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The road to digital television in Sweden: state of the art and methodological tools for comparative / evaluating studies.

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Presentation carried out during my research visit at the Institutionen för Journalistik, Medier och Kommunikation (JMK) at the University of Stockholm. …

Presentation carried out during my research visit at the Institutionen för Journalistik, Medier och Kommunikation (JMK) at the University of Stockholm.

Stockholm, December 2004.

Author: Roberto Suárez Candel


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  • 1. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden: State of the art and methodological tools for comparative/evaluating studies. Roberto Suárez Candel Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. 15/12/2004
  • 2. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis 2. Research in Sweden 3. Preliminar results 4. Debate The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain.
  • 3. “ Digitalisation and transformation of the Television in the context of the European Union.” Design and implementation of an analysis and evaluation protocol for the national migration plans towards the Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT). 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 4. Digitalisation:
    • Image and audio quality (DVD)
    • Compression techniques  better use of spectrum  increase of the offer
    • New contents and formats  hybridation and interactivity
    • New services: convergence with telecomms
    1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 5. Digitalisation:
    • New production tools, techniques and procedures  new professional skills
    • Investment in equipment / cost reduction: original, copies, user
    • New distribution and commercializing possibilities: multiplatform, scope/scale economies
    • Market restructuring: new players / business models
    1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 6. Digitalisation:
    • Increase of the number of channels  increase of users’ chance to choose
    • New contents and services  new users’ skills required (from passive to active watching)
    • Restructuring of the audience and consumption patterns  evolution of programming strategies and channel branding: BROADCASTING  NARROWCASTING
    1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 7. Digitalisation Television transforms 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. Technology Content Production Market Users / Reception
  • 8. Due to Digitalisation, Television is transformed as:
    • Social Mass Media
    • Economic, Cultural and Political Agent
    That should be reallocated within society considering: Convergence / Globalisation / Information Society 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 9. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. “ New” research questions / topics:
    • Objectives and functions of TV as a social communication media
    • Role of the Public Service
    • New articulations of the public sphere
    • Promotion of culture and national identities
    • Access to contents, to markets
    • Universal service
    • Etc…
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 10. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. How do Public Institutions / the State act / influence on these questions? Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. Legislation Public Policy
  • 11. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Two approaching ways: European Union Member States dependent / complementary / coordinated Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 12. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Limiting the research scope: What am I interested in?
    • How Digitalisation transforms TV
    • How the Public Power influences on this process
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. Selection and interconnection of topics / theoretical background Dynamics between Europe and Member States
  • 13. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Starting the research: Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. SPAIN Legislation Market Reception / users
    • Approach to the technical field of DTV
    • Exploration of theoretical background
    EUROPE
  • 14. “ Digital Television and European Audiovisual Policy” Analysis of the measures addressed to foster the implementation of DTV. Design of a protocol to evaluate its situation in the Member States of the European Union. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. pre-Thesis dissertation: July 2004 Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 15. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. pre-Thesis dissertation: Review of the European legislation and policies related to Digital TV (direct / indirect way) Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. 80’s:
    • Content Regulation
    • International broadcasting
    • Legitimacy of UE
    90’s:
    • Liberalisation of markets
    • Convergence / tech. standards
    • Introduction of DTV
  • 16. 2000 - 2003:
    • Regulatory Framework: from Convergence to Info Society
    • Public Service, universal access and protection of consumers
    • Business models and competition
    • Infrastructures: interconnection and interoperability
    • Household equipment: compatibility and connectivity
    1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. pre-Thesis dissertation: Review of the European legislation and policies related to Digital TV (direct / indirect way) Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 17.
    • WTO GATS negotiations
    • European Enlargement
    • International cooperation
    • Council of Europe
    1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. pre-Thesis dissertation: Review of the European legislation and policies related to Digital TV (direct / indirect way) Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 18. Identification of a Strategic Plan for the implementation of DTV within the EU 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. pre-Thesis dissertation: RESULTS: Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
    • Regulation
    • Politics & Institutions
    • Business & Industry
    • Users
    4 frameworks
  • 19. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. pre-Thesis dissertation: RESULTS: EU’s Strategic Plan for DTV EU’s evaluation policy Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
    • Regulation
    • Politics & Institutions
    • Business & Industry
    • Users
    European Union Member States EVALUATION PROTOCOL
  • 20. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. pre-Thesis dissertation: RESULTS: EVALUATION PROTOCOL EU Member State Member State Coordination Transposition Comparison Methodological Tool Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 21. “ Digitalisation and transformation of the Television in the context of the European Union.” Design and implementation of an analysis and evaluation protocol for the national migration plans towards the Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT). 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 22. Thesis Structure: I. Digitalisation and Television II. Digital Television in the EU III. Evaluation protocol for the implementation of DTT in the Members States of EU IV. Comparative study cases: Sweden & Spain V. Conclusions in progress done to review in progress to do 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 23. 1. Introduction to the research project / thesis. Focus on Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT)
    • It’s the natural evolution of the European Public Broadcasting Systems.
    • Each Member State is developing its own migration plan.
    • It will force users to change their way of watching TV.
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 24. 2. Research in Sweden. Period: August – December 2004 Objectives: Implementation of the protocol Gathering documents Interviewing Authorities / Players DRAW A MAP OF THE ROLL OUT OF DTT IN SWEDEN Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 25. 2. Research in Sweden. Why Sweden?
    • With UK, Spain and Finland, it’s been one of the first MS in the EU to deploy DTT.
    • The process has been driven by public authorities and PBS.
    • Wide Digital TV environment: Cable / Sat / DTT.
    • Particular characteristics of Sweden.
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 26. 2. Research in Sweden.
    • Institutionen för Journalistik, Medier och Kommunication (JMK), Stockholms Universitet
    • Radio och Television Verket
    • Digital Television Kommissionen
    Advisors: Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 27. 2. Research in Sweden.
    • Public Broadcaster: SVT
    • Commercial Broadcasters: CanalDigital, Viasat, UPC, Comhem, Boxer.
    • Nordicom
    • Nordig
    • Kulturdepartamentet / Sveriges Riksdag
    • Teracom
    Sources of Information: Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 28. 3. Preliminar Results. Situation of DTV in Sweden: Aprox. 4.2 million of households 11 million of Tv sets Source: Pelle Merberg, Teracom Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 29. 3. Preliminar Results. Situation of DTV in Sweden: Aprox. 4.2 million of households 11 million of Tv sets (270.000) (650.000) (180.000) Source: Pelle Merberg, Teracom Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 30. 3. Preliminar Results. Situation of DTV in Sweden: Source: MMS Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 31. 3. Preliminar Results. Situation of DTV in Sweden: Wide Offer Cable Satellite Terrestrial 29 Kr/m 29 Kr/m 99 Kr/m 189 Kr/m 159 Kr/m Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. 270 Kr/m 261 Kr/m 225 Kr/m SPAIN
  • 32. 3. Preliminar Results. Situation of DTT in Sweden:
    • 1997 Parliament decides the introduction of DTT.
    • 1999-2000 gradual introduction (5 areas)
    • 2001 Budget Bill  Coverage 98%
    • 4 licensing procedures
    • 5 Multiplex
    • Evaluation reports from DTV Committees (SOU)
    • Migration Plan + 1st regional switchover
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 33. 3. Preliminar Results. Situation of DTT in Sweden: Source: Pelle Merberg, Teracom Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 34. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
    • Regulation
    • Politics & Institutions
    • Business & Industry
    • Users
    4 frameworks
  • 35. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol I. REGULATION
    • How does the Legislation configure the media market?
    • Are its scope and definitions flexible and wide enough?
    • Is the legislation ready to face the convergence process?
    • How has the European normative been transposed?
    • How has Sweden developed the European policies?
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 36. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol I. REGULATION
    • Definition of the broadcasting system
    • Fundamentals for the broadcasting service
    • Legal treatment for pay-tv services
    • Legal treatment for audiovisual content and services
    • Competition and pluralism
    • Transposition of EU’s normative
    • Development of EU’s normative
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 37. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol I. REGULATION Radio och Television Act (1996:844) Needs to be amended to include new services and to develop DTV. Different treatment of content by broadcasting supports  conflicts Complemented by special conditions in licenses Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 38. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol I. REGULATION
    • Protected schedules / content  Who is responsible for?
    • Promotion of national / European content
    • Advertisement  limitations / new techniques
    • No special measures for pay-tv / no control of retail fees
    • No special measures for ownership
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 39. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol I. REGULATION Transposition of EU’s directives: Without problems D 95/47 CE TV signal standards  1998:32 D 2002 (Com. Elec.)  2003:389 Sweden has proposed an amendment to the D 89/552 TWF  Allocation of companies. Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 40. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol I. REGULATION Development of legislation / policies: Radio och Television Verket 1998:01 Transmission Standards 1998:02 Receivers sets 1998:03 Conditional Access for DTV Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 41. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol II. POLITICS - INSTITUTIONS Role of the Government and other public institutions over the implementation process of DTT Functions of the several institutions and coordination between them Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 42. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol II. POLITICS - INSTITUTIONS
    • Legislation: designing and passing
    • Law implementation
    • Broadcasting licenses and authorisations
    • Market competition and pluralism control
    • Industrial and technological policies
    • Analogue-digital migration process
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 43. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol II. POLITICS - INSTITUTIONS Government Parliament DTV Committees DTV Commission Kulturdepartamentet Radio & Tv Verket Broadcasting Commission Konsument Verket KonkurrensVerket Post&Telestyrelsen Chancellor of Justice Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 44. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol III. Business – Industry
    • Migration Plan
    • Infrastructures Plan
    • Domestic Equipment
    • Content and services offer
    • Plan for content industry support
    • Plan against piracy
    • International cooperation
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 45. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol III. Business – Industry 2003 2004 2005 2007 2006 2008 MIGRATION PLAN Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. DDT bill on switchover 2002/03:72 Parliament Decission: DTT Network  99’8% MUX 1 till 98% Information campaign 1st switchover National Switchover Local / National Info Campaing 1st Switchover Q3-Q4 2005: Gotland, Gävle, Motala/Linköping X Switchover completed
  • 46. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol III. Business – Industry Source: Pelle Merberg, Teracom Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 47. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol III. Business – Industry
    • Cost of increasing the DTT coverage till 99,8%  financing
    • Benefits of a short migration plan
    • Must carry conditions  political debate / redefinition / copyright
    • Support to MHP  Nordig | Migration plans others APIs??
    • Public Fee  redefinition
    • International Cooperation: Nordic countries, EPRA, NRAs
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 48. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol IV. Users
    • Segmentation of population depending on attitudes
    • Education and information
    • Expenditure to be afforded by the users
    • Migration plans carried put by commercial op.
    • Cultural variables
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 49. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol IV. Users
    • DTV Commission  Attitudes study + Info Campaign
    • Expenditure  market strategies, no incentive plans
    • Positive attitude towards DTV but still weak to interactivity
    • Good results in Information Society indicators
    • But it’s necessary to go in deep this framework
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 50. 3. Preliminar Results. Implementation of the Evaluation Protocol
    • The protocol should be amended in several points.
    • Questionnaires to DTV broadcasters
    • Useful as methodological and comparative tool
    • Interesting comparative results with Spain
    • Sweden has really perspectives to be successful in the migration towards DTV.
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 51. 4. Debate
    • Current affairs:
      • Combobox by CanalDigital
      • Must carry debate
      • Implication of Public Broadcaster
      • Public Fees
    Roberto Suárez Candel | Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden.
  • 52. The Road to Digital Television in Sweden. Tack s å mycket! Roberto Suárez Candel Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona, Spain. [email_address]