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UNIT 4The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire
1- The beginning of the ModernAge-From the Ancien Régime to the new regime - > late 18th century -> beginning of the Modern Age.-Political revolution in France ->reforms -> new regime.-"Liberty, equality and fraternity"
2- The causes of the FrenchRevolution-Intellectual causes -> Enlightenment-Political Causes -> Estates General crisis-Economic causes -> bankrupt-Social causes -> 3 estates were discontented for different reasons.
3- Major events of the FrenchRevolution-The National Assembly. 1789-The Constituent Assembly. 1789-1791 -> Constitution -> constitutional monarchy, popular sovereignty, separation of powers and limited male suffrage.-The Legislative Assembly -> Girondins and Jacobins.
-The Convention -> 1793, Louis XVI was executed -> Roberspierre Republic (dictatorship, The Terror, 1793-1795)-The Directory -> 1795, five members govern-The Consulate -> 1799military coup, three consuls,Napoleon First Consul.
4- From revolution to empire-1802 Napoleon First Consul for Life-December 1804 Emperor-Policy achievements: Civil Code, military victories to expand his territories.-The exception of Great Britain ->
- From 1812 decay of the Empire.-1813 Battle of Leipzig.- 1814 Wars in Spain and Russia.-1815 Napoleons Hundred days.-June 1815 Battle of Waterloo -> final defeat of Napoleon.
5- The Consequences of the FrenchRevolution and the Napoleonic Empire-Changes in three aspects: Political Economic Social
6- Spain: occupation andliberation-1788 Charles IV king of Spain.
6.1. Napoleons occupation ofSpain-Weak King -> prime ministers governed-Floridablanca, Aranda, Godoy-The importance of Godoy policies-1793 coalition against France
-1805 Battle of Trafalgar-1807 Treaty of Fontainebleau -> french troops entered Spain-1808 Aranjuez riots -> Godoy was removed and Charles IV abdicated in his son-Bayonne -> Charles IV and Ferdinand VII
6.2. The Spanish War ofIndependence-2 May 1808 the war began in Madrid
The War-July 1808 Battle of Bailén.-Only Cádiz resisted.-1813 French troops were defeated. Guerrilla attacks were the key.-During the war Joseph I was reigning
The Political revolution-Two governments coexisted during the war in Spain:-Joseph I, French government -> Bayonne Statute-Central Council (Ferdinand VII) -> elected representatives.
The importance of Cádiz-1810 Regency Council, a five-person Regency -> Cortes of Cádiz, a permanent government-19 March 1812 - CONSTITUTION (la Pepa) -> ideas from Enlightenment -> end of the Ancien Régime.-1814 Ferdinand VII abolished the Constitution.
Spanish Constitution of 1812-Constitutional monarchy-Popular sovereignty (universal indirect male suffrage)-Catholicism as the state religion-Separation of powers-Some rights and freedoms arenow guaranteed.
Life during the Revolution andthe Empire-Family -> Civil Code, changes-Women -> advances-Daily life -> calendar change-Technological advances
The Empire Style and Goya-Art during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire, late 18th century and early 19th century.-Enlightenment ideas.-Neoclassicism.
Neoclassicism: the Empire Style-1800-1820.-Napoleons tastes.-Imperialist propaganda.-Copy Neoclassicism style.
Characteristics-Simple forms. A variant of Neoclassicism.-Imitation of classical forms.-Propaganda through his themes.
Architecture-Based on the Roman Empire.-Style of the people -> not ostentatious, but sober and evenly balanced.-Timber frames and box-like constructions.-Creators: Charles Percier and Pierre Fontaine.
Examples in France-Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, Paris (1806-8) -> to commemorate Napoleons military victories of the previous year.
-Arc de triomphe de lEtoile, Paris -> honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolution. It was designed by Chalgrin in 1806.
-Vendôme Column, Paris -> it was modelled after Trajans column to commemorate the victoy of Austerlitz.-Designed by Bergeret.
-La Madeleine, Paris -> it was designed as a temple to the glory of Napoleons Army.-By Vignon.
Sculpture-Empire Style used sculpture as a part of their overall style, it was part of the interior decoration.-It imitated the classical art (like neoclassicism).-The main figure was Canova.
SPAIN: Francisco de Goya y Lucientes(Zaragoza 1746- Bordeaux 1828)-Early years -> At age 14 Goya studied with painter Luzán. Then he moved to Madrid, where he studied with painter Mengs.-First important works->he painted cupolasat Basilica del Pilar(Zaragoza) andother religioustheme works.
Court Period (1774-1808)-Cartoons for tapestries.
Religious paintings Frescoes in San Antonio de la Florida
Prints for etchings: The Caprices"the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any civilized society, and from thecommon prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance, or self-interesthave made usual"
The Spanish War of IndependencePeriod (1808-1820)-He was working at the court, so he never did any public declaration about his position or his ideas respect the war.-He was affected by the war and its consequences.-He made several works about this theme.
Retirement and exile (1820-1828)-After becoming deaf because of an illness, he retired from social life.-He made reflections on old age and death.-His style change again into dark colours, night scenes, etc.-He used loose brush-strokes and less- defined figures now.-In 1824 he went on exile to Bordeaux, France.