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Behavior mod   decreasing behavior
 

Behavior mod decreasing behavior

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    Behavior mod   decreasing behavior Behavior mod decreasing behavior Presentation Transcript

    • Behavior Modification
      Decreasing Behavior through Punishment– Ryan Sain
    • Decreasing Behavior - punishment
      Punishment – the decreasing of a behavior by contingent application of a stimulus
      Often thought of as aversive stimuli
      This is functionally a suppression of behavior while the punishment contingency is in place
      It is sensitive to context – meaning that a behavior punished in one situation may still be present in another.
      The focus is again on the immediate effect of behavior
    • Types of punishment
      Positive punishment
      Pain inducing – unconditional punishers
      Reprimands – conditioned punishers
      Negative punishment
      Response cost – a response leads to the loss of something
      Time out (from reinforcement)
      Exclusionary – remove the person for a short time to a bland environment
      Nonexclusionary – using a stimulus to indicate that a certain reinforcement source is not available
    • Factors
      When you punish – reinforce appropriate behavior as well
      Just like extinction – or the response will come back once the punisher is removed
      Maximize the likelihood that this contingency will be implemented (develop strong Sd for appropriate responding)
      Minimize the Sd for the unwanted behavior
      Minimize the Sr for the unwanted behavior
    • More factors
      Intensity
      Use of an intense punisher is generally more effective – especially in situations where the Sd and Sr for inappropriate responding are still present.
      However – if you do the previous – then a very weak stimulus will likely be effective
      Never pair the punisher with Sr.
      Attention is an issue here (negative attention)
    • Yet more
      Add an SDp – make a rule and make it known.
      Deliver the punishers immediately
      Do not wait for hours and hours – you may be punishing desirable behavior!
      For punishment – continuous schedules are best. This is because the converse is true for reinforcement.
    • Ethics
      Punishment is controversial
      If a non pain inducing alternative is available, use it.
      Response prevention also prevents appropriate responding – so this is problematic
      Severe behavioral problems (self injury, health, etc.) are the only times when the use of punishment is acceptable.
      Time out issues
    • More ethics – really?
      Punishment does produce negative effects
      Aggressive behavior
      Emotional behavior
      Escape or avoidance – with the conditioned punishers now developed
      Does not teach new responses
      The punisher is modeled
      Self perpetuating if not done properly (and reinforces the punisher).
    • Escape and Avoidance
      Negative reinforcement (escape)
      Increasing a behavior (reinforcement) by the contingent removal of a stimulus
      The loss of a stimulus following a behavior – increases the frequency or occurrence of that behavior
      The stimulus MUST be present in order to escape it.
      This is not the case in punishment
    • Avoidance
      This is a little trickier – logically
      The stimulus is NOT PRESENT – yet the person learns to avoid it.
      How?
      Escape conditioning; rule governed behavior
      You MUST have prior experience with the stimulus in order to know to avoid it