Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
CIS-189 Final Review
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

CIS-189 Final Review


Published on

review materials for CIS-189

review materials for CIS-189

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Final Exam Review
  • 2. “Markup” refers to the use of tags to describe data
    Data describing data is meta data
    Tags identify where data begins and ends, and has some information about that data
    Often referred to as “self describing”
    Standard Generalized Markup Language was created to offer universal standards for sharing and moving information
  • 3. Extensible Markup Language fills the gap between display of HTML and complexity of SGML
    XML is compatible with rules of SGML
    XML isn’t a language
    Set of standards about how to create a language to define and work with particular data
  • 4. Tags are used similar to HTML
    A tag must always have a close
    <middle />
    Tags are defined as needed
    No set of predefined tags as in HTML
    Tags typically aren’t about display
    Display is separated from data, unlike HTML
    Using XML
  • 5. XML is hierarchical
    Individual items in XML are elements
    One element can belong to another
    Child and parent
    Similar to a one-to-many relationship
    Structure is called a ‘tree’
    An item with children is called a branch
    An item with no children is a leaf
    XML Structure
  • 6. An element can contain data
    An element can contain other elements
    An element can contain data and other elements
    Definition of elements for specific data make up a vocabulary
  • 7. Complies with rules
    Rules allow easy transfer and read of data independent of platform, application
    Parser reads XML file
    Parser typically runs as a service to another application
    A file that doesn’t comply with rules has afatal errorand parser cannot continue
    By definition, a file that isn’t well formed has a fatal error
    Any violation of rules is an error
    Well-Formed XML
  • 8. Start tag must have an end tag or be self-closing
    Tags cannot overlap
    Must have one – and only one – root element
    Element names obey naming conventions
    XML is case-sensitive
    Whitespace is maintained in PCDATA
    Well Formed
  • 9. Element name can include a space after the name
    Element cannot have a space at beginning of start tag
    Element name must begin with letters or dash
    After the first character, numbers, hyphens, periods are acceptable
    Cannot use spaces or: (colon) in names
    Colon is reserved for special uses
    XML cannot be used as the first 3 letters of a name (Upper, lower or mixed case)
    Naming Elements
  • 10. CDATA refers to character data
    Values that are treated as those characters
    PCDATA refers to parsed character data
    Values that are translated for a specific meaning or purpose
    Whitespace is treated differently than HTML
    Carriage return and linefeed characters are both treated as single linefeed by parser
    Working with Data
  • 11. Provide another way to represent values
    Defined within the start tag of an element
    Work in a name/value pair
    Must include both a name and value for a valid statement (an empty string is a valid value)
    Value must be enclosed in single or double quotes
    Opening quote must be same as closing (can’t pair a single quote and double quote)
    Be consistent for ease of coding, reading, and maintenance
  • 12. Attribute names must conform to same rules as element names
    Start with letter or dash
    Can use numbers, hyphens, periods after the first character
    Name of each attribute must be unique within an element
    Attribute Names
  • 13. Elements can be more complex
    Can include child elements if needed
    Attributes are about a single value
    Attributes can simplify logic
    Can avoid or reduce nesting
    Can simplify logic
    Choice of element or attribute most often simply a design choice, preference
    Using Attributes and Elements
  • 14. Provide information to aid the processing of the file
    <? XML version=“1.0”?>
    If include XML declaration must be first entry
    Cannot have any character preceding the open tag
    If include XML declaration must have at least the version
    Have versions 1.0, 1.1
    XML Declarations
  • 15. Optional settings are encoding, standalone
    Encoding specifies which character set is being used (how characters are represented)
    Standalone tells the parser if document is complete by itself, or relies on another file
    Optional XML Declarations
  • 16. Processing instructions are for consuming application
    Not used by XML parser
    Includes information/commands that application needs to complete some task
    <? Statement ?>
    Processing Instructions
  • 17. Some symbols have special meaning
    Less than (<)
    Greater than (>)
    Ampersand (&)
    Cannot use these characters directly unless wrapped in a CDATA section
    If need single symbol can substitute
    &lt for <, &gt for >, &amp for &
    Special Characters
  • 18. DTD stands for Document Type Definition
    Allows an XML document to go further than meeting the requirements of being well-formed
    Specifies requirements to be valid
    A valid XML document matches definitions of allowable elements, attributes
    DTD Overview
  • 19. Validation can be done in code (i.e. using javascript, VB and DOM)
    DTD’s allow use of a validating parser that compares the document against specifications
    Typically makes application changes and maintenance easier
    Less tied to a particular programming language/environment
  • 20. Includes name of root element
    Allows specification of where the DTD is located
    DTD can be embedded in the XML file (local)
    DTD can refer to external file, Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
    Local takes precedence over external
    Document Type Declaration
  • 21. Element Declaration has 3 parts:
    Element name
    Element content
    Element content can include a list of child elements or data
    Element Declaration
  • 22. DTD included in XML document
    Definition of a student:
    <!DOCTYPE student[
    <!ELEMENT student(first, last, studentID)>
    <!ELEMENT first (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT last(#PCDATA)>
    <ELEMENT studentID(#PCDATA)>
    Document Type Declaration
    Element Declaration
    A student element is made up of first name, last name, and student id elements
  • 23. DTD exists in external file/location
    Must use keyword to specify type of location
    SYSTEM is a reference to local file system
    PUBLIC is reference to DTD accessed through a catalog
    Can use both together
    If can’t find catalog reference can use specified file
    External Definition
  • 24. Reference in XML file:
    <!DOCTYPE student SYSTEM “student.dtd”>
    External file:
    <!ELEMENT student(first, last, studentID)>
    <!ELEMENT first (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT last(#PCDATA)>
    <ELEMENT studentID(#PCDATA)>
    Sample External Definition
    Document Type Declaration
    Element Declaration
  • 25. Element name must match name in XML document
    If using namespaces, prefixes must match
    Content Model defines what the element can store
    An element
    Mixed (i.e. data and element)
    Working With Elements
  • 26. Error raised if an element is missing
    Error raised if there are extra elements
    Error raised if elements in a different order
    For a student, our content must be in firstname, lastname, studentID order
    If find an element “major”, error
    If order varies, error
    If missing first, last, or studentID, error
    Content by Sequence
  • 27. Can allow content to vary between elements
    | (vertical bar or pipe) indicates OR
    If add a Grade element to a student that can be a letter or percent:
    <!ELEMENT grade (letter | percent)>
    <!ELEMENT letter (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT percent (#PCDATA)
    Indicates that must have letter or percent element
    Content by Choice
  • 28. Allows combination of elements and parsed character data
    Can include additional information within an element, eg. how to display
    Managed by using Choice (or)
    PCDATA must appear first in list of elements
    List cannot include inner content model (only simple elements)
    If there are child elements, include *
    * Indicates that may appear zero or more times
    Mixed Content
  • 29. If want to include emphasis with the letter grade
    Data: <letter><em>4</em></letter>
    <!ELEMENT letter (#PCDATA | em)*>
    Describes a letter element as the content (pcdata) plus emphasis element
    Mixed Content -2
  • 30. An element can be empty
    <br /> (never has child, content)
    Declaration includes EMPTY:
    Means that the element CANNOT contain content
    Empty Content
  • 31. An element can contain any kind of value (or be empty)
    Any elements declared in the DTD can occur, any number of times
    Only elements that are part of the DTD can be part of the document!
    May be empty
    May contain PCDATA
    Least restrictive model
    Any Content
  • 32. How many times can an element occur?
    How many times must an element occur?
  • 33. Elements tend to be used to describe a logical unit of information
    Attributes are typically used to store data about characteristics (properties)
    May have a Movie element with attributes for Title, Rental Price, Rental Days
    No specific rules about how to use elements and attributes
    Attributes and DTD’s
  • 34. Attributes allow more limits on data
    Can have a list of acceptable values
    Can have a default value
    Some ability to specify a data type
    Concise, about a single name/value pair
    Attributes have limits
    Can’t store long strings of text
    Can’t nest values
    Whitespace can’t be ignored
    Attributes and Elements
  • 35. Declaration:
    <!ATTLISTElementNameAttrNameAttrType Default>
    Specify the Element the attribute belongs to
    Specify the Name of the attribute
    Specify the Type of data the attribute stores
    Specify characteristics of the values (Default or attribute value)
    List either the default value or other characteristic of value – required, optional
    Specifying Attributes
  • 36. CDATA – unparsed character data
    Enumerated – series/list of string values
    Entity/Entities – reference entity definition(s)
    ID – unique identifier for the element
    IDREF – refer to the ID of another element
    IDREFS – list of ID’s of other elements separated by whitespace
    NMTOKEN/NMTOKENS – value(s) of attribute can be anything that follows rules for XML name
    Sample Attribute Data Types
  • 37. Specifies that attribute value must be found in a particular list
    Each value in list must be valid XML name
    Limits on spaces, characters
    Use | (pipe) to separate members of list
    If specifying list letter grades for a student:
    <!ATTLIST student grade (A | B | C | D | F | V | W | I) #IMPLIED>
    Enumerated Attributes
    Enumerated List
  • 38. An ID specifies that the element must have a unique value within the document
    Allows reliable way to refer to a specific element
    No spaces allowed in value
    Typically replace space with underscore
    Attribute list can include only one ID
    IDREF, IDREFS allows an element to be associated with another or multiple other elements
    A student element must have a student ID:
    <!ATTLIST student studentID ID #REQUIRED>
  • 39. Attributes can refer to entities
    “Entity” refers to substituting a reference for a text value
    & refers to the & character
    Unparsed Entity is a reference that isn’t parsed
    Can reuse references for long values, or hard to manage characters (i.e. tab, line feed)
    Entity must be declared in the DTD
    <!ENTITY classTitle “XML”>
    When classTitle found in document, replaced with XML
    Entities and Attributes
  • 40. Can specify how the value will appear in the document
    Must always specify a value declaration
    DEFAULT sets a value for an attribute if a value isn’t provided
    Include default value in double quotes
    FIXED sets a value that must occur; if an attribute has a different value, a validation error occurs
    REQUIRED specifies that the attribute (and value) must exist
    IMPLIED means the attribute is optional
    Attribute Value Declarations
  • 41. Alternative to DTD’s as way to define structure
    Essentially defining a language
    Structure may be also referred to as vocabulary
    Ensures that data matches specifications
    Serves as basis for other XML-related technologies
    XML Schemas
  • 42. Use XML for definition
    Doesn’t have separate structure like DTD’s
    Schema must be well-formed
    Support Namespace recommendations
    Allows same name to be used in different Schemas and properly understood
    Provides for built-in and user-defined data types
    Can be easily reused
    Supports concepts such as inheritance
    One object is based on another
    Working with Schemas
  • 43. Allows more specificity than DTD’s
    Can specify dates, numbers, ranges
    Datatypes fall into two categories:
    Simple deals with basic values
    Complex describes more intricate values or structures
    Schema Datatypes
  • 44. Schema file uses an .xsd extension
    Root element is the schema
    Can nest all elements within the schema
    Everything is hierarchical
    Can have multiple elements as child elements of the schema root
    Allows use of a definition any place in the document (data) file
    Elements which are child elements of schema are global
    Creating Schemas
  • 45. Simple data type is about text, numbers, date
    Sometime referred to as “primitives”
    Data types built in to Schema vocabulary (and related elements, attributes) are in the XML Schema namespace
    Need reference to namespace to have valid XML – where to find the definition
    Elements that are Simple Datatypes don’t have attributes
    Including an attribute makes an element Complex
    Simple Datatypes
  • 46. The simpleType allows customization of base types
    Can create limits on values
    Specify ranges
    Specify lists
    <xsd:restriction base=“xsd:string”>
    <xsd:enumeration value=“AA” />
    <xsd:enumeration value=“AS” />
    </xsd: restriction>
    Defining (Simple) Datatypes
  • 47. Allows combination of different elements and specification of order, new data types
    Can create an element Course which is comprised of simple types
    <xsd:element name=“course”>
    <xsd:element name=“department” type=“xsd:string”/>
    <xsd:element name=“number” type=“xsd:string”/>
    <xsd:element name=“title” type=“xsd:string”/>
    <xsd:element name=“credits” type=“xsd:integer”/>
  • 48. When using a schema, need to create a reference from data file
    Use either the schemaLocation or noNamespaceSchemaLocation attribute of the root element
    <course xmlns:xsi= xsi:noNamespaceShemaLocation=“course.xsd”>
    Using a Schema
  • 49. Qualification refers to whether a value (element, attribute) must be qualified by a its namespace
    When an element (or attribute) doesn’t have a namespace declaration it’s unqualified
    Determines how name is used in data (instance) document
    A schema has the attributes elementFormDefault and elementFormDefault
    Set to qualified or unqualified
    By setting to qualified, must include a namespace when use attributes or elements
  • 50. Allows elements to appear in any order or not at all
    Rules governing use
    Must be only content model declaration of a <complexType> definition
    For example, can’t follow with <sequence>
    Can only have element declarations as children
    The children of the <all> element may appear once – or not at all
    <all> Declaration
  • 51. Can create a group of attributes similar to element groups
    Allows re-use of common members without multiple definitions
    Attribute groups cannot be recursive (refer to themselves
    Attribute Groups
  • 52. A list allows an element or attribute to store multiple values
    Values are separated by whitespace, so whitespace cannot be part of the content
    itemType attribute defines the data type
    Can be built-in XML or a defined simpleType data type
    <list> Declarations
  • 53. <union> allows the combination of two data type for an element or attribute
    If have a possiblePoints element, expected value would be an integer; <union> would allow a string entry to note a “Missing” value
    Separate data types with whitespace
    <simpleType name=“CreditValue”>
    <union memberTypes=“xs:integerxs:string />
    <union> Declarations
  • 54. XSL stands for Extensible Stylesheet
    Stylesheets are used to manage organization and presentation of data
    Implemented as an XML language
    Rules of XML apply
    Made up of
    XSL-FO (Formatting Objects)
    XSLT (Transformations)
  • 55. XSL-FO focused on presentation to screen and paper
    Not well-supported by browsers
    XSLT emphasizes re-organization of data
    Typically used for presentation but can also be used for conversion of data storage format
    XSLT is a declarative language
    Similar to SQL, describe results not steps
    XSL Implementation
  • 56. Cascading Style Sheets used to separate presentation from data
    XSLT used to change – transform – data
    Convert an XML document to XHTML
    Can use both together
    XSLT v CSS
  • 57. XSL requires several steps
    XML processor reads document
    Creates document tree
    XSL processor applies rules from stylesheet
    Rules applied to document tree
    Rules applied by using pattern matching
    Identify nodes to apply rules to
    Rules are stored as templates
    Using XSL
  • 58. XSL works by using an Input Tree
    Input Tree comes from XML processor
    Process of changing input values is call Tree Transformation
    Result of transformation is the Result Tree
    Result Tree can include
    HTML (must adhere to XML rules, i.e., XHTML)
    Formatting Objects
    XSL Process
  • 59. Extensible Stylesheet Transformations is method of changing (transforming) XML based on rules of a stylesheet
    Xpath allows manipulation of parts of XML document
    Not XML-based
    Provides compact references
    Useful in URI’s, attributes
    Document must exist as nodes (previously parsed)
  • 60. Templates are definitions of rules, organization
    Patterns define values searching for (where to apply templates)
    Expressions allow use of functions using nodes as inputs
    When referring to document attributes preface name with “@”
    XSLT Constructs
  • 61. <xsl:stylesheet> is root element
    Uses namespace to define elements, attributes valid in a stylesheet
    <xsl:template> defines the rules/ transformations to apply
    Match attribute specifies pattern to apply rules to
    Functions similar to criteria
    <xsl:apply-templates> applies the rules defined for a particular element
    Select attribute specifies elements to apply to
    XSLT Elements
  • 62. <xsl:value-of> returns the value of a specified node, function
    Select attribute specifies value source
    <xsl:copy> copies a node to the result tree without any child nodes or attributes
    <xsl:copy-of> copies a node and child/attribute nodes
    <xsl:output> controls the result tree
    XSLT Elements – 2
  • 63. <xsl:if> provides a boolean test to determine processing
    <xsl:choose> offers an IF ... THEN ... ELSE construct
    <xsl:for-each> allows each node in a group to be processed
    <xsl:sort> specifies order for a group of nodes
    XSLT Elements – 3
  • 64. Match can use
    node name
    current position (represented by “.”)
    relative position (for example, parent = “..”)
    Specifies where the transformation to be applied
  • 65. XPath provides a logical model for working with XML document
    Nodes are used to represent serialized XML (in memory)
    Not all parts of XML document are represented (XML declaration, DOCTYPE)
    XPath used in combination with other tools (such as XSLT)
    XPATH Introduction
  • 66. Legal XPath code is called an expression
    XPath expressions that return a node set is a location path
    Expressions can be absolute and relative
    Absolute path includes a full definition of how to find node
    Relative path is based on current context (location)
    XPath Expressions
  • 67. Root node represents document
    Can have only one child node (document element)
    Element node represents elements
    QName (qualified name) includes namespace prefix and element name
    Attribute node represent attributes
    Have name and value
    Are not represented as child nodes
    Text node represents text value of an element
    Does not have a name
    Namespace node gives access to the namespace URI and prefix
    Comment node
    Processing Instruction Node
    Node Types
  • 68. Boolean
    Written as true() and false()
    Number – floating point values
    Node-set – unordered set
    Follows document order
    XPath 1.0 Types
  • 69. Element node references can be spelled out or abbreviated
    child::nodename can also be written nodename
    Attribute node references
    XPath Abbreviations
  • 70. self
    13 Axes
  • 71. Default axis
    Selects nodes that are immediate nodes of context (current) node
    Can use * to refer to all child nodes
    Child Axis
  • 72. Can use node() to return all child nodes including comments, processing instructions, and text nodes
    Can return just text nodes using text()
    Text nodes are unnamed
    Child Axis References
  • 73. Used to select attributes belonging to a particular element node
    To return all attributes
    To return particular attribute
    Attribute Axis
  • 74. Used to filter node sets
    Predicate similar to query criteria
    Can use specific values or location references