324 01 history, methodology

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A discussion of the background in human learning.

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324 01 history, methodology

  1. 1. Human Learning Topic 1: Historical Contexts, Methodology, and Non- Human Research.Cedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 3/29/2012 1
  2. 2. Descartes Dualism Early 1600’s Prior to Descartes: conscious intent and free will ruled the day.  Behavior was not lawful. Descartes believed that some behavior was lawful.  Voluntary vs. Involuntary (the reflex)  Cartesian DualismCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 2 3/29/2012
  3. 3. Why reflex? Stimulus (sense) Pineal Brain Mind Gland Muscles Source of voluntary (voluntary, Behavior involuntary) •Arrows represent nerves. The Reflex Arc •Animal spirits (inside nerves) •Other critters have reflexes only Sensory input is REFLECTED in the response.Cedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 3 3/29/2012
  4. 4. Dualism Mind Body Separate but working together Two new fields  Mentalism  ReflexologyCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 4 3/29/2012
  5. 5. Mentalism Study of how the mind works Cognitive psychology Descartes:  Mind contains things outside of experience  God, concept of self, axioms of geometry NativismCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 5 3/29/2012
  6. 6. A Debate Nativism (Descartes and others) Empiricism (John Locke and others – 1600 - 1800)  Tabula Rasa  Association  Basic experiences combine to NOT form complex ideas  Rules  Contiguity, similarity, contrast This debate rages onCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 6 3/29/2012
  7. 7. Comparative Cognition Descartes started a fire – humans are not as unique as we think we are Darwin took it a step further  He claimed contiguity between species  The human mind is the product of evolution  Other critters may share our abilities  Very difficult to investigateCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 7 3/29/2012
  8. 8. Investigating Intelligence A definition proposed:  Romanes (1882)  “to make new adjustments, or modify old ones, in accordance with the results of it’s own individual experience.”  Familiar? This became it’s own branch – Comparative PsychologyCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 8 3/29/2012
  9. 9. Neural Function Pavlov  Focusing on gastric secretions  Nervism – all key physiological functions are governed by the nervous system  Eventually studied conditioning of reflexes  A form of learning Step two in using animal models  Exploring biological functionCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 9 3/29/2012
  10. 10. Animal Models Animals provide a model of human behavior  Primates, rats, pigeons Models are not perfect  But representative  Comparable in terms of features or functions Simple, easily controlled, less expensiveCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 10 3/29/2012
  11. 11. Learning Defined What are some definitions? Your book:  “Learning is an enduring change in the mechanisms of behavior involving specific stimuli and/or responses that results from prior experience with those or similar stimuli and responses”  A functional definition  A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience of the organism.Cedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 11 3/29/2012
  12. 12. Learning vs. Performance Observation issues  Learning without performance?  Only way to know learning has occurred Change in performance is not necessarily learning  Factors influencing behaviorCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 12 3/29/2012
  13. 13. The Science of Learning Prior experience effects learning  Looking for cause and effect  Requires experimentation  Manipulate events and measure effects Behavior change not due to learning  Fatigue, maturation  Need to rule these out We look for general laws – commonalities We are empiricalCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 13 3/29/2012
  14. 14. Credits: Photo of Descartes – Ken Wilson  http://kenwilsonelt.wordpress.com/2010/01/ Caricature of John Locke – Ryan Neal  http://ryanjneal.blogspot.com/2009/03/john-locke- caricature.html Image of John Locke – philosopher  http://www.spaceandmotion.com/philosophy-john- locke-biography.htmCedp 324 - Ryan Sain, Ph.D. 14 3/29/2012

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