CIS145 Final Review


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CIS145 Final Review

  1. 1. CIS145 Final 100 points Open book, open notes, open computer True-false, multiple choice, fill-in, short answer
  2. 2. Databases Collection of related information  Scope is based on what information we need to complete tasks Access uses objects to organize and manage data  Tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, modules  All objects are in one file
  3. 3. Tables Fields are individual data elements/values - columns Records are the collection of data for one occurrence – rows Table should be about one thing or idea Primary key uniquely identifies each record
  4. 4. Table Design Include all necessary data Store data in smallest parts Don’t include calculated fields
  5. 5. Field Data TypesWhat kind of data will be Common Typesstored in the field?  Number  CurrencyNumbers not used for  Textcalculations should  Yes/Nousually be text.  Date/Time
  6. 6. Properties Set specific characteristics and behaviors of objects (fields, controls, or other objects) Properties set for a field are inherited by controls that refer to that field  Drag field from field list in form design view
  7. 7. Data Validation Need to make sure we have good data - proper type and values Properties can help with validation:  Field Size: How much data to accept  Input Mask: How or what data is entered  Format: How data is displayed  Validation Rules: What data is acceptable  Required: value must be entered
  8. 8. Relational Databases Have more than one table where tables are related to each other  One to one  One to many  Many to many A combination of fields may be used for the table’s primary key
  9. 9. One to Many Relationships Each table contains data about a specific subject (customers, loans) Each table on the ‘one’ side has a primary key Primary key of the “one” table is used to create a foreign key in the “many” table
  10. 10. Many to Many Relationships Two tables are related, but can have many records in each table in common  One student can attend many courses; one course can be attended by many students Implement a many to many relationship by creating a pair of one to many relationships with a third (join) table
  11. 11. Foreign Key A foreign key points to a record in another table Foreign key “looks like” the related primary key  Same number of fields  Data types for each field must match  Field names don’t matter
  12. 12. Referential Integrity Makes sure that the records in related tables are consistent  Must have a customer in the customer table for an order to be assigned that customer ID  Avoids “orphans” Can’t delete a record or change the primary key in the one table when associated records are in the many table, unless have cascade delete and cascade update enabled
  13. 13. Relationships Window Where relationships between tables are created and defined Related fields must have the same data type  Autonumber is related to number field with long integer field size The one table has a 1 next to it; the many has a next to it
  14. 14. Select Queries Select Queries represent a question and an answer Question is created in design view  Design view creates a Structured Query Language (SQL) statement Answer is shown in datasheet view  Answer is a dynaset - dynamic subset of a table
  15. 15. Query Design Specify data source - table or another query (FROM) Determine which rows to include (WHERE) Identify groups (GROUP BY) Specify groups to include in result (HAVING) Identify fields to include in result (SELECT) Specify how to sort the answer (ORDER BY)
  16. 16. Criteria And Or
  17. 17. Wildcards ‘*’ is for a group of characters (0, 1 or more characters) ‘?’ is for a single character (and there must be a character)“S*ND” will return sand, sound, send, stand, spend“S?ND” will return sand, send
  18. 18. Total Queries Select query with results summarized by one or more fields  Find value(s) that records share and summarize information Similar to Groups in a Report
  19. 19. Multi-table Queries Can use multiple tables in a query If tables are not already related, can connect tables in the query itself  Drag the connecting field from the one table to the many table “Joins” describe how rows in one table match rows in the other table(s)
  20. 20. Joins When using multiple tables, need to connect through a join Inner-join is most common and requires matching values in both tables Outer-join includes all rows from one table and any matching records from second table that exist Cartesian Join matches all rows from one table with all rows from 2nd table
  21. 21. Autolookup Queries Use queries to automatically look up data from related tables Must contain the foreign key from the many table  Value entered in foreign key is matched to value in related primary key to “look up” data Can add, change or delete data in the source tables  Many side will determine where a new row is added or existing row deleted
  22. 22. Parameter Queries Parameter queries allow entry of criteria when query is run  A “place holder” allows the criteria to be saved without a specific value  Behaves like an argument in other programming languages Allows query to be used with different values without having to go into design view
  23. 23. Action Queries Action queries are about change Can change data  Update: change an existing value  Append: add rows to a table  Delete: remove rows from a table Can change database  Make-table: create a new database object
  24. 24. Getting & Using Data in Forms and Reports  Forms and reports have a recordsource property  Can get data from a table or query  Bound controls use the controlsource property to connect to a field  Field for controlsource must be in form recordsource  Controlsource is also used for calculations
  25. 25. Forms  Basic use is to enter and display information from a table  Forms can also help to change data stored in table by being bound (record source is a table or query)  Forms can help others use an application  Typically an unbound form (no record source)  Forms use controls: bound, unbound, calculated
  26. 26. Forms - 2 Forms have sections: header, footer, and detail  Detail section is used to display data from one row in a table or query Tab order controls how the cursor moves through controls on a form
  27. 27. Forms & Subforms Main form is based on the primary (“one”) table Subform is based on the many table Subform shows records associated with the current record in the primary table Each form has its own status bar, record selector, and navigation buttons
  28. 28. Subforms Main form and subform are linked through specific fields; fields don’t have to be shown, but must be in data source (record source) A main form can have several subforms Subforms can be displayed as a data sheet, single form or continuous forms  Display is set through the form’s default view in the properties window
  29. 29. List Controls A list or combo box can be bound to a field in one table, and display data from fields in a second table  Good choice for selecting a value for a foreign key, if the primary and foreign keys are single fields Rowsource property specifies the list of choices, bound column specifies the value to save Can show/not show different columns in the list
  30. 30. Reports Displays information from a table or query Cannot change data  A report shows the data at the time of printing or print preview  Each time a report is displayed or printed, it recalculates and re-reads the data from tables, so one report can show different values
  31. 31. Reports - 2 Reports have sections: report, page, and group headers and footers; and detail Controls are used to display data, information, calculations  The most common controls are text boxes, labels, and lines
  32. 32. Sorting & Grouping Groups help to organize data into information for records that have something in common  Can summarize information for subgroups (for example, showing subtotals by location) Sorting controls the order that information is shown
  33. 33. Subreports Allow main report to include all records, regardless of whether there are related records  Subreports are similar in function to subforms, finding related rows for the current row in main report Can include several subreports, if a query would create incomplete or duplicating results