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324 12 3 special topics tool use language

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  • 1. Human Learning Topic 12 - 3: Special Issues: Tool Use & LanguageCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 1 3/30/2012
  • 2. Origins 1927 – chimp put a box on another to reach food Many studies involving primates  Not really surprising Crows of New Caledonia  Tool fabrication and useCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 2 3/30/2012
  • 3. The Crows Established a colony Wild birds Use twigs of varying lengths to reach food in a tube  At a rate greater than chance A bucket in a tube  Bird had to bend metal strips to form a hook Adding rocks to water to raise foodCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 3 3/30/2012
  • 4. Explanations Complex cognitions  Intelligence Reinforcement  Just a case of conditioning Cannot separate the two in wild birds  No control of reinforcement history  No control of modeling Captive raising Some is modeling – some is predisposition  But birds will do this on their ownCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 4 3/30/2012
  • 5. Language in nonhumans Uniquely human view  Evolved a mechanism for language Intelligence view  We are very intelligent  Just require relevant experiences  Sparks research in comparative cognitionCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 5 3/30/2012
  • 6. Speech Extremely difficult to teach  Very limited success  Probably biological constraints ASL  More success with chimps here  Wider range of responses availableCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 6 3/30/2012
  • 7. Evidence Kanzi  Learned lexigrams (symbols)  Learned to understand words  Various tests Language?  Great apes, grey parrots, dolphins, sea lions - vocabulary  This is not language  No syntax, no grammar  Kanzi showed some evidence of thisCEDP324 Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 7 3/30/2012