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The Restoration And The 18th Century
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The Restoration And The 18th Century

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  • 1. The Restoration and the 18 th Century The Age of Enlightenment
  • 2. The Restoration
    • Monarchy restored, but power weakened- Britain becomes more democratic
    • King rules by the consent of the people
    • Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution
  • 3. The Enlightenment
    • Great Advances in the Sciences
    • Celebrated the scientific method – believed Man could perfect himself and society
    • Literature of the time very orderly and formed (rhymed couplets, etc)
  • 4. ORDER
  • 5. Neo-Classicism
    • Emulated Classic styles
    • Frequent references to classics (myths, gods, and heroes)
    • Tried to look at the world objectively
    • Use of Aphorisms (One liners—the equivalent of the “sound byte”)
    • Very fond of Satire
  • 6. Three Periods
    • Age of Dryden
      • Named for John Dryden
      • Celebrates Human Achievement
    • Age of Pope and Swift
      • Heavy Neoclassic style characterized by Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift
    • Age of Johnson
      • Beginnings of a shift toward Romanticism
  • 7. John Dryden
    • The most accomplished poet of the period
    • Made prose acceptable to literary circles, and helped establish writing as a legitimate career
    • clear and concise and became the standard against which all other English writers were measured.
  • 8. John Dryden
    • His work was a response to the excesses and political upheaval of the restoration.
    • Praised the virtues of order, balance & harmony
    • Poet laureate in 1668
  • 9. ODE
    • A single, unified strain of exalted lyrical verse
    • Deals with ONE theme and praises its value/virtues
    • Elaborate, dignified and imaginative
  • 10. Daniel Defoe
    • Born into a working class family
    • Considered the ministry but instead decided on becoming a crappy businessman
    • Didn’t start writing the novels that made him famous until into his sixties
    • Was pilloried for political writing
  • 11. Daniel Defoe
    • Wrote two very popular novels (a new form at the time)
    • Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders (both purported to be nonfiction)
    • Crusoe started a genre
    • Also wrote a real non fiction account— Journal of the Plague Year
  • 12. Jonathan Swift
    • Was born in Dublin, Ireland
    • Was a minister in the Church of England
    • His satirical works ruined his chances to advance in the church
    • Still remained a staunch supporter of the Anglican faith
    • Held a great amount of political power in later years- wrote political pamphlets for the government
  • 13. Jonathan Swift
    • Wrote “A Modest Proposal” which championed the Irish cause
    • His greatest work, Gulliver’s Travels is considered one of the greatest satires in British Literature.
  • 14. Satire
    • A work that blends humor and wit for the improvement of human institutions or humanity
    • Satire is not intended to “tear down” as much as to “inspire remodeling”
    • Does not attack an individual- it will “pass over a single foe to charge whole armies.”
    • Satire is subtle enough that the reader must make the inference to what or who is being mocked
  • 15. Alexander Pope
    • The first English poet to support himself solely by his writing
    • Being Catholic prevented him from holding public office or getting a wealthy patron
    • First major work was An Essay on Criticism , which brought him to the attention of the leading literary figures of the time.
  • 16. Alexander Pope
    • Very frail in health- was less than five feet tall. Was a sharp wit and was a sought after guest
    • A brilliant satirist-one of his best know works is The Rape of the Lock, one of the greatest Mock Epics in English
  • 17. Heroic Couplets
    • Iambic Pentameter in rhymed pairs
    • Became a fixed for with Pope and dominated English verse for decades