Behavior Modification<br />Token Economies – Ryan Sain<br />
Tokens<br />Conditioned reinforcers<br />If the reinforcer is something that can last a period of time and be ‘saved’ and ...
Token Economy<br />The situation that has been developed<br />Can be ‘natural’ <br />Can be ‘artificial’<br />Can be tempo...
Advantages<br />Immediate vs. Delayed reinforcement<br />Token ‘bridges’ the gap between behavior and backup reinforcer (d...
Steps in developing a Token Economy<br />Choose target behavior<br />Long term goals<br />What prerequisites exist (behavi...
Steps: Reinforcers.<br />Choosing backup reinforcers<br />Choose many<br />Choose a wide variety<br />More options than fo...
Steps: How to choose a token<br />What sorts of tokens should you use?<br />Not easily counterfeited <br />Automation?<br ...
Steps: Assistance<br />Small token economies<br />Large<br />Hospitals<br />Institutions<br />Work environments<br />
Implementation<br />Record keeping<br />Reinforcing Agent<br />Quantity and frequency<br />Keep your schedule rich to begi...
Implementation cont.<br />Punishment contingencies<br />Supervision of staff<br />Don’t forget to reinforce them!<br />Han...
A manual<br />Make use of rules<br />For the client<br />For the managers<br />Establish a clear manual targeted at each g...
Generalization<br />Program for generalization<br />Social reinforcement of desirable behavior is the key<br />Tie your to...
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Token economies

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Token economies

  1. 1. Behavior Modification<br />Token Economies – Ryan Sain<br />
  2. 2. Tokens<br />Conditioned reinforcers<br />If the reinforcer is something that can last a period of time and be ‘saved’ and later exchanged for something it is a TOKEN.<br />Money<br />Lottery tickets – winning vs. losing<br />Gaming tickets<br />Coffee cards<br />
  3. 3. Token Economy<br />The situation that has been developed<br />Can be ‘natural’ <br />Can be ‘artificial’<br />Can be temporary<br />Can be permanent<br />Allows for exchange of conditioned reinforcers for backup reinforcers<br />
  4. 4. Advantages<br />Immediate vs. Delayed reinforcement<br />Token ‘bridges’ the gap between behavior and backup reinforcer (delay)<br />Pairing tokens with many backup reinforcers causes the token to become a generalized conditioned reinforcer<br />Does not require a motivating operation for strength<br />
  5. 5. Steps in developing a Token Economy<br />Choose target behavior<br />Long term goals<br />What prerequisites exist (behavior wise) to achieve them<br />The more homogenous the group the easier they are to manage<br />Individual differences still exist – be prepared to be flexible<br />Baseline<br />Always establish baseline of target behaviors (and/or their prerequisites<br />
  6. 6. Steps: Reinforcers.<br />Choosing backup reinforcers<br />Choose many<br />Choose a wide variety<br />More options than for typical reinforcers (because they don’t have to be delivered immediately).<br />Ethics – reinforcers that are normally available cannot be withheld with many individuals (TV, meals, etc)<br />How are you going to dispense them?<br />
  7. 7. Steps: How to choose a token<br />What sorts of tokens should you use?<br />Not easily counterfeited <br />Automation?<br />Quantity<br />
  8. 8. Steps: Assistance<br />Small token economies<br />Large<br />Hospitals<br />Institutions<br />Work environments<br />
  9. 9. Implementation<br />Record keeping<br />Reinforcing Agent<br />Quantity and frequency<br />Keep your schedule rich to begin with then thin it out<br />Managing backup reinforcers<br />Rich  Thin<br />
  10. 10. Implementation cont.<br />Punishment contingencies<br />Supervision of staff<br />Don’t forget to reinforce them!<br />Handle problems early and often<br />Confusion, staffing, theft of tokens, distractions, not spending the tokens<br />
  11. 11. A manual<br />Make use of rules<br />For the client<br />For the managers<br />Establish a clear manual targeted at each group<br />
  12. 12. Generalization<br />Program for generalization<br />Social reinforcement of desirable behavior is the key<br />Tie your token to social reinforcers as well<br />Fade out the procedure<br />Decrease value<br />Allow the client to plan their own reinforcersand behaviors.<br />
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