The Restoration And The 18th Century


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The Restoration And The 18th Century

  1. 1. The Restoration and the 18 th Century The Age of Enlightenment
  2. 2. The Restoration <ul><li>Monarchy restored, but power weakened- Britain becomes more democratic </li></ul><ul><li>King rules by the consent of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Great Advances in the Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrated the scientific method – believed Man could perfect himself and society </li></ul><ul><li>Literature of the time very orderly and formed (rhymed couplets, etc) </li></ul>
  4. 4. ORDER
  5. 5. Neo-Classicism <ul><li>Emulated Classic styles </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent references to classics (myths, gods, and heroes) </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to look at the world objectively </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Aphorisms (One liners—the equivalent of the “sound byte”) </li></ul><ul><li>Very fond of Satire </li></ul>
  6. 6. Three Periods <ul><li>Age of Dryden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Named for John Dryden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrates Human Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age of Pope and Swift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Neoclassic style characterized by Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age of Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginnings of a shift toward Romanticism </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. John Dryden <ul><li>The most accomplished poet of the period </li></ul><ul><li>Made prose acceptable to literary circles, and helped establish writing as a legitimate career </li></ul><ul><li>clear and concise and became the standard against which all other English writers were measured. </li></ul>
  8. 8. John Dryden <ul><li>His work was a response to the excesses and political upheaval of the restoration. </li></ul><ul><li>Praised the virtues of order, balance & harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Poet laureate in 1668 </li></ul>
  9. 9. ODE <ul><li>A single, unified strain of exalted lyrical verse </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with ONE theme and praises its value/virtues </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate, dignified and imaginative </li></ul>
  10. 10. Daniel Defoe <ul><li>Born into a working class family </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the ministry but instead decided on becoming a crappy businessman </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t start writing the novels that made him famous until into his sixties </li></ul><ul><li>Was pilloried for political writing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Daniel Defoe <ul><li>Wrote two very popular novels (a new form at the time) </li></ul><ul><li>Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders (both purported to be nonfiction) </li></ul><ul><li>Crusoe started a genre </li></ul><ul><li>Also wrote a real non fiction account— Journal of the Plague Year </li></ul>
  12. 12. Jonathan Swift <ul><li>Was born in Dublin, Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Was a minister in the Church of England </li></ul><ul><li>His satirical works ruined his chances to advance in the church </li></ul><ul><li>Still remained a staunch supporter of the Anglican faith </li></ul><ul><li>Held a great amount of political power in later years- wrote political pamphlets for the government </li></ul>
  13. 13. Jonathan Swift <ul><li>Wrote “A Modest Proposal” which championed the Irish cause </li></ul><ul><li>His greatest work, Gulliver’s Travels is considered one of the greatest satires in British Literature. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Satire <ul><li>A work that blends humor and wit for the improvement of human institutions or humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Satire is not intended to “tear down” as much as to “inspire remodeling” </li></ul><ul><li>Does not attack an individual- it will “pass over a single foe to charge whole armies.” </li></ul><ul><li>Satire is subtle enough that the reader must make the inference to what or who is being mocked </li></ul>
  15. 15. Alexander Pope <ul><li>The first English poet to support himself solely by his writing </li></ul><ul><li>Being Catholic prevented him from holding public office or getting a wealthy patron </li></ul><ul><li>First major work was An Essay on Criticism , which brought him to the attention of the leading literary figures of the time. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Alexander Pope <ul><li>Very frail in health- was less than five feet tall. Was a sharp wit and was a sought after guest </li></ul><ul><li>A brilliant satirist-one of his best know works is The Rape of the Lock, one of the greatest Mock Epics in English </li></ul>
  17. 17. Heroic Couplets <ul><li>Iambic Pentameter in rhymed pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Became a fixed for with Pope and dominated English verse for decades </li></ul>