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  • 1. BAB 1SEJARAH AWAL MALAYSIA:SEJARAH DAN POLITIKCHAPTER 1MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORY:HISTORY AND POLITICS
  • 2. © Copyright Reserved 2003 2CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESAt the end of this chapter, students will be able to:· Comprehend the origin existence and the culture growth of Prehistoric societies:Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Iron.· Comprehend the political growth of Malacca Sultanate and the climax of its existence.· Identify the factors that contribute to the strength of Malacca Sultanate.· Identify the factors that causing the downfall of Malacca Sultanate.· Learn from the colonisation period: Portugal, Dutch, British and Japan.ObjectivesObjektifPada akhir bab ini, para pelajar akan dapat:· Memahami asal-usul kewujudan dan perkembangan kebudayaan masyarakat zamanPrasejarah: Paliolitik, Mesolitik, Neolitik dan Logam.· Memahami perkembangan politik Kesultanan Melayu Melaka dan keagongansepanjang tempoh kewujudannya.· Mengenalpasti faktor-faktor yang menyumbang kepada kekuatan Kesultanan MelayuMelaka.· Mengenalpasti faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan kejatuhan Kesultanan MelayuMelaka.· Mempelajari zaman penjajahan kuasa-kuasa asing seperti Portugis, Belanda, Britishdan Jepun.
  • 3. © Copyright Reserved 2003 3CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.1 Zaman Prasejarah· Sejarah membuktikan bahawa negara kita bukanlah sebuah negara yang baru. Di beberapakawasan di negara kita telah pernah didiami oleh manusia sejak zaman batu lagi.· Untuk tahun-tahun selanjutnya telah wujud pula kawasan-kawasan perdagangan danseterusnya kerajaan-kerajaan yang terkenal.· Petempatan awal manusia telah bermula di gua, di kawasan persisiran pantai dan pedalaman.Pada ketika itu manusia menyara hidup dengan memburu binatang, menangkap ikan danmemungut hasil hutan.· Setelah pandai membina petempatan kekal, mereka mula bercucuk tanam dan menciptaperalatan yang lebih baik untuk kegunaan mereka.· Sejarah awal penduduk negara ini tercatat dengan penemuan satu tengkorak manusia yangtelah tertanam sedalam 12 kaki di Gua Niah, Sarawak. Tengkorak itu dianggarkan telahtertanam sejak lebih kurang 40,000 tahun lalu.· Penemuan ini secara langsung mencerminkan bahawa negara kita telah dihuni oleh manusiasejak berpuluh ribu tahun lalu.· Dari segi pembahagian fasa-fasa sejarah purba, negara kita telah melalui empat fasa utamaiaitu zaman Paleolitik, zaman Mesolitik, zaman Neolitik dan zaman Logam.1.1 Prehistoric Period· History has proven that our country is not a relatively recent nation. Man had populatedseveral areas in our country since the Stone Age period.· In the coming years, trade areas and infamous governments began to exist in the country.· Man’s early settlements started in caves, near the coastal and in rural areas. At that time,man survived by hunting animals for food, catching fish and picking natural food resourcesfrom the forest.· After being able to build permanent settlements, man began to cultivate plants and inventbetter equipment for their survival.· The history of the country’s early inhabitants were recorded by the finding of a human skullthat was buried about 12 feet deep in Niah Cave, Sarawak. It was estimated that the skull hadbeen buried there for about 40000 years.· This finding reflects that man had inhibited our country for thousands of years· In terms of the divisions of ancient historic phases, our country has gone through four mainphases or periods, which are Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper.
  • 4. © Copyright Reserved 2003 4CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.1.1 Zaman Paleolitik· Hasil kajian geologi mendapati bahawa beribu-ribu tahun dahulu cuaca dunia sangat sejuk. Airlaut dan air sungai menjadi surut akibat cuaca yang terlalu sejuk. Kesannya kawasan daratmenjadi lebih luas daripada laut.· Zaman ini dikatakan sebagai Zaman Air Batu dan manusia yang hidup di Kepulauan Melayuketika itu dikenali sebagai orang Paleolitik atau orang zaman Batu Awal.Tempoh · 40 000 atau 35 000 tahun S.M hingga 11 000 tahun S.M.Petempatan · Kota Tampan (Perak), Gua Niah (Sarawak) dan Tingkayu (Sabah).Alatan · Teknologi manusia purba berupa penciptaan alatan batu yang dibuat darianak-anak batu sungai dan batu repihan.· Alatan batu ini dikenali sebagai alat pemotong batu genggam.· Selain daripada alatan batu, orang paleolitik juga dipercayai menggunakanalat-alat yang dibuat daripada kayu dan buluh.Aktiviti · Menangkap ikan, memburu binatang dan mengumpul hasil hutan untukmengisi keperluan makanan masing-masing.Jadual 1.11.1.1 Palaeolithic Period· Findings from geological research have proven that thousand years ago, the world’stemperature was extremely cold. The level of sea and river water had become very low due tothe condition. As a result, land area became bigger than the sea area.· This period is known as the ice age period and the people who lived in the Malay Isles at thattime were called Palaeolithic people or early Stone Age people.Duration · 40000 or 35000 B.C until 11000 B.C.Location · Kota Tampan (Perak), Gua Niah (Sarawak) and Tingkayu (Sabah)Tools · Ancient human technology was about the invention of stone equipment thatwas made from river stones, pebbles and parts of broken stones.· The stone equipment is known as clutch-cutters made of stone.· Besides equipments that were made from stone, the Palaeolithic peoplewere also believed to be using equipments that were made from wood andbamboo.Activities · Catching fish, hunting animals and collecting food sources from the forest.Table 1.1
  • 5. © Copyright Reserved 2003 5CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.1: Alatan batu Zaman PaleolitikDiagram 1.1: Tool equipment in the Palaeolithic EraRajah 1.2: Antara petempatan orang PaleolitikDiagram 1.2: Settlements of Palaeolithic people
  • 6. © Copyright Reserved 2003 6CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.1.2 Zaman Mesolitik· Apabila air batu menjadi cair, air laut dan air sungai mulai membanjiri kawasan daratan.Hasilnya wujudlah Pentas Sunda, Selat Melaka, Laut China Selatan dan Laut Sulu sepertiyang kita kenali hari ini.· Perubahan bentuk muka bumi ini mempengaruhi petempatan dan corak hidup penduduknya.Penciptaan peralatan batu pada zaman ini lebih bermutu berbanding dengan zamansebelumnya.· Zaman ini dikenali sebagai Zaman Batu Pertengahan atau Mesolitik atau Hoabinhian / Hobinh(sempena nama sebuah petempatan di Vietnam).· Terdapat bukti di Thailand dimana masyarakat Hoabinhian menjalankan aktiviti bercucuktaman.· Dipercayai pada zaman ini, manusia telah tahu mengggunakan perahu terutama yang tinggaldi tepi sungai dan laut. Maka mungkin terdapat perhubungan diantara masyarakat di kawasanberbeza.· Orang-orang asli Negrito dan Senoi merupakan keturunan orang Mesolitik.1.1.2 Mesolithic Period· When icebergs melted, the water levels rose and water covered land areas and as a result, theSunda Straits, Malacca Straits, South China Sea and Sulu Sea, as what we see them today,came into existence.· The change in land structure influenced human lifestyle and settlements. The invention ofequipments made from stone progressed and became advanced as compared to the previousperiod.· This period is known as the Mid Stone Age or Mesolithic Age or Hoabinhian / Hobinh (takenfrom a settlement in Vietnam).· There is a prove in Thailand where Hoabinhian society had an activity like growing plant.· It is believed that during this period, man knew how to use the boat, especially those wholived nearby the river and the sea. Thus, there might be a communication took place withinthe different societies.· The Negrito and Senoi aborigines are the descendants of Mesolithic people.Rajah 1.3: Alatan batu Zaman NeolitikDiagram 1.3: Tool equipment in the Neolithic Era
  • 7. © Copyright Reserved 2003 7CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESTempoh · 11, 000 tahun S.M. hingga 5000 tahun S.M.Petempatan · Tertumpu di kawasan gua batu kapur dan batu perlindungan, pesisiranpantai dan tebing sungai.· Tapak-tapak yang dikenal pasti di negara ini adalah di Gua Cha (Kelantan),Gua Kechil (Pahang), Bukit Chuping (Perlis), Gua Debu dan Guar Kepah(Kedah), Jenderam Hilir (Selangor), Gua Madai, Gua Gomantong dan GuaTengkorak (Sabah) dan Gua Niah (Sarawak).Alatan · Teknologi peralatan masih berasaskan batu tetapi lebih maju.· Penumbuk lesung batu, kapak, batu penggiling dan batu penggali. Di akhirzaman Mesolitik, alat-alat tembikar telah ditemui.Aktiviti · Menangkap ikan, memburu binatang, memungut hasil laut, sungai danhutan.Jadual 1.2Duration · 11000 B.C. to 5000 B.C.Location · Mainly focused in areas such as limestone caves, rock areas, coastal areasand riversides.· Settlements identified in this country are Gua Cha (Kelantan), Gua Kechil(Pahang), Bukit Chuping (Perlis), Gua Debu and Guar Kepah (Kedah),Jenderam Hilir (Selangor), Gua Madai, Gua Gomantong and GuaTengkorak (Sabah) and Gua Niah (Sarawak).Tools · Technology was still based on stones and pebbles however, the design of theequipments were more advanced.· Stone mortar, spears, axes etc. Pottery-based equipments were found at theend of the Mesolithic period.Activities · Fishing, animal hunting and also collecting sea, river and forest’s foodresources.Table 1.2Rajah 1.4: Antara petempatan orang Mesolitik / Diagram 1.4: Settlements of Mesolithic people
  • 8. © Copyright Reserved 2003 8CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.1.3 Zaman Neolitik· Perubahan corak hidup manusia ini menjadikan kehidupan mereka lebih teratur. Sejarawanmenamakan zaman ini sebagai Neolitik.Tempoh · 5000 hingga 2500 tahun S.M.Petempatan · Gua Cha dan Gua Musang (Kelantan), Gua Kechil (Pahang), Guar Kepah(Kedah), Jenderam Hilir (Selangor), Gua Madai dan Gua Gomantong(Sabah), Gua Tengkorak dan Gua Niah (Sarawak).Alatan · Alatan batu yang telah dimodenkan seperti gelang tangan batu, lesung danpenumbuk batu.· Sudah pandai mencipta alat tembikar seperti periuk, belanga, pinggan,mangkuk berkaki kaki periuk dan bekas air dihiasi dengan ukiran tertentuyang menunjukkan kemajuan hidup manusia ketika itu.· Terdapat alatan dari tulang dan cengkerang seperti perhiasan leher.Aktiviti · Sudah berinteraksi sesama sendiri melalui jalan air dan jalan darat.· Masih lagi menjalankan kegiatan menangkap ikan, memungut hasil hutandan berburu binatang.· Pertanian tanaman jenis bijirin (padi dan jagung).· Perahu lebih baik dibina menggiatkan aktiviti perdagangan.Jadual 1.31.1.3 Neolithic Period· The change in the inhabitants’ lifestyle had made their life more organised. Historians referto this period as the Neolithic period.Duration · 5000 to 2500 B.C.Location · Gua Cha dan Gua Musang (Kelantan), Gua Kechil (Pahang), Guar Kepah(Kedah), Jenderam Hilir (Selangor), Gua Madai dan Gua Gomantong(Sabah), Gua Tengkorak dan Gua Niah (Sarawak).Tools · Modified stone tools like stone bangle as well as mortar.· People of this period already had the knowledge to invent pottery-basedmaterials such as “pots, pans and water containers. They are also said tobe having interactions with others through land and water access.· There are tools from bones and seashells like neck ornaments.Activities · Still depended on activities such as fish catching, animal hunting and alsocollecting sea, river and forest’s food resources.· Traditional boat is made to encourage trade activities.Table 1.3
  • 9. © Copyright Reserved 2003 9CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.5: Alatan batu Zaman NeolitikDiagram 1.5: Tool equipment in the Neolithic EraRajah 1.6: Antara petempatan orang NeolitikDiagram 1.6: Settlements of Neolithic people
  • 10. © Copyright Reserved 2003 10CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.1.4 Zaman Besi· Apabila manusia mengenali logam, mereka mula mencipta peralatan yang diperbuatdaripada logam. Zaman ini dinamakan Zaman Logam. Zaman ini juga dikenali sebagaiZaman Gangsa Besi.· Penduduk semakin ramai pada zaman Logam ini dan kehidupan mereka lebih teratur dantinggal tetap di satu tempat serta mempunyai adat resam yang tersusun.1.1.4 Iron Age· When humans were exposed to copper, they started to invent equipments that are madefrom it. This period is known as the Copper age or Copper-Steel Age.· The number of people increased and they have a better and more organised lifestyle andthey also have their own form of culture.Rajah 1.7: Alatan besi Zaman LogamDiagram 1.7: Steel equipment in the Iron EraRajah 1.8: Antara petempatan orang Zaman LogamDiagram 1.8: Settlements of Iron Period people
  • 11. © Copyright Reserved 2003 11CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESTempoh · Sejak 2500 tahun S.M.Petempatan · Sungai Lang, Kelang dan Sungai Langat (Selangor), Kampung Pencu danSungai Muar (Johor), Gua Harimau (Perak), Sungai Tembeling (Pahang),Batu Buruk dan Sungai Terengganu (Terengganu), Tempasuk (Sabah)Alatan · Alat-alat gangsa yang ditemui seperti gendang gangsa, loceng gangsa danmangkuk gangsa.· Alat-alat yang diperbuat daripada besi seperti manik besi, kepala panah besidan pisau.Aktiviti · Masih lagi menjalankan kegiatan menangkap ikan, memungut hasil hutandan berburu binatang.· Petempatan zaman ini mulai berkembang menjadi kerajaan awal di negarakita seperti Gangga Negara di Perak, Langkasuka berhampiran Patani, TanTan di Terengganu, Chih-Tu di Kelantan dan Kedah Tua di Kedah.· Mula menjalankan kegiatan perdagangan antara kawasan dan kemudianmencapai taraf entreport yang menjadi pembuka tirai pada zaman-zamanyang lebih agung dengan terdirinya kerajaan-kerajaan baru.Jadual 1.4Duration · Around 2500 B.C.Location · Sungai Lang, Kelang dan Sungai Langat (Selangor), Kampung Pencu danSungai Muar (Johor), Gua Harimau (Perak), Sungai Tembeling (Pahang),Batu Buruk dan Sungai Terengganu (Terengganu), Tempasuk (Sabah)Tools · Equipments are made from copper such as copper drums, bells and bowls.· Equipments made from steel are things such as steel knives, arrowheadsand beads.Activities · Still depended on activities such as fish catching, animal hunting and alsocollecting sea, river and forest’s food resources.· The settlements began to progress into early governments in our countrysuch as “Gangga Negara in Perak, Langkasuka near Pattani, Tan Tan inTerengganu, Chih-Tu in Kelantan and Kedah Tua in Kedah.· Started trading activities between places and some of the settlements in thisCopper age expanded into ports and then achieved “entreport” statusTable 1.4
  • 12. © Copyright Reserved 2003 12CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.2 Kesultanan Melayu Melaka· Terdapat beberapa kerajaan di Tanah Melayu sebelum kemunculan Kerajaan Melayu Melaka.Kekurangan rekod dan bukti menyebabkan kajian yang mendalam tidak dapat dilakukan.· Maka, Kerajaan Melayu Melaka sering dilihat sebagai permulaan sejarah Malaysia.1.2.1 Kedatangan Parameswara Ke Melaka· Pernahkah kamu melawat bandaraya bersejarah Melaka? Melaka adalah asas pembinaanbangsa dan negara Malaysia. Bagaimanakah negeri Melaka diasaskan? Siapakah pemerintahyang berjaya menjadikan Melaka sebuah pelabuhan perdagangan yang terpenting di SelatMelaka selepas Srivijaya dan Majapahit?· Pengasasan Melaka dikaitkan dengan seorang tokoh yang bernama Parameswara. IaituPutera Raja dari Palembang yang memerintah Srivijaya.· Siapakah Parameswara dan apakah kaitan beliau dengan negeri Melaka?· Palembang adalah sebuah kerajaan yang terletak di sebelah timur Sumatera. Palembangpernah menjadi pusat kerajaan Srivijaya suatu ketika dahulu. Kerajaan ini juga menjadi negeridibawah kekuasaan Majapahit.· Kerajaan Majapahit mula berpecah setelah pentadbirannya kucar-kacir. Ini merupakanpeluang baik bagi Parameswara untuk membebaskan Palembang. Malangnya, Parameswaragagal dalam usahanya dan terpaksa meninggalkan Palembang kerana Majapahit sangatmarah atas tindakan berani Parameswara itu.1.2 Malacca Sultanate· There were several governments before the existence of Malacca Sultanate Government. Lackof records and proofs made it hard to be analysed in detail.· Thus, history of Malaysia always begins with the Malacca Sultanate Government.1.2.1 The Arrival Of Parameswara To Malacca· Have you ever visited Malacca, the historical city? Malacca is the foundation of the existenceof Malaysia and the Malaysian race. How did Malacca exist? Who was the ruler thatmanaged to make Malacca became the most important trade centre in the Straits of Malaccaafter Srivijaya and Majapahit?· The foundation of Malacca is associated with an individual named Parameswara, who was aprince from Palembang the capital city of Srivijaya.· Who was Parameswara and what were his relations with Malacca?· Palembang was a state that was located in the east of Sumatera. Palembang was once theadministrative centre for Srivijaya. It had also once been under the reign of Majapahit.· The Majapahit government started to fall apart due to its disarrayed management. This was agreat opportunity for Parameswara to liberate Palembang. However, Parameswara failed inhis attempt to do so and had to flee Palembang for Majapahit was very enraged by hisattempt and was preparing for an attack.
  • 13. © Copyright Reserved 2003 13CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.9: Empayar MajapahitDiagram 1.9: The Majapahit Empire
  • 14. © Copyright Reserved 2003 14CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Parameswara bersama dengan pembesar dan Orang Laut yang taat setia padanya terpaksamenyelamatkan diri dari buruan orang-orang Majapahit.· Pada kira-kira tahun 1390, mereka tiba di sebuah pulau yang aman dan tenang. Kedatanganmereka disambut baik oleh pemerintah pulau itu. Mereka berasa selamat di situ. Pulau itubernama Pulau Temasik.· Malangnya, Temasik juga seperti Palembang. Ini kerana Temasik merupakan sebuahpetempatan yang baik dan boleh berkembang maju sebagai sebuah kerajaan tetapi iadiperintah oleh Temagi, wakil kerajaan Siam.· Setelah berada di bumi permai itu, Parameswara amat menyukai Pulau Temasik. Beliauberhasrat untuk memilikinya. Parameswara telah berbalah dengan Temagi dan akhirnyaTemagi telah terbunuh.· Kini Temasik berada di dalam genggaman Parameswara.· Kira-kira tahun 1395, kerajaan Siam telah membuat serangan ke atas Temasik. Ini telahmemaksa Parameswara melarikan diri sekali lagi. Akhirnya mereka tiba di sebuah tempatbernama Muar.· Parameswara masih belum rasa selamat lagi untuk membentuk kerajaannya yang baru.· Sekitar tahun 1399/1400, Parameswara dan pengikutnya bergerak lagi ke utara, melaluiSening Hujung dan Bertam. Mereka sampai ke sebatang sungai yang jernih dan keadaansekitarnya sungguh tenang.· Parameswara, together with his ministers and his loyal “Sea People” fled Palembang inorder to escape from Majapahit soldiers.· The year was around 1390, they reached a peaceful island. The ruler of the island gave theroyal welcome. They felt safe there. The name of the island was Temasik.· However, Temasik was similar to Palembang. This is because Temasik was an excellentsettlement and had the potential of becoming a big and strong government, but unfortunately,Temagi, a representative from Siamese government, presided over the island.· After some time on the island, Parameswara fell in love with the island. He desired to ownTemasik. He launched an attack on Temagi, which in the end resulted in the death of theSiamese representative.· Now Temasik was in the hands of Parameswara.· In 1935, the Siamese government attacked Temasik. This had forced Parameswara to onceagain flee. Finally Parameswara and his troop arrived at a place named Muar.· Parameswara still did not feel secure to build his new government.· Around the year 1399/1400, Parameswara and his followers headed north through SeningHujung and Bertam. They arrived at a river in which the water was very clear and theenvironment was so peaceful.
  • 15. © Copyright Reserved 2003 15CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Dari pantai pantai dan muara sungai, kelihatan kapal berulang alik dan dilindungi denganbukit-bukau sebagai benteng pertahanan yang amat sesuai untuk didirikan sebuah kota.· Muaranya terlindung daripada tiupan angin dan ini membolehkan kapal berlabuh denganselamat.· Penduduknya bekerja sebagai nelayan. Pengikut Parameswara mencadangkan supayamereka menetap di situ. Tempat itu memang berpotensi untuk maju. Parameswaramenamakan tempat itu sebagai Melaka sempena nama sepohon kayu yang hidup subur ditebing muara sebatang sungai.· Parameswara berazam untuk memajukan Melaka daripada sebuah perkampungan nelayanmenjadi sebuah petempatan yang maju dan terkenal. Wawasan beliau itu telah menjadikenyataan.· From the coastal areas and rivers, ships could be seen going back and forth the area. Therewere hills that could be used as fortress and this was an excellent condition to construct acity.· The river mouth was secluded from wind flow and this enabled ships to anchor safely.· The citizens were fishermen. Parameswara’s followers suggested that they settle there sinceit had a high potential to develop. Parameswara named that place “Malacca” incommemoration of a tree that lived in fertile soil at the river mouth· Parameswara was determined to improve Malacca from a fisherman village to an infamousand advanced settlement. His ambition had become reality.Rajah 1.10: Perjalanan Parameswara dari Palembang ke Temasik dan ke Muar.Diagram 1.10: Parameswara’s journey from Palembang to Temasik and then to Muar.
  • 16. © Copyright Reserved 2003 16CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.2.2 PERKEMBANGAN POLITIK MELAKA· Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, Melaka berkembang sebagai sebuah empayar besar dikawasan Kepulauan Melayu. Empayar Melaka terkenal sebagai pusat perdagangan utama,pusat perkembangan agama Islam, mempunyai tanah jajahan yang luas, dan mempunyaihubungan dengan kuasa-kuasa besar ketika itu seperti negeri China dan India.· Kemakmuran Kerajaan Melayu Melaka dapat dilihat dari beberapa segi antaranya Melakasebagai pusat perdagangan dan pusat penyebaran agama Islam.1.2.2 THE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MELACCA· In years to come, Malacca had progressed into a big empire in the Malay Isles. The empirewas famous as the prime centre for trade, an Islamic advancement centre, having capaciousterritories and having close relationships with powerful empires such as China and India.· The prosperity of Malacca is obvious by view of several aspects, one of them being, Malaccaas a trade centre and the dissemination centre for Islam.Rajah 1.11Diagram 1.11
  • 17. © Copyright Reserved 2003 17CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Kerajaan Melayu Melaka merupakan sebuah empayar yang mempunyai tamadun yang tinggi.Dalam sistem pemerintahan negeri, raja adalah ketua negara serta ketua agama Islam danketua tentera.· Raja akan dibantu oleh pembesar-pembesar iaitu Bendahara, Laksamana, Temenggung,Penghulu Bendahari dan Syahbandar.· Sistem pemerintahannya berlandaskan pada dua undang-undang utama iaitu Undang-undangMelaka dan Undang-undang Laut Melaka.· The Malacca Sultanate cultivated impressive quality standard of civilization. In the stateadministrative system, the king was the leader of the empire and also the leader of the Islamicreligion and the army.· The ministers, who are known as Principal Minister (Bendahara), Leader of Fleets(Laksamana), Trade and Security Official (Temenggung), Chief Treasurer (PenghuluBendahari) and Harbour Masters (Syahbandar), assist the king in the administrative system.· The administrative system is based on two main laws, which are the Malacca Laws and theMalacca Sea/Marine Laws.Rajah 1.12 / Diagram 1.12SISTEM PEMERINTAHAN KERAJAAN MELAKA / THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM OFMALACCAParameswara (1400-1414)Sultan Megat Iskandar Syah (1414-1424)Sultan Muhamad Syah (1424-1444)Sultan Abu Syahid (1444-1445)Sultan Muzaffar Syah (1445-1456)Sultan Mansur Syah (1456-1477)Sultan Alaudin Riayat Syah (1477-1488)Sultan Mahmud Syah (1488-1510) & (1513-1528)Sultan Ahmad Syah (1510-1513)
  • 18. © Copyright Reserved 2003 18CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESPENTADBIRAN TERSUSUN DAN TERATURORGANISED AND STRUCTURED ADMINISTRATIONThe Sultan of MalaccaLeader of the countryHead of religionLeader of lawsBendaharaThe Advisor of The KingPrincipal MinisterDeputy of The KingChief Treasurer Trade & Security Official Leader of FleetsSULTAN MELAKAKetua NegaraKetua AgamaKetua HakimBENDAHARAPenasihat Kepada RajaMenteri UtamaPemangku RajaPenghulu Bendahari Temenggung Laksamana
  • 19. © Copyright Reserved 2003 19CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESJAWATAN TUGASANBendahara · Menteri utama yang menyamai Perdana Menteri sekarang.· Penasihat kanan Raja.· Mesti berketurunan Raja dan talian rapat dengan Raja.· Boleh bertindak sebagai Ketua Hakim sekiranya ketiadaan Raja.· Pemilih atau pelantik Raja.Penghulu Bendahari · Bendahari kerajaan yang mengawal perbendaharaan.· Memungut cukai dan hasil negeri.· Menyimpan daftar hamba Raja.Temenggung · Pelaksana atau ketua undang-undang, peraturan negeri dankeselamatan.· Sama taraf dengan Ketua Polis Negara.· Ketua protokol dalam adat-istiadat.Laksamana · Pahlawan dalam peperangan terutama di laut.· Bertanggungjawab memegang pegang kerajaan dalam upacara rasmi.· Tokoh pertama ialah Hang Tuah semasa pemerintahan Sultan MansurSyah.Jadual 1.5POSITION TASKSBendahara · Head of minister, which equals to the current Prime Minister.· King First Advisor.· Must have Royal blood and strong relation with the king.· Can act as Chief of Judge during the unavailability of the King.· King appointerChief Treasurer(PenghuluBendahari)· National treasurer who control financial management.· Collecting tax and national resources.· Keeping King slaves documentation.Trade & SecurityOfficial(Temenggung)· Execution or Chief of Law, national rules and securities.· Equals to the National Police Officer.· Chief of Protocol in adat-istiadat.Leader of Fleets(Laksamana)· Warrior in the battle especially in the sea.· Responsible to handle the government in the official occasion.· Major example is Hang Tuah during the ruling of Sultan Mansur Syah.Table 1.5
  • 20. © Copyright Reserved 2003 20CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.2.3 FAKTOR-FAKTOR MEMPENGARUHI PERKEMBANGAN MELAKA· Hubungan dengan negeri China telah memberi kesan positif kepada perkembangan Melakadari segi ekonomi dan politik.· Dari segi politik, Melaka mendapat perlindungan daripada Negeri China, dan dengan demikianterkenal daripada ancaman kerajaan Siam.· Kemakmuran dan keagungan Kerajaan Melayu Melaka juga disokong oleh pentadbiran yangcekap, sehingga dapat mewujudkan keadaan aman dan terkawal.· Adanya menteri yang menjaga hal ehwal pengurusan perdagangan dan pelabuhan (iaituSyahbandar); dan sistem ketenteraan yang kuat menjamin pentadbiran yang teratur.· Di samping itu, penggunaan sistem mata wang dalam urusan perdagangan dapat melicinkanlagi urusan dan perkembangan perdagangan.· Kerajaan Melayu Melaka mempunyai dasar perluasan kuasa ke negeri-negeri lain dengan inisecara langsung dapat membantu memperluaskan perdagangan dan menghapuskan kegiatanlanun.· Kedudukan Melaka sebagai sebuah pusat perdagangan dan penyebaran agama Islam amatstrategik kerana Melaka berada di tengah-tengah jalan perdagangan antara Timur dan Barat.1.2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING MALACCA PROSPERITY· The relations with China had brought positive effects to Malacca in terms of politics andeconomy.· In terms of politics, Malacca had the protection from China as it was officially acknowledgedby the empire and thus saved from the Siamese threat and attacks.· Efficient administration systems had brought peace and prosperity to Malacca.· The Harbour Masters (Syahbandar) were responsible for the trades accommodations, safety,storage of trades’ goods and port management while the powerful military system ensured anorganised administration.· Besides that, the use of a currency system in trade enhanced the trade development.· The Malacca Sultanate observed the policy of expanding its authority to other states, thus thishelped to improve trade and eliminate the pirate attacks.· Malacca roles as trading centre and Islamic teaching centre was very strategic since Malaccais located in the middle of the trading route between the East and the West.Rajah 1.13: Empayar Melaka / Diagram 1.13: The Empire of Malacca
  • 21. © Copyright Reserved 2003 21CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.14Diagram 1.14Perkembangan MelakaMalacca ProsperityPengurusan Pelabuhan &perdaganganTrade & Harbour Management Perluasan KuasaPower Expendation PolicyPentadiran CekapWell-Organised AdministrationPenggunaan Mata WangUse of CoinsHubungan LuarExternal Relation
  • 22. © Copyright Reserved 2003 22CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.2.4 Keruntuhan Empayar Melaka1.2.4.1 FAKTOR DALAMAN· Setelah kematian Bendahara Tun Perak, kerajaan Melayu Melaka tidak mempunyai pemimpinyang cekap. Penggantinya, Bendahara Tun Mutahir merupakan seorang pentadbir yanglemah. Akibatnya sering berlaku perebutan kuasa.· Di samping itu, pemerintah pada ketika itu iaitu Sultan Mahmud juga merupakan pemimpinyang lemah. Beliau dikatakan sebagai seorang sultan yang kurang mengambil berat tentangpentadbiran.· Amalan rasuah berleluasa begitu juga dengan perbuatan fitnah-memfitnah.· Cukai yang tinggi menyebabkan pedagang-pedagang mengalihkan perhatian ke pelabuhanlain. Keadaan ini telah menyebabkan rakyat berpecah belah dan tidak bersatu padu.· Ini telah digambarkan dengan pembunuhan Bendahara Tun Mutahir dan Tun Ali atas arahanSultan Mahmud kerana fitnah daripada seorang peranakan India, iaitu Kitu dan RajaMandaliar.· Keadaan lebih kritikal apabila Portugis yang diketuai oleh Alfonso d’Albuquerque menyerangMelaka dan akhirnya jatuh ke tangan Portugis pada tahun 1511.1.2.4 The Decline Of The Malacca Sultanate1.2.4.1 Internal Factors· After the death of Tun Perak (Principal Minister), the Malacca Sultanate’s government didnot have an efficient leader anymore. He was replace by Tun Mutahir who was a weak leader.As a result, disputes always occurred.· Besides that, the current sultan of that time, Sultan Mahmud was also a weak leader. He wasdescribed as a person who was not interested in administrative work.· Slander and bribery was uncontrollable.· The huge amount of taxes had made traders to divert to other ports. This situation had causedchaos amongst the residents.· The unstable situation (slandering) resulted in the murder of Tun Mutahir and Tun Ali underthe command of Sultan Mahmud. Sultan Mahmud was influenced by the slander heaped byKitu, who was an Indian-born and Raja Mandaliar.· The situation got more critical when Portugal, which was lead by Alfonso d’Albuquerque,attacked Malacca. Malacca finally fell into the clutches of the Portuguese.
  • 23. © Copyright Reserved 2003 23CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.15Diagram 1.15Senjata kurangmoden / Oldfashion weaponsAmalan rasuah /Slander & BriberyFitnah orang luar/Slander byoutsidersKelemahanSultan / TheSultan’s weaknessPerbalahan pembesar /Disagreement amongst thegovernment officers
  • 24. © Copyright Reserved 2003 24CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.2.4.2 Faktor Luaran· Penemuan Tanjung Harapan di selatan Afrika oleh Bartholomeo Diaz pada tahun 1488, yangtelah memudahkan lagi pelayaran orang Barat ke timur. Ini memudahkan lagi usaha Portugisuntuk menakluki Melaka.· Pada waktu yang sama, akibat daripada keadaan dalaman negeri Melaka yang kucar-kacirdan pengenaan cukai yang tinggi, maka menyebabkan pedagang-pedagang mengalihkantumpuan perdagangan ke pelabuhan-pelabuhan lain.1.2.4.2 External Factors· The discovery of Cape of Hope (Tanjung Harapan) in the south of Africa by BartholomewDiaz in the year 1488 had provided easier access for the western traders to go to the east.This eased the efforts of the Portuguese to conquer Malacca.· At the same time, foreign traders had diverted to other ports besides Malacca due toMalacca’s internal problems and high amount of taxes charged on traders.Rajah 1.16Diagram 1.16
  • 25. © Copyright Reserved 2003 25CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3 Zaman Penjajahan Kuasa Barat1.3.1 Zaman Penjajahan Portugis1.3.1.1 Mengapa Portugis Datang Ke Timur:· Orang Portugis adalah bangsa Eropah yang pertama datang ke Timur dan tiba ke Melaka.· Tujuan kedatangan mereka adalah berkaitan dengan perdagangan rempah. Permintaanrempah sangat tinggi di Eropah. Rempah digunakan untuk mengawet makanan danmenambah kelazatannya.· Orang Portugis datang ke Timur kerana mahu mendapatkan rempah terus dari tempatpengeluarannya, iaitu di Kepulauan Melayu.· Ketika itu perdagangan rempah dimonopoli oleh saudagar Islam.· Orang Portugis juga ingin memecahkan monopoli perdagangan rempah yang pada ketika itudikuasai oleh saudagar Islam.· Tambahan pula, orang Portugis telah lama memusuhi orang Islam sejak mereka kalah dalamPerang Salib pada kurun ke-12.· Mereka ingin meneruskan peperangan dan menghancurkan kerajaan Islam di Timur sertamenyebarkan ajaran Kristian.· Di samping itu, Raja Portugal menggalakkan rakyatnya melakukan pengembaraan ke seluruhdunia. Baginda telah menghantar rombongan mencari jalan laut ke Timur.· Pada tahun 1498, Vasco da Gama telah sampai ke India. Ini diikuti dengan kedatanganrombongan Lopez de Sequeira ke Melaka pada tahun 1509.· Pada tahun berikutnya, orang Portugis berjaya menakluki Goa dan menjadikannya pusatoperasi mereka di Timur.1.3 Western Colonisation Eras1.3.1 Portuguese Colonisation Era1.3.1.1 Reasons The Portuguese Came To The East:· The Portuguese were the first European people to arrive in the east and also in Malacca.· Their intention of coming to the east was related to the spice trades. The demand for spiceswas very high in Europe. Spices were used to conserve food and enhance its taste.· The Portuguese came to the east to obtain direct access to spice produces, which was in theMalay Isles.· During that time, Muslim traders monopolized the spice business, and the Portuguese aimedto break the monopoly.· Moreover, the Portuguese had long resented the Muslims since they were defeated by theMuslims in the Cross War in the 12thcentury.· They wanted to revive the war, eliminate Muslim governments in the east and spreadChristianity.· Besides that, the king of Portugal also encouraged his people to travel around the world. Hehad sent an entourage to explore sea routes to the east.· In 1498, Vasco de Gama arrived in India. This was followed by the arrival of Lopez deSequeira’s entourage in Malacca in 1509.· A year after that, the Portuguese had conquered Goa and made it their centre of operation.
  • 26. © Copyright Reserved 2003 26CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.17Diagram 1.17Rajah 1.18: Perjalanan dari Portugal ke MelakaDiagram 1.18: Journey from Portugal to MalaccaSebab kedatanganPortugisThe intentions ofPortugeseMemonopoli perdaganganrempah /Monopolise spice business.Kedatangan Vasco da Gamadan Lopez de Sequeira /The arrival of Vasco daGama and Lopez deSequeiraMenyebarkan agama Kristian/To spread their religion,ChristianGalakkan dari Raja Portugal /Encouragement from thePortugal King
  • 27. © Copyright Reserved 2003 27CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.1.2 Portugis Di Melaka· Melaka masih menjadi pusat perdagangan dan penyebaran Islam yang terkenal ketikaangkatan laut Portugis di bawah pimpinan Lopez de Sequiera tiba di Melaka. Angkatan laut initelah diarahkan oleh Raja Manuel untuk mendapatkan pangkalan Portugis di Melaka.· Pada mulanya rombongan Portugis itu disambut baik oleh Sultan Mahmud dan dibenarkanberniaga. Tetapi keadaan ini kemudiannya berubah.· Saudagar Islam dari India telah menasihatkan Bendahara Tun Mutahir, pembesar Melakaketika itu supaya berhati-hati dengan orang Portugis yang dianggap musuh orang Islam.· Bendahara telah memujuk Sultan Mahmud supaya bertindak ke atas orang Portugis. Bagindaakhirnya memerintahkan orang Portugis ditangkap dan ditahan termasuk seorang pegawaikanan rombongan, iaitu Ruy de Araujo.1.3.1.2 The Portuguese In Malacca· Malacca was still a trade centre and a centre Islamic expansion when the Portuguese navytroop, which was lead by Lopez de Sequiera, arrived. The troop instructed by King Manuel toobtain a base in Malacca.· Initially, Sultan Mahmud welcomed the troop warmly. They were even allowed to conductbusiness there. However, this situation did not last for long.· Muslim traders from India advised Tun Mutahir, who was the current principal minister, tobe aware of the Portuguese who were considered as enemies of the Muslims.· Tun Mutahir had persuaded Sultan Mahmud to act against the Portuguese. Sultan Mahmudthen ordered the Portuguese to be arrested. This included the troops’ Supreme Commander,Ruy de Araujo.Rajah 1.19: Lopez de SqueiraRajah 1.19: Lopez de Squeira
  • 28. © Copyright Reserved 2003 28CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Bagaimanapun, beberapa orang daripada rombongan itu telah terbunuh dan ada yang dapatmelarikan diri ke Goa termasuk ketuanya Lopez de Sequeira.· Peristiwa tersebut telah memberi peluang kepada Portugis untuk menyerang Melaka.Sungguhpun Melaka aman dan makmur, beberapa pergolakan di istana menyebabkankelemahan pentadbirannya. Ikuti peristiwa yang berlaku di istana Melaka.· Apabila berita penahanan rombongan Portugis di Melaka sampai ke Goa dan Lisbon, WizuraiPortugis di Goa, Alfonso d’Albuquerque telah menyiapkan angkatan perang untuk menyerangMelaka.· However, some of the troops were killed while some managed to escape to Goa. One of themwas Lopez de Sequeira.· This event had opened the doors for Portuguese to attack Malacca. Furthermore, even thoughMalacca was a peaceful state, internal conflicts had weakened its administration.· When the news of the imprisonment of the Portuguese soldiers reached Goa and Lisbon,Alfonso d’Albuquerque, who was Portugal’s Viceroy in Goa, prepared a battalion to attackMalacca.Rajah 1.20: Alfonso de AlburquequeDiagram 1.20: Alfonso de Alburqueque
  • 29. © Copyright Reserved 2003 29CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Raja Portugal juga telah menghantar sepasukan tentera laut di bawah pimpinan DiegoMendez untuk tujuan yang sama. Angkatan tentera ini telah bergabung dengan angkatantentera Alfonso. Dan menjadi sebuah angkatan perang yang besar.· Portugis telah menyerang Melaka pada tahun 1509 dan 1511 dan dalam tempoh ini Melakatidak mempunyai kubu yang kuat di samping sukar menandingi alat-alat senjata Portugis yanglebih canggih dan moden.· The king of Portugal had also sent a navy battalion, under the command of Diego Mendez, forthe same reason. With the two battalions combined, Portugal now had a very strong battalionto attack Malacca.· Portugal had attacked Malacca in 1509 and 1511 and within these periods, Malacca did nothave a strong fortress and at the same time was unable to compete with Portugal’s advancedweaponry.Rajah 1.21Diagram 1.21
  • 30. © Copyright Reserved 2003 30CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Secara keseluruhan, Portugis telah menduduki Melaka selama 130 tahun iaitu dari 1511hingga 1641. Wizurai yang bertanggungjawab menyusun sistem pentadbiran Portugis diMelaka adalah Alfonso d’Albuquerque.· Portugis mengamalkan sistem pentadbiran berbentuk ketenteraan. Ketuanya digelar KaptenKota Melaka yang dilantik oleh Raja Portugal untuk bertugas selama tiga hingga empat tahun.Beliau dipilih dari kalangan golongan Fidalgo iaitu golongan bangsawan Portugal.· Seorang Kapten Angkatan Laut dilantik sekaligus sebagai timbalan kepada Kapten Kota.Golongan tentera diketuai oleh Kapten Jeneral dan dibantu oleh golongan Feitor.· Kapten Kota dan timbalannya akan dibantu oleh Majlis Penasihat. Majlis Penasihat terdiridaripada tiga badan utama iaitu; Hal Ehwal Militer, Majlis Pentadbiran Sivil dan Kewangan,Pentadbiran Orang Tempatan.· In general, Portugal had ruled Malacca for about 130 years (1511-1641). The official whowas responsible to structure the administration system in Malacca was Alfonsod’Albuquerque who was appointed as the Viceroy.· Portugal practised a military administration system. The leader was called the Captain of theMalacca Fort who was appointed by the King of Portugal. The Captain must serve for aperiod of three to four years. The captain was selected from the Fidalgo community, whichwas Portugal’s aristocratic community.· A Marine Captain was appointed and he was also the Deputy for the Captain. Soldiers werelead by the Captain General and assisted by the Feitor group.· The Advisory Council assisted the Captain and his Deputy. The Advisory Council consisted ofthree main bodies, which are: Military Affairs, Civil and Financial Administration Council,and Locals’ Administration Council.Sistem Pentadbiran Portugis / Portuguese Administration SystemRaja Portugal / TheKing Of PortugalWizurai Di Goa /Viceroy In GoaKapten Kota Melaka / CaptainOf The Malacca FortHal EhwalMiliter /Military AffairsMajlis pentadbiranSivil Dan Kewangan/ Civil & FinancialAdministration CouncilPentadbiran OrangTempatan / Locals’Administration Council
  • 31. © Copyright Reserved 2003 31CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.1.3 Kesan Pendudukan Portugis Di Melaka· Portugis telah menjajah Melaka dari tahun 1511 hingga tahun 1641 selama lebih kurang 130tahun.· Banyak kesan peninggalan Portugis yang dapat dilihat hingga ke hari ini, antara kesannya:o Lahir masyarakat Serani beragama Kristian di Melaka hasil perkahwinan orang Portugisdengan penduduk tempatan.o Wujud beberapa perkataan yang berasal daripada bahasa Portugis yang digunakandalam bahasa Malaysia seperti almari, tuala dan garpu.o Tarian dan nyanyian masyarakat Portugis di Melaka menjadi warisan kesenian negara.o Sebahagian daripada binaan tinggalan Portugis seperti A Famosa dan gereja St. Paul.1.3.1.3 The Effects Of Portuguese Colonization In Malacca· The Portuguese had ruled Malacca from the year 1511-1641 (130 years).· To this day, there are still a lot of its effects that can be seen such as:o A Eurasian community that practised Christianity was born in Malacca as the result ofthe inter-marriages between the locals and the Portuguese people.o Portuguese words such as almari, tuala, and garfu are used in Malay language (wordborrowing).o The dance and songs of the Portuguese community have become a national culturalheritage.o Some of the buildings that were built by the Portuguese have become tourist attractions:A Formosa and the Church of St. PaulRajah 1.22Diagram 1.22
  • 32. © Copyright Reserved 2003 32CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.2 Zaman Penjajahan Belanda· Era penjajahan Portugis berakhir setelah 130 tahun bertapak di Melaka, dan bermula pula erapenjajahan Belanda ke atas Melaka.· Ekspedisi Belanda yang terawal tiba di Kepulauan Melayu adalah pada tahun 1559.Pedagang-pedagang Belanda berminat untuk berdagang di Kepulauan Melayu terutamanyauntuk mendapatkan bahan-bahan rempah, pala dan cengkih.· Ini telah mendorong pedagang-pedagang Belanda ini bergabung membentuk “SyarikatBersatu Hindia Timur” pada 20 Mac 1602 yang digelar V.O.C (Vereenidge Oost - IndischeCompagnie).· Tujuan utama penubuhan V.O.C ialah untuk menguasai perdagangan rempah di KepulauanMelayu dan memonopoli perdagangan bijih timah di sini.· Mereka juga ingin menyingkir Portugis yang sedang bergiat dalam perdagangan di rantauMelayu. Pada tahun 1619, Belanda telah berjaya menguasai Betawi di Pulau Jawa. Betawitelah dijadikan pelabuhan perdagangan alternatif kepada pedagang-pedagang dunia selainMelaka.· Untuk memastikan penguasaan Portugis di Asia Tenggara lenyap sama sekali, Belanda telahbeberapa kali melancarkan serangan ke atas Melaka. Akhirnya, Belanda berjaya menewaskanPortugis dengan bantuan Kerajaan Johor iaitu kerajaan warisan dari Kesultanan MelayuMelaka pada tahun 1641.· Kerajaan Johor pada ketika itu di bawah pemerintahan Sultan Abdul Jalil, pengganti SultanHammat Shah.1.3.2 Dutch Colonisation Era· The era of Portuguese colonization ended after 130 years in Malacca with the beginningsof the Dutch colonization period.· The first Dutch expedition to reach the Malay Isles was in the year 1559. The Dutch traderswere interested to conduct business in the Malay Isles especially in order to obtain goodssuch as spices, nutmegs and cloves.· This had encouraged the Dutch traders to form “Dutch East Hindia Company” in March20, 1602, which was known as V.O.C (Vereenidge Oost- Indische Compagnie).· The main purpose of the formation of V.O.C was to monopolize the tin and spice trades.· They also aimed to get rid of the Portuguese who were also involved in the spice tradeindustry.· In 1619, the Dutch successfully conquered Betavia (Betawi) in Jawa. Betavia had becomean alternative port that competed with Malacca.· To ensure total annihilation of Portuguese in South East Asia, the Dutch had several timesattacked Malacca. Finally, the Dutch managed to defeat the Portuguese with the aid of theJohor Government, which was the hereditary government of the Malacca Sultanate in 1641.· The Johor government at that time was under the rule of Sultan Abdul Jalil, who was theheir of Sultan Ahmad Shah.
  • 33. © Copyright Reserved 2003 33CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Belanda cuba meluaskan pengaruhnya dalam perdagangan di negara ini dengan melampauisempadan Melaka. Pada tahun 1650, Belanda cuba menegakkan monopoli perdagangantimah dengan Perak dengan mengadakan satu perjanjian dengan kerajaan tersebut. Walaubagaimanapun, penduduk tempatan mula menyedari sikap Belanda itu.· Persaingan perdagangan antara Johor dan Belanda sejak persahabatan mereka terjalinselepas kejatuhan Portugis di Melaka nampaknya menjadi seolah-olah “retak menanti belah”.Belanda tidak senang dengan persaingan itu kerana menjejaskan matlamat monopoli mereka.· Keadaan ini akhirnya mencetuskan pertikaian yang melibatkan tindakan ketenteraan olehpihak Belanda ke atas Johor pada akhir abad ke-18.· The Dutch attempted to spread its influence in this country by going beyond the Malaccaboundaries. In 1650, it tried to monopolize the tin trades in Perak by setting up anagreement with the Perak government. However, the locals realized the intention of theDutch.· The competition in the trade industry between Johor and the Dutch had made theirdiplomatic relations sour. The Dutch felt uneasy with the competition from Johor for itinterfered with the aspirations of the Dutch to monopolize the economy.· This situation finally resulted in violence when the Dutch took military action against Johorin the end of the 18thcentury.Rajah 1.23: Bangunan yang menjadi simbol penjajahan BelandaDiagram 1.23: Buildings that symbolise Dutch colonisation
  • 34. © Copyright Reserved 2003 34CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3 Zaman Penjajahan British1.3.3.1 Campur Tangan British· Campur tangan British paling ketara di negeri-negeri Melayu adalah akibat termeterainyaPerjanjian Pangkor pada tahun 1874, namun penglibatan Inggeris dalam kerajaan Melayutelah berlaku lebih awal lagi.· Pada 11 Ogos 1786, Francis Light telah berjaya mengambil Pulau Pinang melalui tipumuslihat dari tangan Kedah iaitu Sultan Abdullah. Memandangkan kedudukan Pulau Pinangyang agak strategik untuk dijadikan pangkalan tentera dan perdagangan, British cuba untukbertapak di situ.· Pulau Pinang merupakan sebahagian daripada wilayah Kedah. Kedah pula sedangmenghadapi ancaman Siam dan Burma· Sultan Muhammad Jiwa menawarkan kepada British untuk membuka petempatan di PulauPinang sekiranya British sedia membantu Kedah menghadapi ancaman Siam. Tawaran diberisekali lagi oleh Sultan Abdullah kepada British.1.3.3 BRITISH COLONIZATION PERIOD1.3.3.1 British Intervention· British intervention in the Malay states was the result of the Pangkor Treaty in the year1874. However, British intervention had started much earlier and before this agreementwas sealed.· On August 11, 1786, Francis Light had managed to take-over Penang from Kedah by‘assisting’ Sultan Abdullah, who was the ruler of Kedah. The British wanted to make a basethere for Penang was a strategic location as a trade and military centre.· Penang was part of Kedah and Kedah was facing Siamese threat.· Sultan Muhammad Jiwa offered a base for the British in Penang if they were willing toassist Kedah overcome the Siamese threat. Sultan Abdullah also agreed to the same offer.Rajah 1.24: Peta Kedah dan Pulau PinangDiagram 1.24: Map of Kedah and Penang
  • 35. © Copyright Reserved 2003 35CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Melalui tawaran ini, Sultan Abdullah meletakkan syarat-syarat bahawa:o British hendaklah mengawal perairan Kedaho Musuh Kedah adalah musuh Britisho Perbelanjaan perang ditanggung oleh syarikato Kapal-kapal bebas berniaga di Kedah atau Pulau Pinango Pampasan $30 000 wang Sepanyol hendaklah dibayar kepada sultan ataskehilangan beberapa keistimewaan dalam perdagangano British hendaklah mempertahankan Kedah daripada ancaman musuhnya.· Tanpa mendapat kebenaran daripada pegawai atasan di India, Francis Light bersetuju dengansyarat-syarat itu pada tahun 1785.· Based on the offer, Sultan Abdullah requested that:o The British to guard Kedaho Kedah enemies were also the British enemieso The company paid all the expenseso Ships were free to conduct business in Kedah and Penango Compensation amounting $30000 Spanish dollars must be paid to the Sultan for thelost of some trade privilegeso British must hereafter defend Kedah from its enemies· Without the approval of the British superior officials in India, Francis Light agreed with allthe terms in the year 1785.Rajah 1.25Diagram 1.25
  • 36. © Copyright Reserved 2003 36CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Apabila pegawai atasan enggan menyetujui syarat-syarat yang telah ditetapkan kerana inginmenjaga kepentingan perdagangan dan politik dengan Siam, Sultan Abdullah mendesaksupaya British meninggalkan Pulau Pinang.· Keengganan British meninggalkan Pulau Pinang menyebabkan keadaan menjadi tegang.British telah menyerang Seberang Prai menyebabkan Kedah mengalami kekalahan teruk.· Dengan itu, bermulalah penjajahan ke atas pulau Pinang dan seterusnya Seberang Prai pulajatuh ke tangan British apabila Kedah sering menyekat bekalan makanan kerana Kedahmerasa tidak puas hati dengan syarat-syarat perjanjian yang telah dibuat pada tahun 1791yang antara lainnya Sultan Kedah akan mendapat pampasan tahunan sebanyak $6 000 wangSepanyol. Menyedari kedudukan Pulau Pinang agak jauh ke utara, British merancang untukmencari satu pangkalan baru di kawasan-kawasan yang berhampiran dengan Selat Melaka.· When the British superior officials refused to agree with the terms (upon considering therelations with Siam), Sultan Abdullah forced the British to leave Penang.· The British refused to leave Penang and this had caused chaos. British attacked SeberangPerai, which eventually brought about Kedah’s defeat.· With that, British colonization in began in Penang. After that, Seberang Perai fell into thepower of the British when Kedah regularly blocked food supply to Seberang Perai. This isbecause Kedah was dissatisfied with the agreements that had been amended in the year 1791whereby the Sultan of Kedah would only receive compensation amounting to $6000 Spanishdollars.· Realizing that the location of Penang was a little far to the north, the British planned to find anew base in areas that were nearer to the Straits of Malacca.Rajah 1.26Diagram 1.26
  • 37. © Copyright Reserved 2003 37CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Pada 6 Februari 1819, Stamford Raffles berjaya menduduki Singapura apabila beliau campurtangan dalam pertikaian Tengku Hussin dengan Yang Di Pertuan Muda Kerajaan Johor.Raffles telah mengiktiraf Tengku Hussin sebagai Sultan Johor.· Sebagai balasan, Tengku Hussin membenarkan Raffles membuka petempatan di Singapuramelalui satu perjanjian pada tahun 1819.· On February 6 1819, Stamford Raffles managed to invade Singapore when he intervened inthe dispute between Tengku Hussin and the Yang Di Pertuan Muda of Johor. Raffles hadacknowledged Tengku Hussin as the new Sultan of Johor.· In return, Tengku Hussin had allowed Raffles to open a settlement in Singapore via anagreement treaty in 1819.Rajah 1.27 / Diagram 1.27Rajah 1.28: Stanford RafflesDiagram 1.28: Stanford Raffles
  • 38. © Copyright Reserved 2003 38CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Dalam perjanjian itu British sedia:o Memberi perlindungan kepada Tengku Hussino Menyediakan pampasan tahunan sebanyak $3 000 wang Sepanyolo Menetapkan pemerintahan Johor atau penggantinya tidak boleh mengadakanhubungan dengan kuasa-kuasa Barat yang lain.· Dengan itu, British sudah dapat menguasai dua kawasan penting di Tanah Melayu.· Pada tahun 1824, satu perjanjian ditandatangani antara British dan Belanda.· Dalam perjanjian ini, kedua-dua pihak menetapkan garis sempadan kekuasaan masing-masing bagi mengelakkan pertembungan yang boleh mengakibatkan peperangan.· Mengikut perjanjian tersebut, kawasan di utara dan timur selat Melaka diserahkan kepadaBritish, manakala kawasan di barat dan selatan Selat Melaka diserahkan kepada Belanda.· Belanda yang menduduki Melaka ketika itu menyerahkan Melaka kepada British, manakalaBritish menyerahkan Bangkahulu yang didudukinya ketika itu pada Belanda.· In the agreement, the British were willingo To provide protection to Tengku Hussino To give compensation amounting to $3000 Spanish dollarso British also decided on the ruler of Johor, so that the heir would not build anyrelations with other western forces.· With that, British had controlled two significant areas in Malaya.· In 1824, an agreement had been made between the British and the Dutch (The British DutchTreaty).· In this agreement, both parties had decided on boundary areas. This was to prevent anycollision that could spark a war.· Areas that were in the east and north of the Straits of Malacca would be handed in to theBritish while the Dutch would occupy areas that were in the west and south of the Straits ofMalacca.· The Dutch handed over Malacca to the British while the British handed over Bangkahulu tothe Dutch.Rajah 1.29: Pensempadanan baru jajahan Inggeris dan jajahan BelandaDiagram 1.29: New border for British colony and Dutch colony
  • 39. © Copyright Reserved 2003 39CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.2 Negeri-Negeri Selat· Apabila British berjaya menduduki negeri-negeri di Tanah Melayu dan membuat petempatan diSingapura, Pulau Pinang dan Melaka, mereka telah menyatukan wilayah-wilayah ini di bawahsatu pentadbiran yang disebut NEGERI-NEGERI SELAT. Pulau Pinang menjadi pusatpertama pentadbiran Negeri-negeri Selat.· Ia diketuai oleh seorang Gabenor. Pada 1 April 1867, pentadbiran Negeri-negeri Selatdipindahkan dari Calcutta di India ke Pejabat Tanah Jajahan di London.· Pemindahan pentadbiran ini sebenarnya memberikan kesan yang agak nyata kepadaperkembangan sejarah tanah air. Antaranya pentadbiran negeri-negeri Selat semakin cekap,pertanian niaga seperti lada hitam, gambir, buah pala, cengkih dan tebu semakin berkembangpesat.1.3.3.2 Straits Settlements· When the British managed to penetrate the Malay states in Malaya and build settlements inSingapore, Penang and Malacca, they had united these states under the same administration,which was known as the Straits Settlements and Penang was its first administration centre.· It was headed by a Governor. On April 1st1867, the administration of the Straits Settlementswas shifted from Calcutta, India to the Crown Colony Office in London.· The shift had left significant impacts on the nations’ historical development. Theadministration of the Straits Settlements became efficient and there was a variety of corps thatwere introduced in the agricultural sectors such as peppercorns, cloves, sugarcane, nutmegand gambier.Rajah 1.30: Negeri-negeri Selat / Diagram 1.30: Straits Settlements
  • 40. © Copyright Reserved 2003 40CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.3 Faktor-Faktor Campur Tangan Inggeris Di Tanah Melayu1. Faktor Ekonomi· Merupakan faktor terpenting campur tangan.· Inggeris memerlukan bahan-bahan mentah, terutama kerana ketika itu berlakunya revolusiindustri di England.· Ramai pedagang Inggeris telah menanam modal di negeri-negeri Melayu khususnya dikawasan perlombongan.2. Kebimbangan Campur Tangan Kuasa-kuasa Asing· Pada tahun 1870-an, kuasa-kuasa asing seperti Itali, Perancis, Jerman dan Rusia bersainguntuk mendapatkan tanah jajahan yang akan dijadiakan sebagai pembekal bahan-bahanmentah.3. Masalah Di Tanah Melayu· perang saudara antara pembesar dalam merebut takhta dan kawasan· pergaduhan antara kongsi gelap Cina ( Ghee Hin dan Hai San )· kegiatan perlanunan di Selat Melaka1.3.3.3 Factors Relating To British Intervention In Malaya1. Economic Factors· The main reasons for the intervention:· The British needed raw materials, which was needed due to the industrial revolution inEngland.· A lot of British traders had invested their capitals in the Malay states especiallyin mining areas.2. Fear of Foreign Intervention· In 1870s, foreign forces such as Italy, France, German and Russia were competing witheach other to obtain a colony that would be turned into distribution centres for rawmaterials.3. Chaos in Malaya· Civil wars among the rulers and disputes for the throne.· The conflicts among Chinese groups (Ghee Hin and Hai San)· Pirate activities in the Straits of Malacca
  • 41. © Copyright Reserved 2003 41CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES4. Perubahan Dalam Kakitangan Pejabat Tanah Jajahan· Sebelum tahun 1871, pegawai-pegawai Pejabat Tanah Jajahan dan Parti Liberal yangmemerintah Britain tidak bersimpati langsung dengan rayuan-rayuan bagi Kerajaan Negeri-negeri Selat campur tangan di Tanah Melayu untuk memulihkan keamanan.· Tetapi selepas tahun 1871, perubahan dalam kaki tangan Pejabat Tanah Jajahan dan kabinetBritish melahirkan sentimen imperialisme di Britain. Golongan ini menyokong dasar campurtangan tersebut.· Pada tahun 1870, Lord Kimberley dilantik sebagai Setiausaha PTJ dan mengarahkan SirAndrew Clarke untuk melaporkan langkah-langkah yang boleh diambil oleh Kerajaan Britishuntuk memulihkan keamanan di Tanah Melayu.5. Peranan Sir Andrew Clarke· Sir Andrew Clarke yang menggantikan Sir Harry Ord sebagai Gabenor Negeri-negeri Selatpada bulan November 1873 merupakan sebab efektif bagi campur tangan British di negeri-negeri Melayu.· Atas inisiatifnya sendiri mengambil keputusan untuk campur tangan di Perak pada bulanJanuari 1874 dan seterusnya di Selangor dan Sg Ujong.4. The Transformation in the Crown Colony Office Workforce· Before 1871, officers from the Crown Colony Office and the Liberal Party that ruled Britainnever had the intention to view the pledge to regain peace in Malaya through theirintervention.· However, after 1871, the transformation in the Crown Colony Office and the British cabinetbrought about to the birth of imperialism in Britain. This group strongly supported theintervention policy.· In 1870, Lord Kimberly was appointed as the Secretary of the Crown Colony Office anddirected Sir Andrew Clarke to report the necessary steps that could be taken by the Britishgovernment to regain peace in Malaya.5. The role of Sir Andrew Clarke· Sir Andrew Clarke, who replaced Sir Harry Ord as the Governor of the Straits Settlements inNovember 1873, was the prime reason for British intervention in the Malay states.· The intervention in Perak began in January 1874. The attempts in Selangor and in Sg. Ujongwere a result of his own initiative and decisions.
  • 42. © Copyright Reserved 2003 42CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES6. Faktor Kemanusiaan· Kerajaan British ingin menamatkan keadaan huru hara di Negeri-negeri Melayu bagimenyelamatkan nyawa dan harta benda.· Ini merupakan pendapat Sir Frank Swettenham, namun pendapat ini kurang bertepatan.6. Humanity Factor· The British wanted to end the chaos in the Malay states – to save lives and properties andeconomic resources from destruction.· This was the view of Sir Frank Swettenham. However, it was an inaccurate decision.
  • 43. © Copyright Reserved 2003 43CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.4 Sistem Residen· Usaha British untuk campur tangan dan terlibat sama dalam politik di Negeri-negeri Melayupaling ketara pada tahun 1874.· Akibat keadaan tidak aman terutama di kawasan perlombongan di Perak, British bertindakdengan membentuk dan menandatanagni “Perjanjian Pangkor” pada tahun 1874 di Perak.· Bermula di Perak, sistem ini kemudian diperkenalkan di Selangor dan Sungai Ujung padatahun 1874, di Pahang pada tahun 1888, dan di Negeri Sembilan pada tahun 1914.· Antara pegawai-pegawai British yang pernah menjawat jawatan residen ini adalah sepertiberikut:o Perak (1874) - J.W.W.Bircho Selangor (1874) - J.G.Davidsono Sungai Ujung (1874) - Kapt.W.Tathamo Pahang (1888) - J.P.Rodgero Negeri Sembilan (1895) - Martin Lister1.3.3.4 The Resident System· In 1874, the attempts of the British to intervene and be involved in the politics of the StraitsSettlements were very obvious.· Due to the conflicts especially in the mining areas of Perak, the British had developed andsigned the Pangkor Treaty in 1874.· From Perak, the system was then introduced in Selangor and Sg. Ujung in 1874. The systemwas also introduced in Pahang in 1888 and in Negeri Sembilan in 1914.· Some of the British officials that were appointed as residents:o J.W.W Birch (Perak – 1874)o J.G Davidson (Selangor – 1874)o Capt. W. Tatham (Sungai Ujung – 1874)o J.P Rodger (Pahang – 1888)o Martin Lister (Negeri Sembilan – 1895)
  • 44. © Copyright Reserved 2003 44CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.5 Kesan-Kesan Sistem Residen1. Politik:· Keamanan dapat dipulihkan, namun sistem tradisi di negeri-negeri berkenaan terjejas di manasultan tiada lagi kuasa mutlak dalam pemerintahan dan pembesar-pembesar hampir hilanghak tradisi mereka.· Ini adalah kerana residen terlampau berkuasa, maka mereka mentadbir mengikut cara merekasendiri.2. Ekonomi· Secara keseluruhan, negeri-negeri yang terbabit menampakkan kemajuan kerana pelaburansemakin giat ekoran perkembangan perusahaan bijih timah dan tanaman-tanaman lain sepertikopi dan getah.· Akibat kemasukan buruh yang ramai untuk bekerja di sektor-sektor ekonomi, petempatan-petempatan mula berkembang menjadi perbandaran.· Namun berlaku ketidakseragaman pengagihan kekayaan antara negeri dan di dalam sebuahnegeri itu sendiri.· Sumber dan hasil ekonomi dimonopoli oleh pelabur-pelabur barat sedangkan kaum peribumiketinggalan.1.3.3.5 Impacts Of The Resident System1. Politics· Even though peace was regained, the traditional system of administration in the Malaystates was affected, whereby the Sultans did not have absolute power in the governmentanymore and the ministers had almost lost all their traditional rights.· This is because since the residents were too powerful, they started to rule based on theirown decisions and their own styles.2. Economics· In general, states that were involved with the system had indicated progress because of theactive investment that was influenced by the development of the tin industry and also theintroduction of various crops such as coffee and rubber.· Due to the increase of labourers that work in the economic sectors, many new settlementsbegan to grow and cities were born.· However, there was inadequate distribution of wealth between states and even withinstates.· Western traders monopolized the resources and economic products whereas the natives andlocals were left out.
  • 45. © Copyright Reserved 2003 45CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES3. Sosial· Berlaku kepesatan penyediaan infrastruktur seperti sistem perhubungan, kesihatan, telegraf,pos, bekalan air, elektrik, sekolah dan lain-lain.· Namun begitu kebanyakan infrastruktur tersebut disediakan di kawasan-kawasan yangterdapat kepentingan ekonomi Inggeris sahaja.· Ini telah menyebabkan hubungan penduduk tempatan dengan kaum imigran renggang danwujud perbezaan dan jarak sosial di antara mereka.3. Social· The growth in facilities and infrastructures was obvious. For example, health,communication, telegraph, water and electricity supplies, school and others sectors wereimproved.· Nevertheless, most of the facilities were provided only at places where there were prioritiesfor British orientated economy.· This had caused the relations between the locals and the immigrants to crack and thebreach between them to enlarge.Rajah 1.31Diagram 1.31Kesan SistemResidenImpacts ofResident SystemPolitikPoliticsEkonomiEconomySosialSocial
  • 46. © Copyright Reserved 2003 46CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.6 Negeri-Negeri Melayu Bersekutu· Untuk mengukuhkan lagi kedudukan di negeri-negeri Tanah Melayu, pada tahun 1896,Inggeris telah menubuhkan Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu melalui PerjanjianPersekutuan.· Negeri-negeri tersebut terdiri dari Selangor, Perak, Pahang dan Negeri Sembilan.· Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu bukanlah merupakan persekutuan dalam erti yangsebenarnya, tetapi merupakan satu kesatuan politik.· Melalui sebuah “persekutuan”, sumber-sumber semua negeri ahli dapat dikumpulkan dandigunakan bagi faedah bersama dan membangunkan negeri lain dengan kos pentadbiranyang minimum.1.3.3.6 Federated Malay States· To strengthen their position in the states of Malaya, the British had formed the FederatedMalay States via the Federal Treaty in 1896.· The states consisted of Selangor, Perak, Pahang and Negeri Sembilan.· The Federation of Malaya was not actually a federation, but more of a political alliance.· Through a “federation”, all the states’ sources could be collected and combined and usedfor shared purposes and benefits and also to minimize administration costs.Rajah 1.32: Negeri-negeri Melayu BersekutuDiagram 1.32: Federated Malay States
  • 47. © Copyright Reserved 2003 47CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.7 Perjanjian Persekutuan (1896)· Di antara syarat-syarat Perjanjian Persekutuan ialah supaya raja-raja Negeri-negeri MelayuBersekutu bersetuju menerima seorang pegawai British yang digelar Residen-Jeneral, yangberperanan sebagai penasihat dalam semua bidang pemerintahan kecuali yang menyentuhtentang hal ehwal agama Islam dan adat-istiadat Melayu.· Untuk mewujudkan hubungan yang baik antara raja-raja Melayu dengan pegawai-pegawaiInggeris, telah diperkenalkan sistem Persidangan Raja-raja Melayu yang dikenali sebagaiDurbar.· Persidangan pertama telah diadakan pada tahun 1897 di Kuala Kangsar dan persidangankedua diadakan pada tahun 1903 di Kuala Lumpur.· Akibat dari perjanjian ini, kuasa pentadbiran telah dipusatkan dalam tangan Residen Jeneral diKuala Lumpur dan raja telah kehilangan kuasa di dalam negeri mereka.· Penubuhan jabatan-jabatan persekutuan telah menyebabkan pengambilan lebih ramaipegawai-pegawai Inggeris.1.3.3.7 Federal Treaty (1896)· One of the terms stated in the Federal Treaty was that the rulers (sultans) of the FederatedMalay States were to accept a British officer. This officer was known as the ResidentGeneral. He will be appointed as an advisor who will be involved in all aspects of ruling,with the exception of Islamic matters and the Malay culture.· To create a better relationship among the British officers and the Malay rulers, theCouncil of Malay Rulers or Durbar was introduced.· The first conference was held in Kuala Kangsar in 1897 while the second one was held inKuala Lumpur in 1903.· As a result of this agreement (Federal Treaty), the authority of administration had beenentrusted into the hands of the Resident General in Kuala Lumpur. The Malay rulers hadlost all of their power.· The formation of more federal departments resulted in the increment in the intake ofBritish officers.
  • 48. © Copyright Reserved 2003 48CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.33Diagram 1.33KESAN PENUBUHANPERSEKUTUAN1896EFFECTS OF THEFORMATION OFFEDERAL TREATY 1896Durba diadakanDurba had been arrangedTambah pendapatanPersekutuanIncrease Federal IncomeKerjasama diantaranegeriInter state cooperationResident Jeneralberkuasa penuhFull authority forResident GeneralKetua Jabatan di KualaLumpur lebih berkuasaHead of department in KualaLumpur had more authorityPerkongsian khidmat pakarSharing of expert servicesKuasa Raja-raja MelayukurangMalay Rulers authoritybecame lessPelaburan asing,perlombongan dan getahbertambahForeign investment, miningand rubber increasedPenyelarasanundang-undangLawstandardisation
  • 49. © Copyright Reserved 2003 49CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.8 Majlis Mesyuarat Persekutuan· Kedudukan Inggeris diperkukuhkan lagi dengan penubuhan Majlis Mesyuarat Persekutuanpada 1909. Tujuannya ialah untuk menambahkan kuasa raja-raja dan residen-residen darinegeri-negeri berkenaan. Namun motifnya ialah untuk menambahkan kuasa Gabenor Inggerisdi Singapura.· Ahli-ahli Majlis terdiri daripada Pesuruhjaya Tinggi, Residen Jeneral, empat orang raja Melayu,empat orang residen dan empat orang ahli tidak rasmi (tiga orang Eropah dan seorang Cina).· Apa yang jelas kesan daripada penubuhan Majlis tersebut telah melemahkan kuasa raja-rajaMelayu apabila sultan hanya sebagai ahli biasa sahaja dan tidak mempunyai kuasa pemutus.· Semua perundangan yang diluluskan ditandatangani oleh Pesuruhjaya Tinggi dan bukannyasultan. Ini bermaksud kuasa sebenar adalah di tangan Pesuruhjaya Tinggi.1.3.3.8 Federal Council· The position of the British was further strengthened with the formation of the FederalCouncil the in 1909. The purpose was to increase the authority of the Malay rulers andreduce the authority of the Residents from all the states. However, the underlying motivewas to further increase the authority of the British Governor in Singapore.· The Council members consisted of the British High Commissioner, the Resident General,the Malay rulers form the four Malay States, the four Residents and four unofficialmembers (3 Europeans and a Chinese).· The effect that could be seen from the formation of the Council was that it weakened thesupremacy of the Malay rulers. The Sultans were just ordinary members and did not havethe authority to make decisions.· The British High Commissioner and not the Sultans approved all the laws of the federation.This clearly indicated that the real power was in the hands of the High Commissioner.
  • 50. © Copyright Reserved 2003 50CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.9 Negeri-Negeri Melayu Tak Bersekutu· Sebelum tahun 1909, negeri-negeri Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah dan Perlis adalah di bawahnaungan Siam. Ekoran Perjanjian Bangkok 1909, Siam bersetuju menyerahkan negeri-negeriberkenaan kepada Inggeris, seorang penasihat Inggeris telah ditempatkan di setiap negeritersebut.· Walau bagaimanapun, pada hakikatnya Perjanjian Bangkok 1909 tidak dipersetujui olehnegeri-negeri yang terlibat khususnya Kedah dan Perlis.· Pada peringkat awal negeri-negeri berkenaan enggan menerima penasihat Inggeris.· Inggeris menyatukan pentadbiran negeri-negeri berkenaan dalam satu unit pentadbiran yangdikenali sebagai Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu.· Perjanjian Bangkok 1909 ini telah menyekat perluasan kuasa Siam di negeri-negeri Melayudan melindungi kepentingan Inggeris di Tanah Melayu.· Dengan adanya perjanjian ini kuasa-kuasa Barat lain sukar untuk menembusi negeri-negeriMelayu dan dengan demikian lebih menguntungkan Inggeris.· Bagi Inggeris, negeri-negeri berkenaan adalah berpotensi dari segi ekonomi danperdagangan, sedangkan bagi Siam ianya tidak menguntungkan.· Perjanjian ini juga telah menamatkan proses perluasan kuasa Inggeris di Tanah Melayu iaitusetelah Johor menerima penasihat Inggeris pada tahun 1914.· Ia juga merupakan peristiwa penting di dalam menentukan sempadan di antara Tanah Melayudan Siam.· Mulai tahun 1914, negeri-negeri di Tanah Melayu berada di bawah tiga unit politik iaitu Negeri-negeri Selat, Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu, dan Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu.1.3.3.9 Unfederated Malay States· Before 1909, Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis were under the influence of Siam.After the Bangkok Treaty in 1909, these states were handed over to the British. A BritishAdvisor was appointed to each of these states.· Kedah and Perlis strongly opposed the treaty. The same situation occurred in the otherstates.· The British organized a collective administration unit for these states, which was known asThe Unfederated Malay States.· The Bangkok Treaty had obstructed the expansion of the Siamese’s forces into the Malaystates and it also protected the privileges relished by the British in Malaya.· With the clauses in the treaty implemented, other western forces could not invade the Malaystates and this condition profited the British.· For the British, the Unfederated Malay States had great potentials in terms of economy andtrade. Siam had, on the other had regarded these states as unprofitable.· The treaty had also ended the expansion of the British forces in Malaya that began fromJohor, which had accepted advisor in 1914.· It was also an important event in determining the boundaries between Malaya and Siam.· From 1914 onwards, all the states in Malaya were under three political units, which werethe Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States.
  • 51. © Copyright Reserved 2003 51CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.34: Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak BersekutuDiagram 1.34: Unfederated Malay States
  • 52. © Copyright Reserved 2003 52CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.3.10 Desentralisasi Kuasa (1920-1941)· Pengagihan kuasa pusat adalah bermaksud bahawa kuasa-kuasa utama yang berkaitandengan pentadbiran kewangan, perkhidmatan seperti keretapi, kastam dan pos yang selamaini dikuasai oleh kerajaan pusat akan diagihkan ke negeri-negeri berkenaan.· Antara tahun 1910-1920 keadaan di Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu adalah aman dimanakeadaan ekonomi adalah baik dan raja-raja berpuas hati dengan kedudukan mereka.· Selepas tahun 1920 berlaku perasaan tidak puas hati khususnya dikalangan raja. Inimerupakan salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan Inggeris mengambil langkah mengagihkankuasa pusat ke negeri-negeri berkenaan.· Faktor-faktor yang mendasari pengagihan kuasa pusat ialah rasa tidak puas hati dikalanganraja-raja Melayu di Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu dari segi kuasa memerintah.· Ini adalah kerana tidak seperti raja-raja di Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu yangberkuasa penuh ke atas negeri masing-masing.· Keinginan Inggeris untuk menyatukan Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu dengan Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu, kemelesetan ekonomi dunia 1920-an, dan pergelutan kuasa diantara Residen Jeneral dan Pesuruhjaya Tinggi.· Pengagihan kuasa yang dilakukan oleh Inggeris sebenarnya memperlihatkan bagaimanaInggeris melakukan sesuatu itu berlandaskan kepada motif ekonomi dan politik.· Dari segi ekonomi, pengagihan berlaku apabila terjadinya kemelesetan ekonomi dunia dimana pengagihan kuasa adalah satu langkah untuk berjimat cermat.· Dari segi politik, British ingin menguasai keseluruhan Tanah Melayu dibawah satupentadbiran, iaitu Kesatuan Tanah Melayu.1.3.3.10 Decentralisation (1920-1941)· Distribution of central power means that the main forces that are related to administration offinances and services such as railways, customs and postal services, which were previouslycontrolled by the central government, would be controlled by each state in the federation.· Between the year 1910-1920, the conditions in the Federation of Malaya was peacefulwhereby there was economic growth and the rulers were satisfied with their position andauthority.· After the year 1920, dissatisfaction was imminent amongst the rulers. This was one of thefactors that led to decentralization.· The rulers of the Malay States were not satisfied with the authority given to them.· This was because the rulers of the Unfederated Malay States still retained absolute authority.· The intention of the British was to unite all the Malay states (Federated and Unfederated),due to the world economic downturn in 1920s and the struggle for power between theResident General and the British High Commissioner.· In terms of economy, decentralization occurred due to the world economic downturn and wasa move to minimize expenses.· In terms of politics, the British wanted to control the whole of Malaya under one system ofadministration, which was the Federation of Malaya.
  • 53. © Copyright Reserved 2003 53CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.4 ZAMAN PENJAJAHAN JEPUN· Penjajahan Jepun merupakan salah satu peristiwa penting dalam sejarah negara kita.· Walaupun Jepun menduduki negara kita selama tiga tahun setengah (15 Februari 1942 hingga15 Ogos 1945), namun kesannya amat mendalam ke atas penduduk Tanah Melayu.· Seluruh Tanah Melayu dan Singapura ditawan dengan mengambil masa 70 hari sahaja.Serangan dimulakan melalui dua arah iaitu melalui pantai timur dan pantai barat.· Rancangan utama Jepun adalah untuk menubuhkan Pemerintahan Baru Asia Timur Raya, dimana pihak Jepun telah berjanji akan memberikan kemerdekaan kepada sesetengah negaradi Asia Tenggara.1.3.4.1 KEMENANGAN TENTERA JEPUN:1.ketidaksediaan tentera Inggeris menghadapi peperangan2.kelemahan pertahanan laut Inggeris3.persediaan peperangan oleh Jepun4.kelebihan tentera Jepun5.kelewatan tentera bantuan dari London dan India1.3.4 THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION· The Japanese occupation was one major event in the nation.· Japan had occupied our country for three and a half year (15 February 1942-15 August1945).· The whole Malaya and Singapore were conquered in duration of 70 days. The invasion wasconducted through two modes, attacks from the east and west.· Japan’s main aim was to form The East Asian Administration (Pemerintahan Baru AsiaTimur Raya) in which Japan promised to give independence to countries in South East Asia.1.3.4.1 THE VICTORY OF JAPANESE ARMY1. The British were not prepared for the Japanese attacks.2. The lack of strategy in the British defence units.3. Japan’s preparation and groundwork to face war.4. Advantages of the Japanese Army5. Delayed military support from London and India.
  • 54. © Copyright Reserved 2003 54CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESKETIDAKSEDIAAN TENTERA INGGERIS MENGHADAPI PEPERANGAN· Pihak British tidak bersedia untuk menghadapi peperangan. Mereka tidak menyangka Jepunakan memulakan serangan dari arah selatan (dari Singapura) kerana pusat pentadbiran Britishadalah di situ, tetapi Jepun sebenarnya memulakan serangan dari arah Utara (di Kelantan)dan menakluk negeri-negeri Melayu satu persatu.KELEMAHAN PERTAHANAN LAUT INGGERIS· Jepun telah menyerang melalui jalan laut dan tidak melalui udara seperti yang dijangkakanoleh Kerajaan British. Pertahanan laut British sebenarnya terlalu lemah terutama apabila duakapal perang mereka iaitu Prince of Wales dan Repulse telah ditenggelamkan oleh Jepunpada 10 Disember 1941 di perairan sebelah timur Semenanjung (Pahang).PERSEDIAAN PEPERANGAN OLEH JEPUN· Tentera Jepun telah membuat persediaan peperangan yang rapi di mana mereka mempunyairangkaian pengintipan yang baik di Tanah Melayu. Mereka begitu bersedia untuk melancarkanserangan dengan membuat pengintipan sebelum memulakan serangan seperti menunggangbasikal meskipun di kampung-kampung dan hutan, maklumat-maklumat tentang kubu British,landasan kapal terbang dan lokasi kem tentera.THE BRITISH WERE NOT PREPARED FOR JAPANESE ATTACKS· British were not prepared to face the war. They anticipated Japanese attacks from the south(Singapore) because British central administration was located there. On the other hand, theJapanese had attacked from the north (Kelantan) and then conquered Malay states one byone from that direction.THE LACK OF STRATEGY IN THE BRITISH DEFENCE UNITS· The British had expected the Japanese to attack by air, but the attacks launched appliedmarine strategies. The British marine defence strategies were weak. In addition, Japan hadsunk two of their war ships, the Prince of Wales and Repulse, on December 10th1941 in theeast Peninsula waters (Pahang).JAPAN’S PREPARATION AND GROUNDWORK TO FACE WAR· Japan had conducted a thorough preparation in which they had an excellent network of spiesin Malaya. They were prepared for the attacks and had acquired all the information neededsuch as information in connection with the British fortresses, aeroplane runways and thelocation of the British army camps.
  • 55. © Copyright Reserved 2003 55CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESKELEBIHAN TENTERA JEPUN· Kelebihan tentera Jepun yang cukup terlatih, berpengalaman serta bersemangat tinggi danmempunyai taktik peperangan yang cukup baik. Ini juga disebabkan mereka telah dipimpinoleh pegawai-pegawai yang berkebolehan dan berpengalaman seperti Yamashita dan Tsuji.· Ini bertentangan dengan sikap tentera-tentera British kerana sebahagian besar tentera Britishterdiri daripada orang-orang India yang masih muda dan tidak mempunyai pengalaman dalampeperangan.KELEWATAN TENTERA BANTUAN DARI LONDON DAN INDIA· Fenomena ini adalah berpunca akibat daripada masalah kewangan yang dihadapi olehKerajaan British.ADVANTAGES OF THE JAPANESE ARMY· The Japanese armies were well trained, experienced, and equipped with excellent war tactics.They were physically and mentally prepared for the war. This was because experienced armyofficers such as Yamashita and Tsuji trained the soldiers.· This was evidently in contrast with the British armies whereby most of them consisted ofyoung Indians who did not have war experience.DELAYED MILITARY SUPPORT FROM LONDON AND INDIA· This phenomenon was due to the financial problems faced by the British Government.
  • 56. © Copyright Reserved 2003 56CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.4.2 PENTADBIRAN JEPUN DI TANAH MELAYU· Pada 8 Disember 1941, Jepun telah menyerang Tanah Melayu dan pada 15 Februari 1942,seluruh Tanah Melayu dan Singapura telah jatuh ke tangan Jepun.· Tanah Melayu dan Pulau Sumatera di bawah satu unit pentadbiran.· Tanah Melayu dikenali sebagai Malai Baru dan Singapura sebagai Syonan.· Jepun memerintah Tanah Melayu bercirikan sistem ketenteraan dengan matlamat utama iaituuntuk memulihkan keadaan awam, dimana mereka ingin memulihkan masyarakat tempatanyang sebelum ini huru-hara atau tidak aman ekoran daripada penentangan terhadappemerintah barat. Mereka ingin mewujudkan pemerintahan “Asia Untuk Orang Asia”.· Di samping itu untuk memonopoli sumber ekonomi di Tanah Melayu. Hasil ekonomi ini ingindigunakan untuk membantu masalah ekonomi yang sedang melanda negara Jepun padawaktu itu.· Secara tidak langsung adalah bertujuan untuk menanggung belanja biayaan tentera-tenteranya di Tanah Melayu yang mana biayaan ini dalam bentuk senjata, makanan dankemudahan-kemudahan tentera.· Mereka meletakkan seorang Gabenor Jepun dan membentuk sebuah Majlis Penasihat yangdianggotai oleh orang-orang Jepun.· Majlis ini bertujuan menggantikan Majlis Negeri yang ada sebelum ini.· Negeri-negeri Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah dan Perlis diserahkan semula kepada negaraThailand pada bulan Ogos 1943.1.3.4.2 JAPAN ADMINISTRATION IN MALAYA· On December 8th1941, Japan had attacked Malaya and on February 15th1942, the wholeMalaya and Singapore had fallen into Japanese hands.· Malaya and the Islands of Sumatera were placed under one administration unit.· The Japanese administration in Malaya was based on a military system and their main goalwas to restore the socio-political condition. They wanted to overcome the chaos caused thewestern rulers. They propagated the motto, “Asia for Asians”.· Besides that, the Japanese also wanted to monopolize the economic resources in Malaya.They wanted to utilize the resources to curb the economic problems faced in their country.· Indirectly, the resources were also used to support the expenses of the Japanese army inMalaya for food supplies, weapons and army facilities.· A Japanese Governor headed the administration system and an Advisory Council was formedthat consisted of Japanese officers.· This council replaced the previous State Council.· Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis were handed back to Siam in August 1943.
  • 57. © Copyright Reserved 2003 57CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESRajah 1.35: Pergerakkan tentera Jepun menakluk MalayaDiagram 1.35: Japan army movement to encounter MalayaRajah 1.36: Askar-askar JepunDiagram 1.36: The Japanese Army
  • 58. © Copyright Reserved 2003 58CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.4.3 KESAN PENDUDUKAN JEPUNKesan Ekonomi:· penduduk menderita kerana kekurangan makanan· menggunakan pelbagai cara untuk hidup· petani dan nelayan dipaksa menjual hasil mereka kepada pihak Jepun· perdagangan lumpuh· pengedaran mata wang yang tidak terkawalFaktor Politik:· Wujud kesedaran politik di kalangan penduduk Tanah Melayu· Wujud keyakinan untuk memerintah sendiri di kalangan orang Melayu· Permusuhan di antara orang Melayu dan Cina· Orang Cina dan India dengan ciri kecinaan dan keindiaan· Parti Komunis Malaya (PKM) menjadi parti yang terkuat pada tahun 1945-19481.3.4.3 THE EFFECTS OF JAPANESE OCCUPATIONEconomics· The civilians suffered because of the lack of food supplies and had to employ whateverpossible method in order to survive.· Farmers and fishermen were forced to sell their products to the Japanese.· Trade industries were paralysed.· Circulation of currency was not controlled.Politics· Political awareness started to emerge amongst the people of Malaya.· The confidence to rule the country began to grow amongst the people.· Conflicts between the Malay and the Chinese community erupted.· Each community had their own sense of nationalism and identity. The Chinese and Indiancommunities nationalism centred on their native countries.· The Malayan Communist Party (MCP) became the strongest and most prominent party withinthe year 1945-1948.
  • 59. © Copyright Reserved 2003 59CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESKesan Sosial:· Orang Cina ditindas, orang Melayu dan India menjadi buruh paksa· Orang Cina lari ke pinggir hutan dan membuka petempatan baru· Permusuhan di antara orang Melayu dengan orang Cina· Sistem pendidikan Jepun diperkenalkan yang menekankan latihan akhlak daripada akademikSocial· The Chinese were oppressed while the Malays were meted better treatment. The Indiansbecame forced labours.· The Chinese retreated to the jungle areas and opened new settlements.· Conflicts between the Malay and the Chinese communities became visible.· The Japanese education system was introduced where the emphasis focused on moral traininginstead of academics.Rajah 1.37: Askar-askar JepunDiagram 1.37: The Japanese Army
  • 60. © Copyright Reserved 2003 60CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Pendudukan Jepun berlangsung kira-kira 3 1/2 tahun apabila mereka berundur pada 15 Ogos1945.· Apabila Jepun menyerah kalah, British mengambil masa 14 hari sebelum kembali semula keTanah Melayu.· Dalam tempoh ini, PKM (Bintang Tiga) cuba menguasai Tanah Melayu dan mencetuskan huruhara.· Pada September 1945, British telah kembali semula ke Tanah Melayu dan berusaha untukmengawal keadaan dan memerangi kumpulan Bintang Tiga.· Beberapa rancangan telah diperkenalkan untuk memulihkan keadaan huru hara ini sepertipengisytiharan Darurat, Rancangan Briggs dan Rancangan Templer.· The Japanese occupation lasted for about three and a half years and they retreated on August15th1945.· When Japan retreated, British took 14 days to gain hold on Malaya.· Within these 14 days, The Malayan Communist Party (also known as the Bintang Tiga) triedto take over the Malayan administration and this caused chaos.· On September 1945, the British returned to Malaya and attempted to control the currentsituation and overcome the Bintang Tiga movement.· Several plans to overcome the chaos had been put in to action such as the Declaration ofEmergency, the Briggs Plan and the Templer Plan.
  • 61. © Copyright Reserved 2003 61CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES1.3.4.4 PENGISYTIHARAN DARURAT· Pada 16hb. Jun 1948, Sir Edward Gent, Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British telah mengisytiharkandarurat bagi kawasan-kawasan di Perak dan Johor.· Pada 17hb. Jun 1948, darurat diisytiharkan di seluruh Tanah Melayu. Pengisytiharan daruratdibuat atas dorongan di mana pada bulan tersebut Parti Komunis Malaya telah membunuh tigaorang pengurus ladang berbangsa Eropah di Perak.· Undang-undang Darurat 1948 memberi kuasa kepada polis dan tentera untuk menahan ataumenangkap orang yang disyaki terlibat dengan kegiatan komunis tanpa perbicaraan.· Pihak tentera juga mengadakan sekatan jalan raya dan perintah berkurung di kawasan dimana terdapatnya kegiatan komunis.· Sistem pendaftaran juga telah diperkenalkan di mana melalui sistem ini, penduduk yangberumur 12 tahun ke atas mesti mendaftar dan mempunyai kad pengenalan diri yangsekarang ini dikenali sebagai kad pengenalan.1.3.4.4 DECLARATION OF EMERGENCY· On June 16th1948, Sir Edward Gent, who was the British High Commissioner, declaredEmergency in the areas of Perak and Johor.· On June 17th1948, Emergency was declared in the whole Malaya. The declaration wasimplemented due to the murder of three European estate managers by the MalayanCommunist Party in Perak.· The 1948 Emergency Laws gave complete authority to the police and the army to detain,without trial, anyone who was suspected to be involved with communist activities.· The army had also ordered roadblocks and curfews in the areas where communist activitieswere detected.· The registration system was also introduced. Based on this system, citizens who were 12 yearsand above must register and have an identification card.1.3.4.5 RANCANGAN BRIGGS
  • 62. © Copyright Reserved 2003 62CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Rancangan Briggs diperkenalkan oleh Sir Harold Briggs, bertujuan membenteras kegiatankomunis melalui strategi menempatkan golongan di pinggir hutan ke kampung baru danmelancarkan gerakan kelaparan.· Rancangan ini bertujuan menghalang penduduk Cina daripada membekalkan makanan danperubatan dan memberikan maklumat kepada gerila komunis yang bersembunyi dalam hutan.· Rancangan ini didapati berkesan dalam menggagalkan pemberontakan komunis kerana iadapat melemahkan kegiatan Min Yuen dan seterusnya memaksa komunis keluar daripadahutan.1.3.4.5 THE BRIGGS PLAN· Sir Harold Briggs introduced the Briggs plan in order to overcome the communist activitieswhereby new settlements were placed at jungle-sites and hunger movements were launched.· The purpose of this plan was to prevent the Chinese from supplying food and medicines tothe communist guerrillas. It was also to prevent the communist from obtaining informationfrom the Chinese community.· This plan had proved effective in refraining communist activities for it was able to weakenthe activities of Min Yeun and then force them to leave the jungle.Rajah 1.38: Sir Harold BriggsDiagram 1.38: Sir Harold Briggs1.3.4.6 PERANG SARAF
  • 63. © Copyright Reserved 2003 63CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Sir Gerald Templer telah dilantik menjadi Pesuruhjaya Tinggi Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1952menggantikan Sir Henry Gurney.· Templer telah melancarkan perang saraf ke atas pengganas komunis dengan mengambilbeberapa tindakan. Antaranya:a. melonggarkan syarat kewarganegaraan bagi orang bukan Melayub. memberikan pengampunan secara beramai-ramai kepada anggota Parti KomunisMalaya yang menyerah diric. memberi hadiah kepada mereka yang memberi maklumat mengenai pengganaskomunisd. menyebarkan risalah yang meminta agar anggota Parti Komunis Malayameninggalkan perjuangan mereka.· Di samping itu, beliau telah memperkenalkan sistem “kawasan putih” dan “kawasan hitam”.Templer juga memperkenalkan konsep perintah berkurung di kawasan-kawasan tertentuketika tentera memburu anggota komunis.1.3.4.6 THE SARAF WAR· Sir Gerald Templer was appointed as the High Commissioner of Malaya to replace SirHenry Gurney in 1952.· Templer had launched the Saraf war against the communist through several ways. Some ofthe methods were:a. To disengage some of citizenship requirements for the non-Malays.b. To organize mass forgiveness programs for members the Malayan Communist Partywho surrendered to the British.c. To give rewards for those who provide information about the communists.d. Spread newsletters that asked the communists to leave their fight.· Besides that, Templer also introduced the system of “Black Areas” and “White Areas”.Templer also introduced Emergency declaration programs in specific areas when the armywas pursuing the communist.Rajah 1.39: Sir Gerald TemplerDiagram 1.39: Sir Gerald Templer1.3.4.7 RUNDINGAN BALING
  • 64. © Copyright Reserved 2003 64CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES· Setelah mengalami kemerosotan akibat tindakan kerajaan membanterasnya, Parti KomunisMalaya terdorong untuk mengadakan perundingan dengan kerajaan Tanah Melayu.· Rundingan ini telah diadakan di Baling, Kedah pada 28 dan 29 Disember 1955.· Pihak kerajaan diwakili oleh Tunku Abdul Rahman, David Marshall dan Tan Cheng Lock,sementara PKM diwakili oleh Chin Peng, Chen Tien dan Rashid Maidin.· PKM menuntut kerajaan supaya mengiktirafnya sebagai parti yang sah di sisi undang-undangtetapi tuntutan ini ditolak. Rundingan ini gagal apabila pada waktu yang sama PKM jugamenolak tawaran yang diberikan oleh kerajaan supaya PKM meletakkan senjata.1.3.4.7 THE BALING TREATY· Due to the adverse effects that they received (due to government programs to get eradicatecommunism), the Malayan Communist Party came to a decision of conducting a negotiationwith the government of Malaya.· The negotiation was held in Baling, Kedah on December 28thand 29thin 1955.· Tunku Abdul Rahman, David Marshall and Tan Cheng Lock represented the governmentwhile Chin Peng, Chen Tien and Rashid Maidin represented the Malayan Communist Party.· The Malayan Communist Party demanded that the government recognize it as a legal partyby law. However, this demand was rejected. The negotiation also failed because the MalayanCommunist Party refused to accept the government’s offer to lay down their weapons.Zaman Pra SejarahRingkasan Bab 1: Sejarah Awal Malaysia
  • 65. © Copyright Reserved 2003 65CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIES
  • 66. © Copyright Reserved 2003 66CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESPortugis· Menjajah Melaka dari 1511hingga 1641.· Tujuan kedatangan:memonopoli perdaganganrempah, galakan RajaPortugal, menyebarkanagama Kristian dankedatangan Vasco da Gamadan Lopez de Sequeira.· Kesan penjajahan:masyarakat Serani hasilperkahwinan orang Portugisdan tempatan, perkataan‘almari’, ‘tuala’ dan ‘garpu’,tarian dan nyanyian sertabinaan seperti A Famosadan gereja St. Paul.Belanda· Menjajah Melaka dari 1641.· Tujuan ke timur untukmemonopoli perdaganganrempah dan bijih timah sertamenghapuskan pengaruhPortugis.· Menyerahkan Melaka padaInggeris melalui PerjanjianInggeris-Belanda.Jepun· Menjajah Tanah Melayu dari1942 hingga 1945.· Kejayaan kalahkan Inggeriskerana: Inggeris tidak sediaberperang, tentera lautInggeris lemah, Jepun begitubersedia, kelebihan tenteraJepun dan lewat bantuandari London.· Sebab menjajah: inginwujudkan ideologi ‘AsiaUntuk Orang Asia’, danmemonopoli sumberekonomi.· Kesan penjajahan: pendudukmenderita kurang makanan,perdagangan lumpuh,matawang tidak bernilai,wujud kesedaran politik,permusuhan antara orangMelayu dan Cina, komunisberleluasa, orang Cinaditindas, orang Melayu danIndia jadi buruh paksa sertasistem pendidikan ala Jepundiperkenalkan.Inggeris· Negeri awal diduduki ialahPulau Pinang pada 11 Ogos1786.· Sebab campurtanganInggeris: memerlukan bahanmentah kerana revolusiindustri di England, menjagakepentingan pedagangInggeris, risau monopolikuasa Eropah dan Rusiauntuk bahan mentah, kacau-bilau di Tanah Melayu,kongsi gelap Cina dankegiatan lanun di SelatMelaka.· Mewujudkan Negeri Selat(Pulau Pinang, Melaka,Singapura), Negeri MelayuBersekutu (Negeri Sembilan,Pahang, Perak danSelangor) dan NegariMelayu Tidak Bersekutu(Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan,Terengganu).· Memperkenalkan sistemResiden di Negeri MelayuBersekutu.PenjajahanKuasaAsingRingkasan Bab 1: Sejarah Awal Malaysia
  • 67. © Copyright Reserved 2003 67CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESPre Historic PeriodPalaeolithic· Also Known as Stone EarlyPeriod· Palaeolithic people lived incaves· Use equipments made ofstone· Locations:- Kota Tampan- Gua Niah- TingkayuMesolithic· Also known as Stone MiddlePeriod or Hoabinh· More advanced stone tools· Locations:- Gua Musang- Gua Kecil- Guar Kepah- Gua MadaiNeolithic· Also known as New Era ofStone Age· Knew how to make pots fromclay· Ornaments equipped withthe engraving.· Interaction via river or land· Locations:- Gua Cha- Gua Kelawar- Bukit TengkorakIron Period· Also known as Bronze-SteelAge· Invent tools made of steeland bronze· Trading amongst people indifferent area· Exist early government· Locations:- Sungai Tembeling- Sungai Lang- Sungai LangatMalacca SultanateParameswara· A Prince from Palembang thatfailed to protect his country.· Lari ke Temasik. MembunuhTemagi dan lari ke Muarseterusnya ke Melaka.· Asaskan kesultanan Melaka,memajukan dan memakmurkanMelaka.Malacca Prosperity· Good diplomatic relation with Siamand China.· Islamic centre.· Peace and prosperity attract thetraders.· Systematic administration systemand great leaders.· Good port management system.The Downfall of Malacca· No good leaders after Tun Mutahir.· Slander and bribery.· High trading tax.· Attack from Portuguese leaded by Alfonso d’Alburqueque.· The discovery of Tanjung Harapan.Summary of Chapter 1: Malaysian Early History
  • 68. © Copyright Reserved 2003 68CHAPTER 1: MALAYSIAN EARLY HISTORYLAN 1003: MALAYSIAN STUDIESPortuguese· Colonise Malacca from1511 to 1641.· Purpose: monopolise spice-trading, encouragement bythe King of Portugal, tospread the teaching ofChristian and the visit byVasco da Gama with Lopezde Sequeira.· Effect of colonisation: cross-marriage between localpeople and the Portuguesepeople, new words adaptedto Malay Language such as‘almari’, ‘tuala’ and‘garpu’, new dance andsongs as well as newarchitecture like the AFamosa and St. Paulchurch.Dutch· In Malacca from 1641.· Purpose is to monopolisespice trading and tin as wellas to eliminate thePortuguese.· Gave Malacca to British viaEnglish-Dutch Agreement.Japan· Was in Malaya from 1942 to 1945.· Able to win over British due to:British were not ready, British navywas very weak, the Japanese werefully ready, the advantage ofJapanese army, late back up fromLondon.· Purpose to colonise: to spread theideology of ‘Asia is for Asians’, andto monopolise the source ofeconomy.· Effects of colonisation: local peopleare suffering due to less foodsupply, no trading activities, notvaluable money, raised-up politicalawareness, disagreement betweenMalays perdagangan lumpuh,communist was spreading rapidly,Chinese were suffering, Malays andIndian became force-labours andJapanese education system wasintroduced.English· Begin at Penang on August11th1786.· Reasons for disrupting: needraw materials for EnglandIndustrial Revolution, tomaintain their interest intrading, eliminate themonopolisation of rawmaterial by Europe andRussian, small wars inMalaya, Chinese black groupactivities and pirates at theMalacca Channel.· Created Straits Settlement(Penang, Malacca andSingapore), Federated States(Negeri Sembilan, Pahang,Perak and Selangor) andUnfederated States (Perlis,Kedah, Kelantan,Terengganu).· Introduced System of Residentto the Federated States.ColonisationSummary Of Chapter 1: Malaysian Early History

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