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Cedp 402 week 3

Cedp 402 week 3



Reducing Behavior through reinforcement schedules, Extinction, stimulus control.

Reducing Behavior through reinforcement schedules, Extinction, stimulus control.



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    Cedp 402 week 3 Cedp 402 week 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Behavior Modification
      Decreasing Behavior, Extinction, Stimulus Control
    • Other schedules – to DECREASE behavior
      Odd – you can use reinforcement to decrease rates of behavior.
      This is because reinforcment schedules MAINTAIN behavior at a given rate – and as you change the schedule you get a clear effect on behavior.
      These are NOT punishment.
    • DRL
      Differential Reinforcement of low rates of behavior
      What is DIFFERENTIAL?
      DRL – limited responding
      Given number of responses is allowed over a time period in order to receive Sr.
      DRL – spaced responding
      Response does not occur for a given time, and then after that period has passed – the first response will be reinforced.
    • DR0
      Reinforcer only occurs if a given response does not happen during a given time
      If the unwanted behavior happens during the interval, the interval resets.
      There is a logical problem with this
      Prefer the term differential reinforcement of OTHER responding (not zero).
      Change the duration to make it more successful – start small.
    • DRI
      Differential reinforcement of INCOMPATIBLE responding.
      The response being reinforced MUST prevent the undesirable response from occurring.
      They cannot be performed at the same time.
      Sitting and standing
    • DRA
      Differential reinforcement of Alternative responding.
      Similar to DRI, but the response just has to be different than the unwanted behavior – not necessarily incompatible.
    • Decreasing behavior - Extinction
      If a previously emitted response is not followed by a reinforcer then the person is less likely to do that behavior in that situation in the future.
      It does not work on the first trial
      It is a gradual decrease
    • Factors influencing extinction
      Control of the reinforcers
      You must be able to actually control the source of the reinforcers in order to remove access to them
      Other people can effect your extinction program
      It does not necessarily generalize to different environments
      Functional assessment – must ensure that the reinforcer being withheld is actually the one maintaining the behavior.
      Extinguish one behavior while reinforcing another – in the same context.
      Try to use the same reinforcer if possible
      Setting is important
      Minimize alternative SR
      Maximize the chance of the behavior modifier sticking with the program
    • More factors
      Make use of rules
      The schedule of SR effects the speed of extinction
      Extinction bursts
      Produces aggression in some cases – also produces frustration
      Spontaneous recovery.
    • The 3 term contingency
      Any behavior can be viewed in terms of a 3 term contingency
      Stimulus (discriminative) – response – stimulus (reinforcer)
      The controlling factor is the consequence
      But it does so in a given context
      The ability of this context to generalize is susceptible to new or existing consequences
      The ability of the behavior to generalize is susceptible to new or existing consequences
    • Stimulus control
      Not all behavior is maintained by the same consequences in different situations or reinforced at all.
      Behavior that is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus and not another comes under STIMULUS CONTROL.
      Where that stimulus indicates that a particular behavior will receive reinforcement
      Stimulus control is the degree of correlation between a stimulus and a particular response
      The stimulus gives information about the consequences
    • Types of controlling stimuli
      Sd – indicates that a reinforcer is available for a given behavior
      SΔ – indicates that no reinforcement is available for a given behavior
      A given stimulus can serve as both for different behaviors in the same context
    • Stimulus generalization
      A behavior becomes more likely in a new situation as a result of being reinforced in another one.
      Similarity is a big part of this
      But what about things that aren’t similar?
      Classes – concepts (must know what makes up a concept, and what doesn’t – discrimination and generalization)
    • Discrimination training
      To develop stimulus control
      Make the Sd distinct
      Minimize error
      Add verbal cues – make incorrect responses impossible
      Give many trials
      Use rules