3 sql overview
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • 398 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
398
Views on SlideShare
398
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

3 sql overview Presentation Transcript

  • 1. SQL Overview CIS-182
  • 2. Structured Query Language • Language used to work with databases • Used in „back end‟ – Typically not part of user interface (don‟t expect users to type in a query…)
  • 3. SEQEL to SQL • Structured English Query Language developed by IBM • Other companies developed similar products • ANSI set standards in 1986 – Standards are „open‟ – Different vendors have different levels of conformance
  • 4. SQL • Most languages are procedural – Describe how to perform a task • SQL is non-procedural (declarative) – Code describes results – Includes some procedural components • If … Then, Loops • Database apps typically use both types of languages – Procedural languages manage interface, data requests – SQL manages data storage and retrieval
  • 5. Types of SQL Statements • Data Definition Language (DDL): Create/edit objects – CREATE, ALTER • Data Control Language (DCL): Specify access and permissions – GRANT, REVOKE • Data Manipulation Language (DML): Work with data – SELECT * FROM Employees – INSERT INTO Students
  • 6. Logical Organization • Catalogs: group of schemas • Schema: group of related tables, views • Implementation is up to vendor – Some vendors use catalogs, some don‟t – Vendors have different levels of support for schemas
  • 7. Databases • „Database‟ is not an ANSI specification • Most vendors have a database object • In practice, schema and database tend to be viewed interchangeably – Schema defines the contents of a database – May have sub-schemas to reflect application needs (include only a portion of the database)
  • 8. Coding • One command may extend across several lines – [Enter] doesn‟t represent the end of a statement – SQL uses ; (semi-colon) to identify statement end • ; is optional in SQL Server • Keywords are capitalized – CREATE DATABASE MyNewDatabase • No standard conventions for naming – Typically use Pascal case naming with each new word capitalized
  • 9. Naming Requirements • Object names are not typically case sensitive – Delimited identifiers wrap names in double quotes and ARE case sensitive – “MyNewTable” uses double quotes to identify the object name – Single quotes identify strings (text) • Can use letters, numbers, underscore – Can‟t use spaces, punctuation
  • 10. Qualified Names • A qualified name defines explicitly how to find an object – „.‟ is used as separator • SQL Server uses ServerName.DatabaseName.OwnerName.ObjectName OR ServerName.DatabaseName.SchemaName.ObjectName
  • 11. Coding Reference • SQL Server uses special characters to identify different parts of commands • End of statement: ; – Optional in SQL Server • Placeholder: <> • Placeholder Definition: ::= • Optional Parameter(s): [ ] • Specific Parameter Values: { } • Value Separator: | • List Separator: ,
  • 12. Placeholder Example • Basic command definition: ON UPDATE <referential action> <referential action> ::= CASCADE|SET NULL <referential action> is placeholder CASCADE|SET NULL is placeholder definition (placeholder value must be one of these choices)
  • 13. Management Studio • Microsoft GUI for most SQL Server operations – Additional applications manage overall server security, business intelligence • Separate application from SQL Server – Uses a connection to send commands and capture results – SQL Server is not something we‟ll work with directly