POLITICAL ANDECONOMIC CHANGEUNIT 8 - 2º ESO BIL.
1- Why did the economyand population grow?THE RECOVERY OF THEPOPULATION14th Century -> demographic crisis.15th Century -> Slow recovery of thepopulation.16th Century -> Considerable
Economic growth-15th and 16th Centuries -> Economy expanded for severalreasons:.Population growth.Greater demand of products.More trade due to geographical discoveries-The banking system also improved, and new methods wereused:.New payment methods (cheques).New lending methods (credits)-Cities became important places for economy during thesecenturies because artisans and trade were concentrated there.
ActivitiesExercises 1 and 2 on page 75 and exercise 1 on page 76.
2- How did society change?-The three estates from the Middle Ages continued to exist.
Society changes-Some changes were happening:.Clergy and nobility continued to be the privilegedestates..Peasants continued to have bad conditions, but inWestern Europe they improved because they became freein most countries..A new powerful group emerged, the bourgeoisie. Theywere rich merchants and bankers and they becameinfluential during this period.
3- How did new states emerge?-AUTHORITARIAN MONARCHIES-What is the meaning of AUTHORITARIANISM? a philosophyor system that believes in the necessity of strong authority andstrict obedience to it.-During the 15th century European monarchs becameauthoritarian, that means, they had more power.-They reduced the power of the nobility,the Church, the municipalities and theParliament. They began confrontationsagainst the authorities and in some casescivil wars broke out.
-Monarchs had several ways to implement their decisions:.They created a bureaucracy and a centralised administration.(What does bureaucracy mean? It is a system of administrationbased upon organization into bureaus, division of labour, ahierarchy of authority, etc.; designed to dispose of a large body ofwork in a routine manner.).They made the army stronger..They increased taxes (with the approval of the Parliaments)..They created a diplomatic system.(What is diplomacy? It is the conduct of the relations of one statewith another by peaceful means.)-In this way Authoritarian monarchies were born.-The court was permanent from this moment.
The great kingdoms-Marriage alliances and conquests were the way to createbig new States or powers.-These systems were common in Europe, whereAuthoritarian monarchies developed.-Four of them were the most powerful:.FRANCE, from Charles VII to Francis I..ENGLAND, from the early 16thcentury with Henry VIII..SPAIN, the Catholic Monarchs..RUSSIA, Ivan the Great.
4- What were the Spanish Kingdoms?-In the first half of the 15th century there were 5 kingdoms in theIberian Peninsula:.Crown of Castile.Crown of Aragón.Kingdom of Navarre.Kingdom of Portugal.Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.-CASTILE AND ARAGÓN IN THE 15th CENTURY:.Crown of Castile:.Nobility revolts / weak kings.Henry IV died in 1474 -> Civil War between the supporters of hersister, Isabella, and of her daughter, Joanna..Isabella won and was proclaimed Queen of Castile in 1479.
.Crown of Aragón:.In 1410 Martin I died with no heirs ->Compromise of Caspe ->Ferdinand of Antequera was chosen king by the nobles of theCrown of Aragón -> that meant a change of dynasty: Trastámara.-DYNASTIC UNION:.In 1469 Isabella married Ferdinand, heir of the Crown of Aragón..In 1474 after Henry IVs death Isabella proclaimed herself queen(after winning the civil war she was totally recognised)..In 1479 Ferdinand became king of Aragón. They united andgoverned both Crowns, but kept its own institutions. They werecalled the Catholic Monarchs..In 1504 Isabella died and her daughter Joanna the Mad inheritedthe Crown of Castile. Queen Joanna was insane, so her fatherruled for her as regent..Charles I (son of Joanna) inherited both Crowns in 1516.
Charles IJoanna the Mad andPhilip the Handsome
5- How did the Catholic Monarchs rule?-DOMESTIC POLICIES-The Catholic Monarchs established different measures to bringpeace to their kingdoms and to govern them with authority:.Holy Brotherhood.Royal Council.Corregidores.Royal treasury.Professional army.-TERRITORIAL EXPANSION-In the Iberian Peninsula: Granada (1492) and Navarre (1512).-Outside: Naples, cities in North Africa, Canary Islands, and theAmericas.
5- How did the Catholic Monarchs rule?-RELIGIOUS UNITY-The Catholic Monarchs wanted religious unification for theirkingdoms.-In 1478 they founded the Tribunal of the Inquisition toprosecute heretics.-They published two Royal Decrees establishing theexpulsion or conversion of the Jews first (1492) and the