Behavior mod decreasing behaviorPresentation Transcript
Behavior Modification Decreasing Behavior through Punishment– Ryan Sain
Decreasing Behavior - punishment Punishment – the decreasing of a behavior by contingent application of a stimulus Often thought of as aversive stimuli This is functionally a suppression of behavior while the punishment contingency is in place It is sensitive to context – meaning that a behavior punished in one situation may still be present in another. The focus is again on the immediate effect of behavior
Types of punishment Positive punishment Pain inducing – unconditional punishers Reprimands – conditioned punishers Negative punishment Response cost – a response leads to the loss of something Time out (from reinforcement) Exclusionary – remove the person for a short time to a bland environment Nonexclusionary – using a stimulus to indicate that a certain reinforcement source is not available
Factors When you punish – reinforce appropriate behavior as well Just like extinction – or the response will come back once the punisher is removed Maximize the likelihood that this contingency will be implemented (develop strong Sd for appropriate responding) Minimize the Sd for the unwanted behavior Minimize the Sr for the unwanted behavior
More factors Intensity Use of an intense punisher is generally more effective – especially in situations where the Sd and Sr for inappropriate responding are still present. However – if you do the previous – then a very weak stimulus will likely be effective Never pair the punisher with Sr. Attention is an issue here (negative attention)
Yet more Add an SDp – make a rule and make it known. Deliver the punishers immediately Do not wait for hours and hours – you may be punishing desirable behavior! For punishment – continuous schedules are best. This is because the converse is true for reinforcement.
Ethics Punishment is controversial If a non pain inducing alternative is available, use it. Response prevention also prevents appropriate responding – so this is problematic Severe behavioral problems (self injury, health, etc.) are the only times when the use of punishment is acceptable. Time out issues
More ethics – really? Punishment does produce negative effects Aggressive behavior Emotional behavior Escape or avoidance – with the conditioned punishers now developed Does not teach new responses The punisher is modeled Self perpetuating if not done properly (and reinforces the punisher).
Escape and Avoidance Negative reinforcement (escape) Increasing a behavior (reinforcement) by the contingent removal of a stimulus The loss of a stimulus following a behavior – increases the frequency or occurrence of that behavior The stimulus MUST be present in order to escape it. This is not the case in punishment
Avoidance This is a little trickier – logically The stimulus is NOT PRESENT – yet the person learns to avoid it. How? Escape conditioning; rule governed behavior You MUST have prior experience with the stimulus in order to know to avoid it