-It was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule ofCharles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521. Atits height, the rebels controlled the heart of Castile, rulingthe cities of Valladolid, Tordesillas, and Toledo.2- What was the Revolt of theComuneros?
-In 1519, Charles was elected Holy Roman Emperor. He departedfor Germany in 1520, leaving the Dutch cardinal Adrian ofUtrecht to rule Castile in his absence. Soon, a series of anti-government riots broke out in the cities, and local city councils(Comunidades) took power.
-On April 23, 1521, after nearly a year of rebellion, thereorganized supporters of the emperor struck a crippling blowto the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar. The following day,rebel leaders Juan de Padilla, Juan Bravo, and FranciscoMaldonado were beheaded.
-Vast Empire -> the biggest in thattimes.-Every territory had its own laws andinstitutions.-He was not an absolute king, he hadto ask Parliaments for some issues.-The Court was itinerant.-Each territory had a viceroy and acourt to administer justice.-His revenues came mostly fromtaxes.-He had to ask for loans to finance hispolicies as well.3- What was Charles Vs empire like?
-Main rival: France.-The Ottoman Empire: rival inthe eastern boundary ->religious rivalry.-Rebellion of the GermanProtestant Princes.-1555 Peace of Augsburg.-1556 Charles V abdicated:Ferdinand I becameEmperor of the Holy RomanEmpire.Philip II inherited the rest ofhis father possessions.Problems in the Empire
-Philip II had a vast Empire inherited fromhis father, Charles I.-He was son of Isabella of Portugal, so heclaimed the Portuguese throne whenKing Sebastian died in 1578 and afterhim his uncle Cardinal Henry in 1580with no descendants both. Philip II wasone of the possible successors andfought for the throne, he was crownedPhilip I of Portugal in 1581.-Portugal had many territories over theworld, so his empire increased.-Philip II ruled from Madrid, his Court, thecentre of his empire -> HispanicMonarchy.The Hispanic Monarchy
-He had two main objectives:1- Preserve his territories.2- Defend Catholicism.-These objectives determined his foreign policy and were thereason for many of the wars he fought.Philip IIs policies
-PROBLEMS DURING HIS REIGN-War with France.-Confrontation with the Turks.-Revolt in the Low Countries -> 80 years war.-Confrontation with England - Invincible Armada.-Bankruptcy.5- What problems did Philip II face?
Exercise 1 on page 98 and 1-2 on page 99.Activities
-EXPEDITIONS.Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec Empire, beginning in1519.6- How did Spain organize its empire inthe New World?
.And Francisco Pizarro led the conquest of the Inca Empire.
.Francisco de Orellana discovered the Amazon rainforest.
.López de Legazpi conquered the Philippines leaving from Mexico.
.America was considered an extension of Spain at thosetimes, so the same laws were applied..The Council of the Indies was created as a territorialcouncil to govern it..American territory (or the Indies) was divided into twoViceroyalties: New Spain and Peru governed by viceroys..Economically, the American colonies were importantdue to:.precious metals (mining).Trade (Casa de Contratación).Haciendas (agriculture and stockbreeding)Organization of the New World
Society in America was divided by racial criteria:Society
-CRISIS IN SPAIN.16th Century -> economic growth.17th Century -> economic crisis-THE REIGN OF PHILIP III (1598-1621).His favourite was the Duke of Lerma..Foreign policy -> pacifist -> peace treaty with England in1604, and Truce with the United Provinces (12 years).Economy -> bankruptcy again in 1607..Domestic policy -> Expulsion of Moriscos in 16097- Why did Spain lose its supremacy?
Activity 1 on page 101.+Homework: to hand in (deadline next Tuesday 21th May) ->make a timeline including the events on the reigns of PhilipIII, Philip IV and Charles II.
-THE EARLY YEARS OF PHILIP IVS REIGN.He ruled from 1621 to 1665..He chose as his favourite the Count-Duke ofOlivares..Foreign policy -> 1621 Truce ended, so warbegan again with the United Provinces. In 1618 the Thirty YearsWar began, and he was the leader of the Catholics. In 1634he won the Battle of Nördlingen..Domestic policy -> two main objectives:.Share military expenses among all the territories.Increase the king¡s powerThese reforms met hard opposition.8- What were the reigns of Philip IV andCharles II like?
-The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treatiessigned between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück andMünster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years War(1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the EightyYears War (1568–1648) between Spain and the DutchRepublic, with Spain formally recognizing theindependence of the Dutch Republic.-The Peace of Westphalia treaties involved the Holy RomanEmperor, Ferdinand III, of the House of Habsburg, theKingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of France, the SwedishEmpire, the Dutch Republic, and the Princes of the HolyRoman Empire.Peace of Westphalia, 1648
-CATALONIA -> Revolts began in 1640 against the centralistpolicy in the Hispanic Monarchy.It was suppressed in 1652 by the king forces.-PORTUGAL -> The rebellion began also in 1640 but theportuguese succeeded and expelled Philip IVs representativesdeclaring its independence with king John IV of Portugal,officially recognized by Spain in 1668 by the Treaty of Lisbon.The revolts of Catalonia and Portugal
-Charles II was named king with just 4 yearsold, so he need a Regent, she was hismother, Mariana of Austria, until he had14, in 1675.-However he was an ill king, and can notrule, so several favourites governed in hisplace.-He died in 1700 with no heirs, and a war ofsuccession began in Spain. This was the endof the Hapsburg dynasty in Spain.-A new Royal House occupied the throne inSpain, the Bourbon dynasty (french origin).The reign of Charles II
Exercises 1 and 2 on page 102, and 1 on page 103.Activities
-POPULATION DECLINEThe 17th Century was critical for demography in Europefor several reasons:.Bad harvests .Migrations.The plague .Wars9- Why was there a crisis?
-ECONOMIC RECESSIONSeveral reasons led to economic crisis as well:.Severe crisis in agriculture. Prices went up..Craftsmanship declined as a consequence ofthe competitive northern markets..Trade declined. Northern countries had thesupremacy..Spanish kings had to declare bankruptcyoften.-AN IMPOVERISHED, UNPRODUCTIVE SOCIETY.Inactive life promoted by the nobles was a badexample..Differences between social classes were increasing,so there were more poor people than before.
-FRENCH SUPREMACYLouis XIV, known as Louis the Great orthe Sun King, was a monarch of theHouse of Bourbon who ruled as King ofFrance. His reign as king, of 72 yearsand 110 days, is the longest in Frenchand European history.Louis began his personal rule of Francein 1661 after the death of his chiefminister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.He continued his predecessors work ofcreating a centralized state governedfrom the capital. He is an example ofabsolute monarch.10- What was the situation in Europe?
-Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of governmentin which the monarch exercises ultimate governingauthority as head of state and head of government; his orher powers are not limited by a constitution or by the law.-Louis XIVs foreign policy was aimed at increasing Francespower in two ways:.Extending its frontiers..Creating a colonial empire.-In this way, he came into conflict with many Europeancountries.-The king increased his power at the expense of thenobles, the Church and Parliament.
-They replaced Spain and Portugal in the control of trade.The bourgeoisie was important in both due to this growthof trade.-They were Parliamentary states, a system of governmentin which the power to make and execute laws is held by aparliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state isnormally a different person from the head of government.-The United Provinces was a Republic. Each province hadits own Parliament, and they met for common matters inthe Estates General.-England became a Parliamentary monarchy after tworevolutions. The Declaration of Rights limited the kingspower.England and the United Provinces
Exercises 1 and 2 on page 105.You need your Terms ready!Activities
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