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Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
Principles of Editing
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Principles of Editing

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Overview of basic editing techniques and concepts for an introductory film class

Overview of basic editing techniques and concepts for an introductory film class

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  • 1. PRINCIPLES OF EDITING THFM 1610: Introduction to Film Dr. Rosalind Sibielski, Bowling Green State University
  • 2. Basic Edits: The Cut  Instantaneous change from one shot to another The first shot replaces the second shot on the screen
  • 3. Basic Edits: The Jump Cut  When two shots of the same image are cut together without a change in camera setup  Results in a noticeable “jump” in the image on the screen
  • 4.  In the following clip from The Royal Tenenbaums, the first edit, when we switch from the shot of Dudley and Rollie outside the bathroom to the shot of Richie inside the bathroom, is an example of a cut  The shots of Richie cutting his hair and trimming his beard are examples of jump cuts  The quick cuts to shots of Margot, Richie’s parents, and Mordecai (his pet hawk) from earlier in the film are examples of insert shots. They are used here to show us what Richie is thinking about.
  • 5. Basic Edits: Fade In/Out Fade In = a dark screen that gradually changes to an image as the shot appears  Fade Out = a shot that gradually disappears as the screen darkens 
  • 6. Basic Edits: The Dissolve  A transition between two shots in which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears  for a moment the two images blend in superimposition
  • 7. Basic Edits: The Wipe  A transition between shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating one shot until it has completely replaced it with another
  • 8. Basic Edits: Graphic Match Cut  Shots are linked by matches in the graphic qualities of the image across edits This match is constituted by similarities in shape, color and/or composition between the two shots
  • 9. Basic Editing Techniques: Rhythmic Editing  Creates patterns in editing based on the tempo of the cuts, as well as the duration of the shots  Cutting together longer takes with fewer edits can slow a film’s pacing; using shorter takes with more frequent edits can accelerate it  Increasing the tempo of the editing as a scene progresses can be a way of increasing tension or building suspense (as in the following example)
  • 10. The Function of Editing  Editing also has a symbolic function  mise-en-scène & cinematography create implicit meaning within shots  editing creates implicit meaning between shots
  • 11. The Kuleshov Effect: Part I  Any shot in a film has two values 1. The meaning of the shot in and of itself  +  2. = Hunger the shot of the man = the shot of a man the shot of the bowl of soup = a shot of a bowl of soup The meaning created when the shot is juxtaposed with another shot  the shot of the man + the shot of the bowl of soup = hunger
  • 12. The Kuleshov Effect: Part II  Editing shapes our perception of spatial and temporal relationships between shots, as well as between scenes  Key Techniques:  Continuity editing  Elliptical editing  Parallel editing  Montage editing
  • 13. Continuity Editing  Set of editing techniques used to create a cohesive sense of space and a sense of continuous time by maintaining consistent graphic, spatial, and temporal relationships between shots
  • 14. The 180° Rule  This system of editing organizes onscreen space by:  Constructing the scene along an axis of action  Making certain positions in the frame are consistent  Keeping eyelines consistent across shots  Keeping screen direction consistent across shots
  • 15. Eyeline Match Shot  First shot shows character looking offscreen  Second shot shows us what the character is looking at
  • 16. Shot-Reverse Shot  Alternates between two shots framed from reverse angles  Often used to depict conversations
  • 17. Match on Action  Action begun in first shot is completed in second shot  Maintains continuous action (and therefore continuous sense of the passage of time) across edits
  • 18. Breaking the 180° Rule  Certain techniques can be used to cross the axis of action while still maintaining a sense of spatial continuity (all of them are illustrated on the next slide)  Shifting the axis of action by using mobile framing to reposition it  Having actors move within the frame to reposition the axis of action  Cutting in a circle by repositioning the camera slightly with each cut  Cutting to the axis of action, then crossing it  Using a cutaway shot to reposition the axis of action
  • 19. Parallel Editing/Crosscutting   Continuity editing technique that alternates back and forth between scenes Can be used in two ways:  To depict simultaneous action by cutting between two or more events taking place in different locations at the same time (the following example is this type of parallel editing)  To create thematic parallels by cutting between action taking place in separate locations at different points in time that are linked by theme
  • 20. Temporal Ellipses Using editing to signify the passage of time  A fade out/in between scenes is one example of this, since the brief period when the screen goes black often signals a passage in time from one scene to the next 
  • 21. Elliptical Editing  A set of editing techniques that create temporal ellipses by removing part of the story action unnecessary to plot development so that it takes less time to unfold on screen
  • 22. Cuts in Action  Elliptical editing technique that uses cuts to eliminate parts of the action in order to condense the amount of time it takes to play out onscreen  Often we just see the beginning and the end of the action, with the middle cut out
  • 23. Empty Frames  Same technique as cuts in action, except that the shot is held for a brief period before/after the character exits the frame, so that the frame is briefly “empty” of action  Notice in the following example, how the shots often begin before the character enters the shot, and are held briefly after he exits the shot  This is an example of empty frames as a type of elliptical editing
  • 24. Cutaway Shot    Character begins action in first shot There is a cut “away” from the action to something else This is followed by a cut back to the character completing the action begun in the first shot  In the following example, the cuts away from the woman stealing the key to her husband speaking from behind the closed bathroom door are examples of cutaway shots
  • 25. Montage A montage sequence is an elliptical editing technique used to depict actions that take place over an extended period of time  Condenses the passage of time into a short succession of shots, so that they take much less time to play out onscreen 
  • 26. End

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