Bio121 chapter4


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Bio121 chapter4

  1. 1. Chapter 4: FRACTURES Ruqayya Salam
  2. 2. Fractures <ul><li>A broken bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Named to describe the type of damage to the bone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone involved, part of the bone, and the description of the break. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abbreviated as FX or Fx. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Colles’ Fracture <ul><li>Common type of wrist fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called a distal radius fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when the area of the radius near the wrist breaks. </li></ul><ul><li>First described by an anatomist, Abraham Colles. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Colles’ Fracture <ul><li>Usually caused when someone falls and lands on their hands. </li></ul><ul><li>This can cause immediate pain, bruising, swelling, and the wrist will hang in a bent way. </li></ul><ul><li>An ice pack can be applied to the wrist and elevated until the Doctor is ready to examine it. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Colles’ Fracture <ul><li>The wrist can be protected with a splint to allow for normal swelling. </li></ul><ul><li>A cast can also be made to help with the healing of the bone if it is in a good position. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Colles’ Fracture <ul><li>However, if the bone cannot be corrected in the cast, surgery may be required. </li></ul><ul><li>Metal pins, plates and screws, and an external fixator might be necessary to hold the bones into place. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Compound Fracture <ul><li>The skin has been broken through to the fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called an open fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>To be classified as an open fracture, the outside air and debris must be able to get to the fracture site without a barrier of skin or soft tissue. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Compound Fracture <ul><li>Typically caused by high-energy injuries, such as car crashes, falls or sports injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the break in the skin, debris and infection can travel to the fracture location. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Compound Fracture <ul><li>Compound fractures require immediate surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>They usually take longer to heal because of the extent of the injury to the bone and surrounding tissues. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Comminuted Fracture <ul><li>The bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed into small pieces or fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 3 separate pieces of the bone must be present in order for it to be classified as a comminuted fracture. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes known as multi-fragmentary fractures. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Comminuted Fracture <ul><li>Can occur anywhere along the length of the bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Common in elderly people or in people with weakened bone conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be the result of a tremendous force such as a fall or car accident. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Comminuted Fracture <ul><li>The break will cause swelling and the patient cannot bear any weight on the broken bone. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be necessary to pin the fracture with surgery in order to knit the pieces back together. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Comminuted Fracture <ul><li>Sometimes, however, there can be complications such as infection, in which the pieces of the bone fail to join together. </li></ul><ul><li>The patient needs to set appointments with an orthopedic doctor to make sure that the bone is healing appropriately. </li></ul>