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# Orienteering 101

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### Orienteering 101

1. 22. Orienteering 101 Section 1 Why should you learn how to use a map and compass????
2. 23. Topographic maps <ul><li>Greek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topo = Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphien = to write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To write or draw a place or an area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The proportion of the distance between two points on the map and the actual distance between the corresponding points in the field. </li></ul></ul>
3. 24. Scale <ul><li>1:250,000 = 1 inch on the map =250,000 inches in the field or about 4 miles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives a general idea of the geographic features of a region. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It will assist you in discovering points of interest within 100 miles of your destination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuable in planning trips and expeditions. </li></ul></ul>
4. 25. Scale <ul><li>1:62,500 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 inch on the map equals 1 mile in the field. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically covers an area of 195=271 sq. miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This map is good for locating terrain suitable to your intended purpose. Hiking, hunting, camping, exploring, etc…. </li></ul></ul>
5. 26. What is a Mile? <ul><li>A mile is equal to 5280 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans used this formula to calculate distance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 double steps were equal to the length of a soldiers foot X 5. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today your double step should be roughly equivalent to 5 feet. </li></ul></ul>
6. 27. What Can A Map Tell Us? Description <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in the margins of the map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top Margin – Name of the main feature on the map </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Town, lake, mountain or some other permanent feature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name is repeated at bottom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small type on top, bottom and sides are surrounding quadrangle maps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are the names to use when ordering neighboring maps. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each map is has a catalog number which should also be used when ordering a specific map. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
7. 28. Location <ul><li>A map is a reduced section of some spot on the globe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are numbers located on each edge of the map. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These intersecting lines can tell you exactly where you are on the globe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meridian lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top and bottom lines connected are known as meridian lines (North/South) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N/S lines are known as degrees of longitude and run west from the Prime Meridian which is 0 degrees. </li></ul></ul></ul>
8. 29. Location <ul><li>Parallel Lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect the lines on the right and left sides of the map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are known as parallel lines or lines of latitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These lines run parallel with the equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The equator has the designation of 0 degrees </li></ul></ul>
9. 30. Dates <ul><li>Bottom of the map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates of importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom left corner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Map was created from photogrammetric methods in 1966 and 1969. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field checked in 1969 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right hand bottom corner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photorevised in 1981 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that your map was correct in the year it was created by may not show all modern changes </li></ul></ul>
10. 31. Details <ul><li>Map Symbols: various signs used to designate details in the landscape. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map symbols spell out the lay of the land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They usually look like the thing they represent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are symbols for man-made features such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roads, highways, schools, churches, cemeteries, telephone and pipelines, quarries and mining pits. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are symbols for natural features such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes or ponds, streams, Springs, marsh and river areas etc.. </li></ul></ul></ul>
11. 32. Details <ul><li>Man-made features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made by people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These feature are shown in BLACK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception is med- and heavy duty highways which may be overprinted in RED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers, canals, lakes, oceans, swamps and marshes are printed in BLUE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brooks and streams are shown by a narrow blue line. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers by a wide Blue band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large bodies of water by light blue tint with the shoreline outlined in a darker blue. </li></ul></ul>
12. 33. Details <ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green tint is used to indicate wooded areas, orchards, vineyards, and scrub </li></ul></ul>
13. 34. Elevation Features <ul><li>Mountains, hills, valleys and plains are shown on topo maps with brown lines known as contour lines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour line: Imaginary line on the ground along which every point is at the same height above sea level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index lines: wider brown line shown every 5 th contour change. (numbers indication Elevation are found on these lines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate contour lines: light lines in between the heavier lines. </li></ul></ul>
14. 35. Elevation Features <ul><li>Contour interval: On most map the distance between contour lines in 20 feet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea level maps may only show 5 foot intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of contour intervals as a beach. If the contour line reads 60 feet and the Ocean were to rise 60 feet, the line would become sea level. (the new beach) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour interval is listed in the bottom margin of the map. </li></ul></ul>
15. 36. Reading Contour <ul><li>Look at each hill in terms of contour. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equally spaced intervals that are farther apart indicate a gently sloping hill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines that are very close together would indicate steepness (ex. cliff) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When contour lines cross streams or rivers, they take on the shape of a V with the point indicating the higher elevation. (V for Valley) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ridges are indicated by a U shape with bottom of the U pointing downhill. </li></ul></ul>
16. 37. Reading Contour <ul><li>Concave Hill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When contour lines are farther apart at the bottom and close together at the top, the hill would be easy to climb at first and steeper at the top. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convex Hill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour lines are close together at the bottom and farther apart at top, the hill is difficult to climb initially getting easier at the top </li></ul></ul>
17. 38. Bench marks <ul><li>Road intersections, summits, lake surfaces and other features may have there elevation listed to the nears foot. </li></ul><ul><li>These detailed areas are known as bench marks. </li></ul>
18. 39. Orienteering 101 Section II <ul><li>Directions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which direction is north on your map? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the writing on the map is oriented in the normal direction, one can be fairly sure the up is north, down is south, left is west and right is east. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use your map and dry erase marker to complete the following directions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Draw a line from the top meridian mark that reads 35. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Connect the line with the corresponding mark at the bottom of the map. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Draw a line from the mark that reads 64 on the side (parallel line) of the map to the corresponding mark on the opposite side. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Label the intersection Base of Operations. (B.O.O) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
19. 40. Direction <ul><ul><ul><li>5. Label the 4 compass points around your base of operations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Fold a 3 inch square paper into 16ths. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. Round the free edges with scissors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8. Label each of the outgoing lines according to direction. N,NNE,NE,ENE,E ESE,SE,SSE,S,SSW,SW, WSW,W,WNW,NW,NNW, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orient your compass over your B.O.O. </li></ul></ul></ul>
20. 41. Paper circle protractor <ul><li>Your paper protractor marks the 16 compass directions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A true protractor gives you a 360 º degree circle in 1 degree increments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N=0 or 360 º NNE=22 ½ NE=45 ENE=67 ½ E=90 ESE=112 ½ SE-135 SSE 157 ½ S=18 SSW 202 ½ SW=225 WSW=247 ½ W=270 WNW=292 ½ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NW = 315 NNW = 337 ½ </li></ul></ul>
21. 42. Finding Directions with an orienteering compass <ul><li>Modern compass: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular compass (protractor) is attached to a rectangular base (ruler) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place the compass on the map so that one edge of the base plate touches both the starting point and destination. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The direction of travel arrow should point toward the destination. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn the compass housing with its 360 º markings until the orienting arrow lies parallel to the nearest north/south meridian line with the arrow pointed north. </li></ul></ul></ul>Your compass is now “Set” (Oriented).
22. 43. Find Map Direction with a Compass <ul><li>Use the training map to answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. From road T in Glenburnie to top of Record Hill __________ º. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. From Record Hill to crossroads south of BM 474_____________º. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. From Crossroads south of BM 474 to Camp Adirondack _________º. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. From Camp Adirondack to Log Chapel _________º. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. From Log Chapel to Meadow Knoll Cemetary__________º. </li></ul></ul>
23. 44. Using the Maps Bar Scale <ul><li>Scale: 1:24000 / 1 inch equals 2000 feet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a small piece of scrap paper and copy the bar scale to measure the distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the base plate of the compass to measure distance. </li></ul></ul>or
24. 45. Distance Quiz Use the practice maps bar scale to figure the following distances. <ul><li>1. Log Chapel to Meadow Knoll cemetery ________. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Meadow Knoll cem. To to top of Hutton Hill. ________. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Top of Hutton Hill to Glenburnie. ______ </li></ul><ul><li>4. Glenburnie to top of Record Hill. ______ </li></ul><ul><li>5. Top of Record Hill to Log Chapel ______ </li></ul>
25. 46. Traveling by Map <ul><li>Orient the map: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn the map so the top is facing north and the landscape features on the map match those in the field. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have inspected the map and the landscape in order to orient the map. This is called orienting by “inspection” DUH! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine Distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Roman soldiers double step method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, a double step equals approximately 5 feet. 1000 double steps will be close to a mile for most people. </li></ul></ul>
26. 47. Time and Distance
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