equilibrium of forces 2. Verify each flow has correct state and type (e.g. rotational energy) 3. Functions should be in sequence if dependent, and parallel if independent Chapter 5 Otto and Wood “Product Design”, Pearson
    110. 110. “A field study of one of Taiwan’s traditional social activities is presented here to indentify the abundant cultural features which are involved in and influence people’s social lives.”
    111. 111. Asia Behaviour Activity • Create a list of 10 everyday practices, activities or habits that are characteristic of Asia • Share your lists in teams of 3 • Select the top three • Present
    112. 112. Asia Behaviour Activity • Taking shoes off • Drinking tea • Eating rice • Building trust and relationships • Save money • Competitiveness • Sharing food • Borrowing • Personal questions • Prestige, aspirational • Bargaining • Seniority • Living with your family until getting married • “Mugging” (studying really hard, remembering) • Fruit as a dessert • Wedding: prank the groom before he gets the bride • Working long hours: expectation to stay until late • Reserving seats • Honking while driving • Superstitious: lemon and chilli at the entrance (evil eye) • Asian hospitality* • Concept of ‘face’ • Avoid saying ‘no’ • Importance to education • Tai Chi, Mahjong • Using the right hand
    113. 113.
    114. 114. -Break-
    115. 115.
    116. 116.
    117. 117. No. 2 – South Korea Overall score: 2.26 Innovation inputs score: 1.75 Innovation performance score: 2.55 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $1.3 trillion Foreign Direct Investment: $74.6 billion No. 3 – Switzerland Overall score: 2.23 Innovation inputs score: 1.51 Innovation performance score: 2.74 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $309.9 billion Foreign Direct Investment: $621.7 billion No. 4 – Iceland Overall score: 2.17 Innovation inputs score: 2.00 Innovation performance score: 2.14 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $12.9 billion No. 5 – Ireland Overall score: 1.88 Innovation inputs score: 1.59 Innovation performance score: 1.99 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $198.5 billion Foreign Direct Investment: $149.1 billion No. 6 – Hong Kong Overall score: 1.88 Innovation inputs score: 1.61 Innovation performance score: 1.97 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $318.2 billion Foreign Direct Investment: $1.1 trillion No. 7 – Finland Overall score: 1.87 Innovation inputs score: 1.76 Innovation performance score: 1.81 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $201.2 billion Foreign Direct Investment: $121.9 billion No. 8 – U.S. Overall score: 1.80 Innovation inputs score: 1.28 Innovation performance score: 2.16 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $14.6 trillion Foreign Direct Investment: $2.7 trillion No. 9 – Japan Overall score: 1.79 Innovation inputs score: 1.16 Innovation performance score: 2.25 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $4.5 trillion Foreign Direct Investment: $597 billion No. 10 – Sweden Overall score: 1.64 Innovation inputs score: 1.25 Innovation performance score: 1.88 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $358.4 billion Foreign Direct Investment: $289.6 billion No. 11 – Denmark Overall score: 1.60 Innovation inputs score: 1.55 Innovation performance score: 1.50 GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $213.6 billion Foreign Direct Investment: $163.2 billion
    118. 118. Dimensions of culture 15:08 -
    119. 119. • Power Distance the degree of equality/inequality between people in a particular society • Individualism the degree to which a society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships • Masculinity the degree societies reinforce, or do not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power • Uncertainty Avoidance the level of acceptance for uncertainty and ambiguity within a society • Long-Term Orientation
    120. 120. There are only seven (7) countries in the Geert Hofstede research that have Individualism (IDV) as their highest Dimension: USA (91), Australia (90), United Kingdom (89), Netherlands and Canada (80), and Italy (76). High IDV ranking indicates a society with a more individualistic attitude and relatively loose bonds with others. The populace is more self-reliant and looks out for themselves and their close family members.
    121. 121. The low Individualism (IDV) ranking is manifest in a close and committed member 'group', be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.
    122. 122. Asia and Latin America: Collectivism
    123. 123. (with some exceptions)
    124. 124. Scandinavian countries: A low Masculinity (MAS) may be indicative of a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In this culture, females are treated more equally to males in all aspects of society. This low Masculinity ranking may also be displayed as a more openly nurturing society.
    125. 125. A high score (MAS) indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being defined by the winner / best in field – a value system that starts in school and continues throughout organisational behaviour. Masculine society: Performance is highly valued and early required as the school system separates children into different types of schools at the age of ten. People rather “live in order to work” and draw a lot of self-esteem from their tasks. Managers are expected to be decisive and assertive. Status is often shown, especially by cars, watches and technical devices
    126. 126. Mexico's highest Hofstede Dimension is Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) (82), indicating the society’s low level of tolerance for uncertainty. Strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations are adopted and implemented. The ultimate goal is to control everything in order to eliminate or avoid the unexpected. As a result, the society does not readily accept change and is very risk adverse. Singapore scores 8 on this dimension. Why?
    127. 127. Asia Scandinavia Western PDI High Low Med IDV Low High High MAS Med Low High UAI Low ? Med LTO High Med Med
    128. 128. Low ranking UM = upper-middle income and HI = high income Is low LTO an obstacle for innovation? “The long-term orientation dimension can be interpreted as dealing with society’s search for virtue. Societies with a short-term orientation generally have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth. They are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results. In societies with a long-term orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context and time. They show an ability to adapt traditions to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness, and perseverance in achieving results.”
    129. 129. Hofstede: Seven sins
    130. 130. Characteristics Tips High PDI •Centralized companies. •Strong hierarchies. •Large gaps in compensation, authority, and respect. •Acknowledge a leader's power. •Be aware that you may need to go to the top for answers Low PDI •Flatter organizations. •Supervisors and employees are considered almost as equals. •Use teamwork •Involve as many people as possible in decision making
    131. 131. Characteristics Tips High IDV •High valuation on people's time and their need for freedom. •An enjoyment of challenges, and an expectation of rewards for hard work. •Respect for privacy. •Acknowledge accomplishments. •Don't ask for too much personal information. •Encourage debate and expression of own ideas. Low IDV •Emphasis on building skills and becoming masters of something. •Work for intrinsic rewards. •Harmony more important than honesty. •Show respect for age and wisdom. •Suppress feelings and emotions to work in harmony. •Respect traditions and introduce change slowly.
    132. 132. Characteristics Tips High MAS •Men are masculine and women are feminine. •There is a well defined distinction between men's work and women's work. •Be aware that people may expect male and female roles to be distinct. •Advise men to avoid discussing emotions or making emotionally- based decisions or arguments. Low MAS •A woman can do anything a man can do. •Powerful and successful women are admired and respected. •Avoid an "old boys' club" mentality. •Ensure job design and practices are not discriminatory to either gender. •Treat men and women equally.
    133. 133. Characteristics Tips High UAI •Very formal business conduct with lots of rules and policies. •Need and expect structure. •Sense of nervousness spurns high levels of emotion and expression. •Differences are avoided. •Be clear and concise about your expectations and parameters. •Plan and prepare, communicate often and early, provide detailed plans and focus on the tactical aspects of a job or project. •Express your emotions through hands gestures and raised voices. Low UAI •Informal business attitude. •More concern with long term strategy than what is happening on a daily basis. •Accepting of change and risk. •Do not impose rules or structure unnecessarily. •Minimize your emotional response by being calm and contemplating situations before speaking. •Express curiosity when you discover differences.
    134. 134. Characteristics Tips High LTO •Family is the basis of society. •Parents and men have more authority than young people and women. •Strong work ethic. •High value placed on education and training. •Show respect for traditions. •Do not display extravagance or act frivolously. •Reward perseverance, loyalty, and commitment. •Avoid doing anything that would cause another to "lose face". Low LTO •Promotion of equality. •High creativity, individualism. •Treat others as you would like to be treated. •Self-actualization is sought. •Expect to live by the same standards and rules you create. •Be respectful of others. •Do not hesitate to introduce necessary changes.