Physitherapy Lecture


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Physitherapy Lecture

  1. 1. PHYSIOTHERAPY Dr RadheyShyam Dhiman Dept of Orthopaedics &Traumatology GMC BHOPAL
  2. 2. <ul><li>Physiotherapy is a branch of medical science where physical measures such as heat, light, ultrasound, water, electricity and exercises are used in the diagnosis and treatment of orthopaedic injuries. </li></ul>PHYSIOTHERAPY
  3. 3. PHYSIOTHERAPY <ul><li>Passive Physiotherapy directed toward the alleviation of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Active Physiotherapy directed toward restoration of function by activity </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>To treat disability and deformity. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>To correct disability and deformity </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent disability and deformity </li></ul>
  5. 5. CATEGORIES <ul><li>Depending on severity of the ailment </li></ul><ul><li>1. Short term physiotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Long term physiotherapy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Short Term Physiotherapy <ul><li>Includes patients with minor neuromuscular-skeletal lesions like </li></ul><ul><li>Simple soft tissue injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Simple fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Non traumatic lesions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Long term physiotherapy <ul><li>Refers to more complicated diseases of musculoskeletal origin </li></ul><ul><li>Includes condition like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fractures of major bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal trauma resulting in physical disability and complications like paraplegia, quadriplegia etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical procedures involving major joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic conditions like RA </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Short And Long Term Goals <ul><li>Protect the involved area </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pain and inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce intra or extra capsular effusion </li></ul><ul><li>Increase range of joint movement </li></ul><ul><li>Increase musculotendinous flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Increase muscle strength power and endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Restore normal biomechanical functions </li></ul><ul><li>Increase balance and proprioception </li></ul>
  9. 9. Exercises
  10. 10. Active exercises <ul><li>After Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>After Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Immobilization in plaster </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exercises <ul><li>Isometric Exercises when the limb is in plaster </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic Exercises to improve muscle power </li></ul>
  12. 12. Orthopaedic Appliances Wrist cricumductor Wall bars Shoulder abduction ladder Shoulder pulley set
  13. 13. Orthopaedic Appliances Wrist gripper Dumbell Skates roller
  14. 14. Orthopaedic Appliances Quadriceps board Hip circumductor Heel exerciser
  15. 15. Orthopaedic Appliances Ankle exerciser Parallel walking bar Training stairs
  16. 16. Proprioceptive Training <ul><li>Unstable shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Cruciate deficiencies knee </li></ul><ul><li>Functional unstable ankle </li></ul>
  17. 17. Manipulation And Mobilisation <ul><li>MOBILISATION Low amplitude and pressure movement (spinal arthritis) </li></ul><ul><li>MANIPULATION Larger amplitude and more forceful movement </li></ul>
  18. 18. Massage <ul><li>It is defined as the scientific manipulation of the soft tissue which is performed by using the palmar aspect of the hand. It aims to increase the blood circulation and relief from pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic effects </li></ul><ul><li>Increase fluid exchange in tissue without changing volume of fluid pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Increased flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Remodeling of connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease spasm in muscles </li></ul>
  19. 19. Classification <ul><li>Stroking manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Percussion manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Shaking manipulation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Electrotherapy <ul><li>Faradic current Flat Feet </li></ul><ul><li>To improve quadriceps power </li></ul><ul><li>Reeducation of muscle after tendon transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Galvanic current After nerve palsies to prevent fibrosis </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ultrasonic Therapy <ul><li>Act by mechanical and thermal effects </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical spondylosis </li></ul><ul><li>Backache </li></ul><ul><li>Lossening of scar and adhesions </li></ul>
  22. 22. Heat <ul><li>Hot packs </li></ul><ul><li>Paraffin wax bath </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared or radiant heat lamp </li></ul><ul><li>Short wave diathermy </li></ul><ul><li>UV light </li></ul>
  23. 23. Short Wave diathermy <ul><li>Pain reduction and swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Healing of wound is acclerated </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction and modification of inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Acute traumatic haematoma and synovitis treatment </li></ul>SHORT WAVE DIATHERMY
  24. 24. Microwave Diathermy <ul><li>Frequency is between 300MHZ to 300GHZ </li></ul><ul><li>Blood circulation is increased </li></ul><ul><li>Relief of pain </li></ul><ul><li>Used in acute traumatic and rheumatic condition </li></ul>
  25. 25. Interferential therapy <ul><li>Uses medium frequency current </li></ul><ul><li>Used in rheumatism </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle sprain </li></ul><ul><li>Neuralgia </li></ul><ul><li>Sports injury </li></ul>
  26. 26. Paraffin Wax <ul><li>Used to relieve pain after trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Degenerative trauma disease </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic stages of inflammatory arthropathy </li></ul>PARAFFIN WAX BATH
  27. 27. Laser Therapy <ul><li>Reduce inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce oedema </li></ul><ul><li>Increase RNA level </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate fibroblast </li></ul><ul><li>Increased vascularisation of wound </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cryotherapy <ul><li>To promote clotting and haemostasis </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce pain and odema </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce spasticity </li></ul>
  29. 29. TENS <ul><li>Transcutaneous Electrical Neural Stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Used for pain relief </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic musculosekeltal pain </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used by patient themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Costly </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hydrotherapy <ul><li>Neck pain </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal injury </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Post operative orthopedics </li></ul><ul><li>Sports injury </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatology </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>THANKS </li></ul>