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    Introductiont to is_and_mis Introductiont to is_and_mis Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction toManagement of Information Systems(MIS)
    • Outline• Management of Information Technology & Systems• Data, Information, Knowledge• Data, Information, Knowledge and Occupations• Information Technology and Information System• Putting on Information System Lenses• Management Topics, Information Systems, and Cases• Organization-Systems Trajectory at Mead-Westvaco 2 of 12
    • Information Systems Why Do People Need Information?  Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment  Businesses - Decision making, problem solving and control
    • Data, Information, and Systems Data vs. Information  Data  A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture  Represents something in the real world  The raw materials in the production of information  Information  Data that have meaning within a context  Data in relationships  Data after manipulation
    • Data, Information, and Systems Data Manipulation  Example: customer survey  Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful.  When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information.
    • Data, Information, and Systems Generating Information  Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it, and produce information as output. Figure 1.1 Input-process-output
    • Data, Information, and Systems Information in Context Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful information
    • Data, Information, and Systems What Is a System?  System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal  Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal  Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with other systems  Open system: System that interfaces with other systems
    • Data, Information, and SystemsFigure 1.3 Several subsystems make up this corporate accounting system.
    • Data, Information, and Systems Information and Managers  Systems thinking  Creates a framework for problem solving and decision making.  Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of business.
    • Data, Information, and SystemsFigure 1.5 Qualities of humans and computers that contribute to synergy
    • Data, Information, and Systems The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy  Synergy  When combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately  Allows human thought to be translated into efficient processing of large amounts of data
    • Data, Information, and SystemsFigure 1.6 Components of an information system
    • Data, Information, and Systems The Four Stages of Data Processing  Input: Data is collected and entered into computer.  Data processing: Data is manipulated into information using mathematical, statistical, and other tools.  Output: Information is displayed or presented.  Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use.
    • Why Study IS? Information Systems Careers  Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP), database administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc. Knowledge Workers  Managers and non-managers  Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to use information technology. Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy  Key to full participation in western society
    • Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side Consumer Privacy  Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amounts of data on individuals. Employee Privacy  IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violating privacy and creating stress.
    • Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side Freedom of Speech  IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectual property crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge free speech. IT Professionalism  No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlike other professions. Social Inequality  Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than 3% have Internet access.
    • 1. Data, • Relationships – simple just in textbooks 2. Information,3. Knowledge Data Domain of (Letters, numbers, graphics… Technology Representing reality and knowledge) Knowledge Information (Complex cognitive entity; (Data understood, cause-effect theories, meaning) vocabularies/conceptual maps, know-how, experience) Domain of Human Brain • Knowledge is also embedded in computer software! (e.g., math operations in Excel, procedures in Accounting IS, decision trees in Expert Systems) More…
    • In plain English,•we often do not differentiate betweendata, information and knowledge,simply calling it all “information”.
    • Data, Information, Knowledge and Occupations• Where the primary focus of job is. Clerks Professionals Managers
    • _Concept of Information Technology (IT)• What do we mean by "IT"? Any tool for manipulating data, information - electronic: computer software and hardware - our focus - paper: documents, filing techniques… - still there, gradually transformed into electronic
    • Concept of Information System (IS, system) Information Technology (IT) (Computers, Other) Information • Data (organized, System (IS) Use meaningful) Procedures • Representations of Supports Knowledge Use Information, Users Knowledge (Organizational members: ----------------- Managers, Professionals, Clerks) Task, Business Perform on Process • In plain English, we often do not differentiate between data, information and knowledge, simply calling it all “information”. • We often use term “technology” to refer to either IT or IS. 22 of 12
    • Brainstorm E Putting on Information System Lenses • What is the frequent (or important) task or process you work on? • What information is part of your work? • How is this information supported by technology? • Is something missing in your information/technology? . First part of Analytical Process addressed 23 of 12
    • Management of Information Technology & Systems• Management of information technology (IT) and information systems (IS, systems) is similar to “Management Information Systems” (MIS): Utilizing IT/IS and information these support to solve business problems and support organizational performance. More… 24 of 12
    • Management of Information Technology & Systems • MIS is about managing IT/IS to accomplish - Strategic goals (organizational effectiveness), and - Operational objectives (efficiency/productivity in daily operations)• Two levels of analysis: - IT/IS as asset, “strategic weapon”, “nervous system” (strategic level) vs. tool, commodity (operational level) 25 of 12
    • Management Topics , Information Systems, and CasesMapping intoOur TeachingCases: • Electronic Commerce (Buying & selling via Internet), Demand pull; Sales & manufacturing systems innovation and integration, Supply chain systems innovation • Knowledge management, communication, hierarchy “demise”; Communication and Document management systems innovation • Efficiency & effectiveness driven organizational change, Teamwork, internal/external process improvement, any time/space-operations; groupware, distributed systems, computer networks, enterprise systems, transaction processing/reporting systems 26 of 12
    • Putting MIS Themes Together Professionals, Clerks, Managers Adopt, Use Provide System Requirements IT (Computer Software & Hardware) Task, Productivity? Process System Data --- Design & Development (organized, meaningful) Infor- Strategy Design & mation Accomplishment? Build Procedures ofVendors Handling IT and Data IS Dept. • Define strategic and operational targets, and role of technology • Manage people, work, time and money in system use, development, and adoption Managers: • Evaluate relationships b/w Users--System and System--Organizational Performance 27 of 12
    • Warning : Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side Consumer Privacy  Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amounts of data on individuals. Employee Privacy  IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violating privacy and creating stress.
    • Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side Freedom of Speech  IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectual property crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge free speech. IT Professionalism  No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlike other professions. Social Inequality  Less than 20% of the world’s population have ever used a PC; less than 3% have Internet access.
    • Questions ? 30 of 12