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SOFT SKILLS WORLD takes pleasure in introducing itself as an experienced and competent conglomeration with more than 300 Training & Development professionals. This team represents key functional …

SOFT SKILLS WORLD takes pleasure in introducing itself as an experienced and competent conglomeration with more than 300 Training & Development professionals. This team represents key functional domains across industries.

We sincerely look forward to joining hands with your esteemed organization in our endeavour to create a mutually satisfying win-win proposition per se Organization Development interventions.

May we request you to visit us at http://www.softskillsworld.com/to have a glimpse of the bouquet of our offers .We have partnered with the best & promise you an excellent organizational capability building.

We firmly believe Hard Skills alone are not sufficient enough to enhance business success. Aligned with high performance organizational culture and given the right direction, Soft Skills is the best recipe for business success.


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  • 1. ZERO DEFECTS- THE SIX SIGMA WAY BY: SOFT SKILLS WORLD
  • 2. What is Six Sigma?
  • 3. • A strategy to become world-class through process improvement• An emphasis on better, faster, lower cost• An evaluation of all aspects of a business• A definition of value from the customer’s perspective• A focus on knowledge-based decision making• A commitment to cultural change• A journey, not a destination
  • 4. Process• Many people are responsible for designing, analyzing, and maintaining business processes. – Project Champions – Process Owners – Master Black Belts (MBBs) – Black Belts (BBs) – Green Belts (GBs)• Each one of the team member plays an important role in the project during various phases.
  • 5. Six Sigma Roles• Six Sigma Improve projects include the following key roles. Black Belt Green Belt Master Black Belt Project Champion Project Sponsor Process Owner Along with Subject Matter Experts, these roles are critical to the success of the Six Sigma project.
  • 6. Basics of Variation• Process improvements are driven by the understanding of variation. Center • Is the process on target? If not, where is the process center? Spread • How variable are the scores around the center? Shape • What is the shape of the distribution? • Is it bell-shaped, skewed, symmetric? Over Time • How does the process behave over time? Variation = Uncertainty
  • 7. The Customer’s Perspective• The results of the variation show up as: Good or Bad? • The payment is applied to the right account • The payment is not applied to the account On Time or Not? • The payment is applied right on time • The payment shows up too soon/too late• So what are our options? Variation = Uncertainty
  • 8. Key Phases of the Six Sigma Methodology• Six Sigma methodology provides a framework to systematically improve critical processes. While each approach is slightly different, they draw upon the same set of tools to deliver results. • Six Sigma Improve Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Leverage • Six Sigma Design Define Measure Analyze Design Execute • Six Sigma Process Management Define Mobilize Measure Identify Manage • Six Sigma Management Disciplines Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Leverage
  • 9. DMAICL Overview – Our Methodology• Six Sigma Improve Measure a phased format. Define follows Improve Control Leverage Analyze Define the Measure the Analyze the Improve the Control the Share the results customer and process and data and process with new process with other areas project scope validate the identify pilot and DOE measurement solutions system The most successful Six Sigma projects ensure key outcomes are achieved within each phase. However, it is not a linear process. You will see the phases overlap. For example, Leverage starts in early Define. DMAICL – An Iterative process
  • 10. Capability and DPMO How good are we today? Process Defects per Million Process Capability Opportunities Yield 2s 308,537 69.1463% 3s 66,807 93.3193% 4s 6,210 99.3790% 5s 233 99.9767% 6s 3.4 99.9997%(Includes 1.5s Mean Shift) What does it mean to our customers?
  • 11. Define: Process• High level process to complete the Define Phase Select Define Develop Define Obtain Black Belt Problem Project Project Approval and Team Statement Plan • CT Tree • Determine • Project • AEPM • Project • QFD Roles Charter Charter
  • 12. Measure: Process • High level process to complete the Measure Phase Collect Data & Establish Determine the Vital few determine goodness Baseline drivers of the business problem of data collected• Capability • Create Data Collection Plan • Pareto Analysis • Decide Sampling Strategy based on • Collect Data the 80/20• Stability • Measure System Analysis principle Analysis
  • 13. Analyze: Process• High level process to complete the Analyze Phase Document Determine Refine Determine Causes that Failure Sampling Vital X’s Impact the Y Modes Plan • Fishbone • FMEA • Sample Guidelines • T-Test, ANOVA • FMEA • Test of Equal Variance • Chi Square • Regression • 2 Proportions Collect Finalize Understand Assess Additional Vital X’s Entitlement Risk Data • Subgroup the data • Zst (shift) • FMEA • Process Report • Product Report
  • 14. Improve: Process• High level process to complete the Improve Phase Determine Plan Perform Variable Experiment Experiment Relationships • Fractional Factorial DOE • Predictive Equation • Full Factorial DOE • Residual Analysis Extract Develop Determine Predictive Improvement Improve Equation Options Strategy • Mean, Variance • Solution Design • Solution Design Matrix Matrix Predict Validate Implement Improved Future Solution Performance Performance • 2 sample T •Test for Equal Variances • ANOVA •Chi Square • Regression •2-Proportions
  • 15. Control: Process• High level process to complete the Control Phase Mistake Develop Dismantle Proof New Feedback Old Process Process Mechanism • Fishbone • X-Bar and R, •Process Maps • FMEA • I&MR • Mistake Proofing • P Chart • SOP’s • C Chart • Trigger Points • Process Control Plan • Scorecard
  • 16. Leverage: Process• High level process to complete the Leverage Phase Determine Share Best Translate Translation Practices Improvements Opportunities in R6/MIS • CT Tree • R6/MIS • Process Maps • Rewards and Recognition By using R6/MIS from the beginning of your project, you may be able to find pertinent research that can be leveraged towards your own project.
  • 17. Always begin with implementing pilot solutions
  • 18. Why Pilot Solutions?Solutions are piloted to:• Better understand the improvement effectiveness• Lower overall risk prior to full scale roll-out• Predict overall cost/benefits and COPQ impact• Justify further investments• Identify potential new issues that may not have been considered
  • 19. How To Pilot Solutions? When implementing solutions:• Select a small scale roll-out of improvements in the actual process• Choose a small segment that is in urgent need of change (test markets, software launches, control groups, power users)• Walk the new process and gather data!• Use hypothesis testing to verify results (Were the desired results achieved?)
  • 20. Sustaining Process ImprovementsKey elements to consider in sustaining a desired state: • Make the PROCESS independent of the PEOPLE • Make the OUTCOME robust to variation from the INPUTS • DESIGN OUT other potential sources of variation We need ensure your process has attained the a stabilized state without any external control mechanisms
  • 21. Quality Improvement
  • 22. Project Management Toolkit
  • 23. Project Management Toolkit• Project Execution• Project Story board• Project scoring & GB certification• Governance process – Customer ( Status Report format ) – FCI leadership ( Mentors ) – FORUM ( draft enclosed ) One day Quality training plan
  • 24. Green Belt Project: Suggested Tools Define Measure Analyze Improve Control•Project Charter •Process Map •FMEA( Upto RPN) •Mistake Proofing •SOPs/DIs •Gage R&R •Fish Bone •Solution Design •FMEA Matrix •Process Baseline/Sigma •T – Test •3 Data Points •Fractional Factorial •Fish Bone •Test for Equal •Fish Bone DOE Variances •QFD •Mistake Proofing •Full Factorial DOE •ANOVA •Benchmarking •X-Bar & R Chart •Residual Analysis •Chi Square Test •Surveys •I & MR Chart •Equation for Mean •Regression •Regulations •P – Chart •Equation for Variance •2 – Proportions •Run Chart •C – Chart •2 – Sample t – Test •Box Plot •Normality Test •ANOVA •Histogram •Fulfillment Calculations •Test for Equal •Pareto Chart Variances •Scatter Diagram •2 – Proportions
  • 25. Project Name Project No: Start Date: End Date:Project Charter
  • 26. Project Name Project No: Start Date: End Date:Define S.no Tools Used Objective Result Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • 27. Project Name Project No: Start Date: End Date:Measure S.no Tools Used Objective Result Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • 28. Project Name Project No: Start Date: End Date:Analyze S.no Tools Used Objective Result Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • 29. Project Name Project No: Start Date: End Date:Improve S.no Tools Used Objective Result Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • 30. Project Name Project No: Start Date: End Date:Control S.no Tools Used Objective Result Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • 31. Project Name Project No: Start Date: End Date:Leverage S.no Tools Used Objective Result Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6Details of tools to be stored in PACE / Shown during scoring of projects
  • 32. Project Name Project No: Start Date: End Date:• Sign off by process owner on results achieved• Sign off by PMA on Financials
  • 33. Scoring Methodology Tools PointsProject Charter 5Problem Statement 1Goal Statement 1Defect 1Others (Project Plan , roles & resposibilities etc.) 2Process Map 4Level 1 to 3 or lower Provided 2.5Flow (Volumes/Rates) 0.5Cycle (Rework/Delays) 0.5Value (VA / NVA) 0.5Gage R & R 2Set-up - overall approach 0.5Setup - operator selection explained 0.5Setup - sample size (# of attributes: 30 Discrete, 10 Continuous) 0.5Setup - 3 operators 0.5Sigma Level 1Operational Definition Provided 0.5Setup. 3 Operators 0.5Fish Bone 26 Bones used as defined 0.5Head of the Fish is a detailed problem statement 0.5Ask Why at least 3 times 0.5Low level bones are measurable and actionable 0.5Other Tools 1
  • 34. F M EA 5 A ll lo w le ve l b o n e s in c lu d e d 2 S o rt e d b y R P N n u m b e rs 2 C O P Q a s s o c ia t e d w it h e a c h lo w le ve l b o n e 1 O th e r T o o l s 5Im p ro v e M i sta k e P ro o fi n g 3 R e a l i se d B e n e fi ts( 1 p e r F T E ) 3 S o l u ti o n D e si g n M a tri x 2 D e s ig n s e le c t e d fo r im p le m e n t a t io n in c lu d e s M is t a k e P ro o fin g 1 D e s ig n s e le c t e d c o n s is t e n t w it h P ro je c t C h a rt e r fin a n c ia ls 1 O th e r T o o l s 2C o n tro l S OP s + DI s 4 F M EA 2 C o n tro l C h a rt w i th 3 D a ta P o i n ts 2 O th e r T o o l s 2L e v e ra g e S h a ri n g P ro j e c t L e a rn i n g s 2.5 I d e n ti fi c a ti o n 2.5 M a x i m u m P o i n ts 50 P o i n ts R e q u i re d fo r C e rti fi c a ti o n ( I n c a se o f m u l ti p l e p ro j e c ts, th e m a x p o i n ts i n e a c h P h a se a re c o n si d e re d ) 35
  • 35. Project Name FRCE-02-GA-001 Start Date: End Date: Define Measure Analyze Improve ControlProblem Statement Key achievements:The objective of this project is to identify solutions for • Potential solution for removing thereducing the card member remittance suspension and root cause identified .improving the auto-match so that card member can getcredit on the same day in Japan market • List of Main root causes createdBenefit Summary ( Flexibility / Speed / Value Risks/Challenges/ Quality )Value 39KDefectATM network in Japan Next Steps/Counter MeasuresTools UsedFMEA, ANOVA
  • 36. Projects Tracking MetricsMetric No. Metric Numerator Denominator POD Z M-> Jan 02 Feb 02 Mar 02 Projects No of Projects not Total No. of Z 1.71 1.71 1.82 Registered in registered in PACE. Projects DPMO 416667 416667 375000 1 PACE Identified for Num 10 10 9 Registeration Den 24 24 24 Project Charter No. of Registered Total No. of Z 2 2 6 in PACE Projects in which Project Projects Put in DPMO 466667 333333 0 2 Charter not put in PACE PACE Num 7 5 0 Den 15 15 15 Fortnightly SDL No of Projects in which Total No. of SDL Z 6 6 6 Review the fortnightly SDL Reviews to be DPMO #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 3 Reviews did not happen conducted. Num 0 0 0 Den 0 0 0 Monthly BL No of Projects in which Total No. of BL Z 6 6 6 Reviews the monthly BL Reviews Reviews to be DPMO #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 4 did not happen conducted. Num 0 0 0 Den 0 0 0 Fortnightly No of Projects in which Total No. of Z 6 6 6 Project Status the fortnightly PSR did PSRs to be DPMO #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 5 Report (PSR) not reported reported Num 0 0 0 Den 0 0 0 FTEs achieved No of FTEs not achieved Total No. of Z 6 6 6 Per Plan per plan FTEs Per Plan DPMO 0 0 #DIV/0! 6 Num 0 0 0 Den 1 1 0 Projects Closed No of Projects not closed Total No. of Z 0 1 6 per plan Projects planned DPMO 875000 666667 #DIV/0! 7 for closure Num 7 2 0 Den 8 3 0 Closure Report No of projects where Total No of Z 6 6 6 in PACE Project Closure report not Projects DPMO 0 0 #DIV/0! 8 put in PACE identified for Num 0 0 0 Closure Den 1 1 0
  • 37. What Is a Metric ?A metric is a statistic or parameter that is expressed as a number whichexplains the nature of an event , process or noun. It is usually aresponse to how much , how small , how big or an expression of timeelapsed.a) Length of our trousersb) Time to get to the officec) Chest sized) Tyre Pressure etc.e) Marks received in school To Appreciate the need for Metrics Let us hear the Story Of Darji Aflatoon
  • 38. Saalon Pehle Ek Darji thaNaam tha Darji Aflatoon . Andaza lagaya tha usneUsko mila main aur kaha Kahe mujhe hai Faster Trick“Bana do mere liye, ek Patloon” Isme lage nahin metric“Par Tum Karna Thodi Jaldi Kismat Thi Meri BekaarKyunki parson hai meri Shaadi” Samjha Anadi ko HoshiyaarDarji Aflatoon bada hoshiyaarKahe Sabhi Ko Baram Baaar Aisa tha Darji Aflatoon“Jo ayega Mere Dwar Ban gayi Nikkar Meri Patloon.Kar Doon uska Baeda Paar” Darkhwaast Yaaron se Karta Hoon Mat Ban na tum AflatoonMain abhi ispe shuru hota hoonParson le jana apni Patloon Isstemaal na Karna Uski TrickDin Gaya aur Parson Aaya , Apne Banwao Tum MetricDil mera har pal muskaya, Har Roz Bharo apne Metric Har Roz Padho Apne MetricGaya mein lene apni patloon Isstemaal Karo Tum MetricTabhi Mila Darji Aflatoon.Bola Patloon hai TaiyaarAbhi Daal Kar Dekho Yaar
  • 39. Such Items ( Those That don’t have Metrics around them - Difficult toUnderstand) are dealt with in a Separate Subject.There are People who specialize in this Subject These Subjects are not dealt with in Science ,They are known as………... Philosophers Commerce , Medicine etc. So What Subjects are their pet Subjects :•Love Others would say that these don’t have any degree and•Grief hence don’t need any metric to measure .ie. You are either•Happiness honest or you are dishonest. There is no 80% honesty.You•Honesty are either in Love or you are not . It doesn’t make sense to say that one is 30% in Love. Since it cannot be checked that is why some people make a roaring Business out of telling people whether they are in Love or not. Some Use Questionnaires ; the others use ………………. StarsHowever you can have metrics to measure how many persons in apopulation are happy or in Love at any given time.
  • 40. Why do we need metrics in business ? :Metrics Understanding Control Improvement SurvivalA business would need metrics at every level of its management hierarchytoa) Track requirementsb) Performancec) Prevent problemseg:a) Number of effective Person hours availableb) % Downtime or Utilisation of a machinec) Total Inventory of Goodsd) Amount of Work -In - Processe) Revenue generatedf) % errorsg) Volume of Demandh) Turnaround timeI) Absenteeism ratesj) Return On Investment etc.etc...
  • 41. If we don’t measure and track these critical business metrics then :a) no body can understand what is happening .b) we will not be able to decide anythingc) if we decide it will be based on feelings not factsd) if we decide we shall not know the results of a decisione) Your colleagues can not know if your performance is good or badf) We will not know if we should invest , spend or save---- in short complete chaos.
  • 42. What is Six Sigma? :Six Sigma is a customer focussed process improvement managementapproach that promises near perfect quality or 3.4 defects per millionopportunities. This is a level of Perfection that all world class organisationsare aspiring to .This management process has Six Steps :Define, Measure , Analyze , Improve ,Control and LeverageThe Beginning of Six Sigma approach is Define which requires theavailability of Metrics. Hence Six Sigma cannot begin without Metrics.
  • 43. What are Six Sigma Metrics?:Six Sigma as a management philosophy focuses on the customer . Itfocuses on what the customer ( internal or external ) expects and not onwhat the current paradigms dictate as possible. So Who is a Customer ?Customer is any person who is the recepient of your processoutput. A colleague, Your TL, SDL, BL or any external personwho uses information etc. provided by you.Metrics that capture key customer requirements or the ones which arekey to delivering these expectations are known as Six Sigma Metrics.In context of American Express we need to measure those metrics thatare critical to our three constituencies viz. Customers , Employees andShareholders.
  • 44. QFD : Quality Function DeploymentSix Sigma methodology offers us a tool which is known as QFD orQuality Function Deployment. This tool is used for the followingpurposes :• Capture the Voice of the Customer to establish all his needs.• Find out the Customers’ rating of the importance of various needs.• Transfer this importance to internal company processes.• Develop metrics that focus on critical process performance.• Prioritization of Metrics that need improvement . ( Projects)
  • 45. When Should we use QFD ? :We should use QFD in following cases :a) When the Voice of the customer has not been captured and no metricsexist to track performance.b) Metrics have been developed , metric performance is good yetcustomer satisfaction is either stagnant or deteriorating ( Customercomplaints are rising)c) Market share is stagnant or being lost.d) It is also used for designing of Products and Processes
  • 46. QFD Detailed Methodology :1. Define your customer and make the SIPOC diagram. Your Customer is the person who uses the output of your process. Eg. Market finance personnel or function , your TL, BL etc. The SIPOC Diagram : Puts into Perspective the Broad Picture of the Process and the end Parties involved. Supplier Inputs Process Output Customer S I P O C List your List the Name the List the List the Supplier Inputs recd. Process Here Outputs Customers here From the provided to here. supplier the here customer
  • 47. Supplier Inputs Process Output Customer S I P O C List your List the Name the List the List the Supplier Inputs recd. Process Here Outputs Customers here From the provided to here. supplier the here customerEach Output may be considered as a product that you supply to the customeror you may consider the set of outputs as a single product.If you consider the set of Outputs as a single product then you must find outwhat is the relative importance of the various outputs and its relevance to thecustomer.Select the product for which you want to develop the metrics. And thenperform the detailed QFD on the same.
  • 48. 2. Write down the Categories of Customer Expectation The World Over Customer Expectation in the service sector may be classified into 9 categories which are : 1) Performance : How well does the service provider perform its stated function. (Adherence to SLA viz. time , Accuracy) 2) Capacity : Does it have the capacity to handle my volumes ? Spikes 3) Reliability: How reliable is the process ?, How often does it break down? (Exception to SLA , churn , control ) 4) Time to deliver : How much time does it take to install ( migrate a new process ?)? How much time does it take to process a special or new request ? How flexible is the process ? 5) Ease of Use :The service is easy to use. Length or number of steps it takes a customer to avail of a particular process output / information . 6) Response to Queries / complaints : How quickly and how well are the complaints or queries resolved? 7) Accessible & Courteous: Is it easy to approach the service provider ? Does the service provider respond positively to customer opinions and needs ? 8) Safety : How safe is the service in terms of Privacy ? BCP , Financial Exposure 9) Aesthetics (Report Formats)
  • 49. 2. Put your self in the shoes of your customer and think of the specificrequirements that he / she may have in each of the categories ofCustomer Expectations as shown in the figure S.No Customer Expectations 1 Performance 1.1 Accuracy of Process 1.2 Time taken to process 2 Capacity 2.1 Ability to handle Volume Spikes 3 Reliability 3.1 How often does it give errors beyond SLA 3.2 How often does it exceed timelines 3.3 How good is the control system ( Audits) 4 Time To Deliver 4.1 How much time does it take to deliver a new request 4.2 Flexibility Of the Process 4.3 Time to Migrate a new Process 5 Ease Of Use 5.1 No. Of Steps to avail of a Particular Information 5.2 (----------) 5.3 (----------)This break down is done for each of the categories of customer expectation fora particular process
  • 50. Arrange the ratings that you gave in the left side of the Matrix as shown S.No Customer Voice Rating 1 Performance 1.1 Accuracy of Process should be High 5 1.2 Time taken to process should be low 3 2 Capacity 2.1 Ability to handle Volume Spikes should be high 1 3 Reliability 3.1 How often does it give errors beyond SLA 5 3.2 How often does it exceed timelines 5 3.3 There should be no surprises to the customer 4 4 Time To Deliver 4.1 New requests should be processed quickly 4 4.2 Processes should be flexible 3 4.3 Time to customize for a new feature / reqmt. Is less 2 5 Ease Of Use 5.1 No. Of Steps to avail of a Particular Information 3 5.2 (----------) 5.3 (----------)4. Approach the Customers you defined in the 1st Step and request themto check the requirements you put in and the ratings you gave on behalf ofthe customers and record their feed back as shown.
  • 51. Customers Rating Custom er Need C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Average No. 1.1 5 4 5 3 4 4.20 1.2 4 3 5 4 5 4.20 2.1 4 5 4 5 4 4.40 3.1 5 5 5 5 5 5.00 3.2 2 1 1 2 2 1.60 3.3 1 1 2 2 1 1.40 4.1 4 5 4 5 3 4.20 4.2 3 2 1 2 3 2.20 4.3 2 2 2 2 2 2.00 5.1 5 4 5 5 4 4.60 5.2 4 3 5 4 5 4.20 5.3 2 1 1 1 2 1.40 5.4 1 2 2 1 1 1.40 6.1 3 2 2 4 3 2.80 6.2 3 4 2 3 3 3.00 7.1 5 5 4 5 4 4.60 7.2 4 4 5 3 4 4.005.Transfer this average rating to your QFD matrix on the left side as shown
  • 52. Company / Process MetricS.N C.Ratin Customer Voiceo g Accuracy of reports1.1 4.20 should be high Time to Process should1.2 4.20 be low Ability to Handle Volume2.1 3.60 30% spikes effectively Freq. Of errors beyond3.1 4.40 SLA Freq of exceeding3.2 5.00 Timelines Good Controls ( Audits /3.3 1.60 Surprises) Quick Delivery of new4.1 1.40 requests Process should be4.2 4.20 flexible Time to customise for a4.3 2.20 new process Steps to avail5.1 2.00 Infromation
  • 53. 6. Now Brainstorm what company metric would reflects and whatcompany metric is related to the customer need and write these in theTop Row of the QFD matrix as shown. process till customer Rework Time PPM Time to incorporate No . Of Exceptions Time to deliver spl No Of Steps in the Errors per Report No Of Complaints Turnaround Time Company / Process utilisation Metric change request C.Rati S.No Custom er Voice ng Accuracy of 1.1 reports should be 4.20 high Time to Process 1.2 4.20 should be low Ability to Handle 2.1 Volume 30% 3.60 spikes ef f ectively Freq. Of errors 3.1 4.40 beyond SLA Freq of exceeding 3.2 5.00 Timelines Good Controls ( 3.3 Audits / 1.60 Surprises) Quick Delivery of 4.1 1.40 new requests Process should be 4.2 4.20 f lexible Time to customise 4.3 2.20 f or a new process Steps to avail 5.1 2.00 Inf romation
  • 54. 7. Input the relationship strength in the cells as relevant and asshown.Those company Metrics that have a strong relation to theCustomer Voice are given 9 , Those with Medium relation are given 3 andthe ones which have a weak relation are given 1. process till customer Rework Time PPM Time to incorporate No . Of Exceptions Time to deliver spl No Of Steps in the Errors per Report No Of Complaints Turnaround Time Company / Process utilisation Metric change request C.RatiS.No Custom er Voice ng Accuracy of 1.1 reports should be 4.20 9 3 9 Strong : 9 high Time to Process Medium : 3 1.2 4.20 9 3 1 Weak :1 should be low Ability to Handle 2.1 Volume 30% 3.60 9 3 9 3 3 spikes effectively Freq. Of errors 3.1 4.40 3 9 beyond SLA Freq of exceeding 3.2 5.00 3 9 Timelines
  • 55. 8.Now Multiply the relationship index with the weights given by thecustomer and add to get the weighted importance of the companymetrics as shown. process till customer Rework Time PPM Time to incorporate No . Of Exceptions Time to deliver spl No Of Steps in the Errors per Report No Of Complaints Turnaround Time Company / utilisation change request Process Metric C.Rati S.No Custom er Voice ng Accuracy of 1.1 reports should be 4.20 9 3 9 high Time to Process 1.2 4.20 9 3 1 should be low Ability to Handle 2.1 Volume 30% 3.60 9 3 9 3 3 spikes effectively Freq. Of errors 3.1 4.40 3 9 beyond SLA Freq of exceeding 3.2 5.00 3 9 Timelines Total 33.4 70.2 38.4 0 0 36.6 63 93.6The Highest Values indicate which metric is the most important from thecustomers perspective.This Completes QFD-I
  • 56. 9. QFD -II QFD - II is similar to QFD - I . The only difference is that the Process Metrics which were on the top row in QFD - I are transposed to the left most coloumn of the Matrix as shown along with the weighted ratings. C.Rati Process Metric ng Turnaround Time 70.20 No. Of Complaints 63.00 No.Of Exceptions 93.60 Total
  • 57. 10. Now list the process activities , that result or contribute to the metrics listed on the left , on the Top of the Matrix as shown Time per Transaction No Of Errors in Input No of Process Steps Throughput Time Uptime of Milli Total Rework Proportion C.Rati Process Metric ng Turnaround Time 70.20 No. Of Complaints 63.00 No.Of Exceptions 93.60 Total
  • 58. 11. Now again input the relationship between Metrics on the Left viz.. theMetrics on the top . Time per Transaction No Of Errors in Input No of Process Steps %age adherence to Throughput Time escalation Norm Uptime of Milli Total Rework Proportion C.Rati Process Metric ng Turnaround Time 70.20 9 3 3 9 9 9 No. Of Complaints 63.00 3 9 9 No.Of Exceptions 93.60 1 3 9 3 9 Total 914.4 1058 1053 912.6 631.8 631.8 1409 The metrics that have the max . Points become the CTx’ Metrics
  • 59. So Finally what are the Metrics that I should DevelopAs we have seen the QFD is a tool to capture the VOC and leverage thatVOC to extract and establish during its two phases the following :QFD- I : The most important process Metrics relevant to the CustomerQFD -II: The most important activity Metrics that are critical to CustomerExpectation Monitoring / Managing Frequency Once or Twice an Year VOC QFD- I Process Metric Weekly or Monthly (Output) Activity Metric Daily or Weekly QFD- II (Input or Driver)
  • 60. Beware Of PitfallQFD is a tool. Remember that all tools are meant to assist Human thinking /Working ; if the result is against your strongest rationale then you must check theprocess again.QFD is meant to help you manage better your customer & shareholder expectationand thus helps to increase your effectiveness.Hence if you believe that a metric that does not come out as a CTx is crucial , pleasedo monitor the same.We must manage the Input or driver Metrics as they dictate ourperformance and also monitor the Output Metrics as that is the resultof our management.
  • 61. Project Management Analogy E=8 H=2 D=3 A=1 B=4 F=6 G=1 I=6 C=1 Look at the above project activity diagram. The project timelines depend on the the path of the highlighted activities. which is known as the critical path. However it means that we need to give greater focus to the highlighted activities and must manage it very closely. This does not mean that the other activities do not need any management. If the other activities such as BFGC are not managed then there is a possibility that the critical path may itself shift. Hence if we meet daily to monitor the critical activities , then we must meet once a week to monitor the general activities lest they become critical. Remember the white house game analogy : To manage effectively we need metrics .This is where CSA is important to manage other activities or requirements.
  • 62. The Panoramic View Of Metrics Customer Experience Customer Scorecard Critical Process Metric Health Six Sigma Metrics Activity Metric CSA Metrics General Health Parameters
  • 63. Six Sigma Metrics Review Mechanism `` EXEC (key controls+ WCP Below POD customer +exceptional driver) > 50 % WCP-1 BL Below Set Targets (customer + exceptional drivers Review based on defined threshold) Hierarchy SDL All Below WCP-1 (customer + exceptional drivers Set Targets based on defined threshold)WCP-2 All
  • 64. Finally :• An error occurs due to two reasons only • Laziness • Ignorance• Most Persons are not lazy• Six Sigma is for helping the individual work smartly.• Use those metrics that help you in managing your process and yourcustomer.• Six Sigma Metrics will help you in managing your processes better butonly if you use it• Six Sigma is recognized world wide as a Smart Approach tomanagement• Six Sigma depends on Measurements.Infact it is a pre-condition for SixSigma to succeed• Measurement seems a waste of Time initially• If you choose your measure well you will manage well.• If you manage well You will Succeed• If you succeed your Company will Succeed