Behavior Modification<br />Assessment and Treatment Programs – Ryan Sain<br />
Assessment issues<br />Behavioral assessment<br />The focus is on data – not just suspicion<br />This is one of the criteria that makes behavior analysis so effective – gather evidence and then treat based solely on that evidence<br />
Intake phase<br /><ul><li>Is the person being treated in the right location?
Indicators?</li></li></ul><li>Other phases<br />Baseline<br />Target behavior – specific – well defined<br />Stability is the criteria<br />Treatment<br />Were the intervention is happening<br />Constant observation<br />Follow-up<br />Looking for maintenance and generalization<br />
Sources of data<br />Indirect<br />Interviews with client and people close to them<br />Questionnaires<br />Self report<br />Life history<br />Behavioral checklists, etc<br />Role playing<br />Useful when not able to observe in the specific situation<br />Self monitoring<br />
More sources<br />Direct assessment<br />Direct observation – most preferred method<br />Functional analysis<br />This is looking for the controlling variables – and demonstrates them with experimental control.<br />
Behavioral Assessment<br /><ul><li>What to record?
sports</li></li></ul><li>Behavioral Assessment<br />Stimulus control<br />Do they perform the behavior at the right time? <br />Under the right condition?<br />Latency<br />For efficiency and fluency<br />Quality<br />This is related to the previous categories<br />
Recording Methods<br />Continuous recording<br />Record all instances of the behavior over a given time period <br />Interval recording<br />Divide the time period into segments of short periods (a few seconds)<br />Record occurrence and non- occurrence<br />Partial Interval and whole interval recording<br />Time sampling – every hour – observe for 10 seconds (randomize?)<br />
Accuracy<br />Interobserver agreement (reliability)<br />Decreased by poor definitions, poor recording procedures, poor data sheets, poorly trained observers<br />Calculating IOA<br />Compare total scores (lowest divided by highest)<br />Agreement/agreement + disagreement (quite accurate)<br />
Functional Assessment<br />In functional assessment we are looking for the causes of behavior (or the likely causes of it)<br />We usually focus on problem behavior<br />We will use all of the techniques presented in the last chapter<br />But our primary focus will be on direct observation<br />
Procedures<br />Describe the behavior<br />Define ecological events<br />Define antecedent events (for occurrence and non-occurrence)<br />Identify consequences<br />What can the person do instead? <br />What should you avoid?<br />History <br />Start observations – look at competing behaviors<br />Provide summary statements<br />
Treatment Programs<br /><ul><li>Should you develop a program that has been suggested?
Who benefits? The client or others? Must be at least non harmful to the client.
Can the problem be operationalized? If you cant agree on the behaviors in question – do not continue.
Is the problem important to the client or others?
Can you get assistance from others? Can you control people who may hinder you?
Are you qualified and available?</li></li></ul><li>Baselining<br />Baselines – be detailed and specific. This is your primary tool for developing the program. <br />Functional assessments<br />Use the information you gathered to select possible procedures.<br />Is there actually time for a proper assessment?<br />Will people help or hinder you in your data collection?<br />Will someone be short circuiting you.<br />Will the surroundings help or hinder?<br />Is this a natural environment for the behavior to be recorded<br />Does it occur frequently enough to actually be observed or will you take months to get a baseline?<br />How fast much the behavior change?<br />
Steps to building a good program<br />There is as much of an art of building a good program as there is a science.<br />But there are a bunch of general questions that you want to ask as you are building a program.<br />The ones listed in your book should lead you to a quality program – and over time you will become better are knowing which questions to ask and it will become more natural.<br />
Program Maintenance and Evaluation<br />Did it work?<br />How do you know?<br />What do you do if it didn’t work?<br />If it did work – plan for follow ups. <br />Identify the costs<br />Communicate the program to others if successful.<br />