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402 Lecture Reinforcement


Reinforcement issues relating to Behavior Modification.

Reinforcement issues relating to Behavior Modification.

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  • 1. Behavior Modification
    Reinforcement Issues
    Spring 2010
  • 2. Reinforcement
    • Any stimulus added or removed contingent upon a behavior that maintains or increases the strength of the behavior
    • 3. Positive reinforcement
    • 4. Contingently ADDING a stimulus following a behavior to strengthen or maintain a behavior.
    • 5. Negative reinforcement
    • 6. Contingently REMOVING a stimulus following a behavior to strengthen or maintain a behavior
    • 7. These are consequences of operant behavior.
    • 8. Reinforcement is a LAW.
  • Using reinforcement
    • Selecting a behavior
    • 9. Start general (being successful)
    • 10. Get more specific (being to work on time)
    • 11. Choosing a reinforcer
    • 12. Different reinforcers work differently for different people
    • 13. Consumable; activity; manipulative (play with a fav toy, etc); possessional and social.
    • 14. Satiation and deprivation (motivating operations)
    • 15. Temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer.
    • 16. Establishing operation (increases effectiveness) - deprivation
    • 17. Abolishing operation (decreases effectiveness) - satiation
  • Using reinforcement cont.
    • Reinforcer size
    • 18. Size is important – usually, but not always, as you increase the size of the reinforcer it maintains more behavior
    • 19. $$$$$$$$$
    • 20. Must watch out for satiation!
    • 21. Using rules
    • 22. Instructions are good to use with humans, but not necessary
    • 23. They speed up the learning process
    • 24. Placeholders for the delay to reinforcement
  • Using reinforcement, cont.
    Typically, the sooner you can reinforce, the better.
    Placeholders to long delays help (these can be small reinforcers) – self statements work here too.
    Contingent vs. non-contingent
    Reinforcers that are non-contingent do not affect the behavior in question – we call them rewards.
    Accidental reinforcement – adventitious leads to superstitious behavior
    Working toward natural reinforcers
    Most behaviors do have natural reinforcers – but we need to get the behavior mod program to reach these.
  • 25. Conditioned Reinforcers
    Unconditioned reinforcers – primary
    Food, water, sex, warm
    Conditioned reinforcers
    By pairing neutral stimuli with primary reinforcers you can develop conditioned or secondary reinforcers
    Clickers, photos, money
    You present the conditioned Sr and then later, on occasion present the backup Sr (the primary or even secondary reinforcer)
    Token economies work on this principle – you earn tokens and exchange them for other reinforcers. Immediacy.
  • 26. Conditioned Reinforcement, Cont.
    Make sure the backup reinforcer is actually a reinforcer
    Food is not a reinforcer to a satiated organism
    Use many backup reinforcers
    Generalized conditioned reinforcer – connects to MANY backup reinforcers
    Intermittent reinforcement is still the best (in terms of the backup Sr)
    Don’t let the conditioned Sr extinguish.
  • 27. Problems
    Consistency – make sure that the conditioned Sr actually leads to a backup Sr.
    Punishment has the same issue.
    The extinction problem – make sure that you use effective backup Sr.
  • 28. Intermittent reinforcement
    Schedules of reinforcement
    A rule of how frequently a behavior will be reinforced, if at all.
    The ones that maintain the highest rates are intermittent reinforcement.
    Ratio schedules
    Dependent on the number of behaviors performed
    Interval schedules
    Dependent on ONE behavior after a given amount of time.
    Limited hold
    After an interval – a response will produce a reinforcer only for a given window of time.
    Duration Schedules
    Used with continuous behavior
    Must be performed for a given length of time to receive the reinforcer