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The Ideological Positioning of the Spanish Press in Relation to Catholicism
 

The Ideological Positioning of the Spanish Press in Relation to Catholicism

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  • Good Afternoon, my name is Rafael Repiso and I have come here with my partner Francisco Garcia, coauthor of this work and profesor in Complutense University of Madrid. First of all, I would like to thank the organization of this Seminary for giving us the opportunity to communicate one of our research lines It´s a honor for us to be here and speak. In our work, we will present a content analysis regarding the political position held by several spanish newspapers and press agencies concerning the world Youth Day 2011.
  • Our main purpose was to analyze how different media positioned themselves when informing about such events by analyzing the frequency of negative terms in news pieces. Why? Because We think that negative terms are special in this case. The negative terms can be aggresive and imparcial, and selection of one or other can show the position of political slants. We intend to analyse political position and cluster of the newspapers across two different statistical techniques: Multidimensional Scaling and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification
  • One of the dividing lines between political parties in spain is Catholicism. Since born of left parties, this found in catholic church an enemy in differents fronts, power, thinking, . For example, five years previously of spanish civil wars, in 1931, dozens of churchs, monasteries and other religious builds were burned by left radicals. The republican party, government of the moment, did nothing. During the spanish civil war and after, while Franco governed spain, the church was a fiel allied of the dictatorship. In the picture we can see Franco in an honor position under the bless of the church.
  • During president's takeover, the new president swear his position putting the hand in a bible or a constitution or both. In this case we can see how Zapatero of spanish socialist party swear over the consituttion, the actual president, Rajoy swear over both books.
  • In 1984, John Paul the Second celebrated an event devoted to the Catholic youth. Since then, Catholics celebrate the World Youth Day (hereafter WYD) every two to three years at different locations The World Youth Day held in Madrid last August 2011 was a media event but also a manifestation of faith and a meeting for young Catholics. In this context, an opposition movement arose represented by a group of demonstrators.
  • From the perspective of the media, WYD is an opportunity for host countries to increase their public presence. At the WYD held in Madrid in 2011, the organisation accredited 5,000 journalists (2,900 of them Spanish), 55 special reports were broadcasted, with an estimated audience (just in Spain) of 15 million, and 4,241 pieces of news were published
  • Atlhought this event was a pacific meeting of young people from all over the world, it was eclipsed by differents demonstrations and actions of groups of oppositors to the church. From the perspective of the media, WYD is an opportunity for host countries to increase their public presence. At the WYD held in Madrid in 2011, the organisation accredited 5,000 journalists (2,900 of them Spanish), 55 special reports were broadcasted, with an estimated audience (just in Spain) of 15 million, and 4,241 pieces of news were published
  • In General Terms the proccess is divid in three phases: In the first phase, we seek and extrated all the sifnitificati news articles. Later, tihis information is exported to excel using a special macro created ad hoc. The data is normalizated, deleted and Finally data are analyses with excel a xlstat.
  • The analysis proccess and graphic representatio ares subdivided in six steps: The fist step is the seeking and extraction of information The next step is the Extraction of negative terms using ANTONC software with the objetcive to analyse the distribution of news that include this terms and creation of a newspaper and term table Creation of Co-Word graphs with pajek, a social networks analysis software, Creation of similarity matrix between papers (the common element is the use and distribution of negative terms in theirs news. The fifth step is the application of a Multidimensional Scaling, who And finally the last step Hierarchical Ascendant Classification, In the present study we have employed the Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC), also known as connectivity-based clustering.
  • We use MYNews Online, a spanish Data Base. in our case we preffer this tool becaue is more exhaustive that Lexis Nexis, the other newspaper database. In the search, we recolect all the news who include the Acronym JMJ, JMJ is spanis acronym for World Youth Day, and is the oficial and most popular name of the event.
  • En this step we use a lexiacal analysis software called ANTCONC. With this program we analyse the aided by the lexical analysis software, the 20 most frequent terms denoting negative aspects of the event were extracted. To this end, AntConc® software was used. Positive terms were, for the better part, shared by all newspapers and agencies, and determining which positive terms set a difference between them becomes extremely complicated. On the other hand, negative terms really define the differences, the same as those terms that are absent or those that exhibit an abnormal use (be it excessive or insufficient).
  • This slide shows the number of news pieces that the main newspapers and agencies have published regarding WYD and the distribution of each newspaper in 2011. On a darker background are national newspapers and on a lighter background, regional and local media. Please note how most of the news were generated by national newspapers. These four newspapers account for 48% of the news pieces, out of the 20 newspapers giving coverage to the event. By analysing the cover of the major newspapers we can see different frames. ABC and La Razón used most part of the cover, on the other hand El País, the newspaper with the widest national circulation in Spain, does not show news about the event in the closing day.
  • In this table we observe the rank of negative terms related with World Youth Day. In our case part of the most representative terms are associated with people opposite with the event. There are many types of form to call it, with many sutle differences, since Laic to Popeopposers…
  • The distribution of negative terms in newspapers and news agencies can be seen in this table. It can be observed how many newspapers use the term “laica” (laic) rather than “ateos” (atheists), or “indignados” (outraged), and in the same way the term “detenido” (arrested), related to the detention of a young man belonging to the organisation of the WYD, does not appear in many media or is overblown in others. For instance, it generated several pieces of news in newspapers like Última Hora or El País. The only newspaper that includes all the negative terms here analysed is El País.
  • This similarity matrix shows distances and it is drawn considering a) words and their frequencies of occurrence in every newspaper, b) general trends in the use of words. This lead us to check which are the most similar papers and agencies when using negative words. The information is displayed as one-dimensional representation where groups are not perceived.
  • The aim of Multidimensional Scaling is modelling the degrees of proximity between elements in such a way that they can be represented in a space with a low number of dimensions (two, in our case). To this end, the SMACOF ( S caling by MA jorizing a CO nvex F unction) algorithm was used. A multidimensional scaling analysis is needed to show the distances in the similarity table (Table 6) on a two dimensional plane. This way we can observe the distances between the media, although there is a certain loss of information, and most importantly, we can see the clusters which are formed. Multidimensional scaling reduces all possible dimensions (one for each newspaper or agency) to only two, so that they can be represented on a plane. This reduction in the number of dimensions implies a loss of representativity, which amounts to 0,2 in the Kruskal test. Such loss of representativity calls for a complementary view, in this case a clustering analysis. The axis of abscissas, where x and y converge with value x,y = 0 , is a midway point, which in multidimensional scaling is found by averaging the coordinates of all elements. Therefore, proximity to the centre indicates the degree of generality of a particular newspaper or agency, and those found in the extremes are the ones who differ most from the set. On the contrary, the media located close to the centre are very representative of the whole set, with the most representative being El Norte de Castilla, in this case. Several clusters appear in the outskirts of the representation: on the one hand, the newspapers La Razón, La Gaceta de los Negocios, and ABC. On the other, we find El Progreso, Estrella Digital, and El País. Local and regional newspapers are located near the centre or to the left of the axis of abscissas. This is mainly caused by the low use of negative terms and the lack of a characteristic lexicon.
  • Cluster analysis is shown in the dendrogram of figure 3, and it roughly describes three components. The main one has 12 newspapers, mostly local and regional. In this one, despite their low degree of similarity, are included Público, La voz de Galicia, and Última Hora. The most similar newspapers are El Correo and La Rioja. The rest of the clustering values are high, which implies a heterogeneous group. Next, two more components can be seen, each containing five elements. The first one is made up by newspapers El Mundo, La Razón, La Gaceta de los Negocios, La Verdad de Murcia, and ABC. In this subset, ABC and La Razón are the most similar media.
  • Finally we can conclude which are the main producers of news. We have observed that the negatives terms analysed are related qith success outside of the events organization. The MDS help us to understand better the relation or simmilitude between newspapers and show us an image of the groups that are late reinforced thank to the dendogram.
  • Finally, we have comprobed that hierarchycal asscendant classificaciont help us to define the groups better thant the Multidimensional Scaling, the uses of this statistical techniques improve the perception of group, we have demostrated that the use of boths methodoloiges are a good idea. Clustering analysis is a complement to Multidimensional Scaling and it helps to define better the perception of clustering than MDS, particularly regarding the elements on the borders of groups, like La Voz de Galicia and Público. Clustering analysis divides the newspapers into three main components: most regional and local newspapers are together in a big group, most of the progressive newspapers form other component along with news agencies, and yet another group is formed by conservative newspapers, exhibiting a favourable view of WYD
  • Thank you for your attention, and if anyone have a question this is the moment.

The Ideological Positioning of the Spanish Press in Relation to Catholicism The Ideological Positioning of the Spanish Press in Relation to Catholicism Presentation Transcript

  • The Ideological Positioning of the Spanish Press in Relation to Catholicism: A Content Analysis of News Related with World Youth Day 2011 PSA MEDIA & POLITICS CONFERENCE UNIVERSITY OF BEDFORDSHIRE• Rafael Repiso - ESCO rafael.repiso@gmail.com• Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Pinto - ESCO marp@escogranada.com• Francisco García García - ESCO fghenche@gmail.com
  • OBJECTIVES • Analysis, classification and grouping of the principal media and news agencies according with their political filiation, and being able to determine their positions regarding WYD through the content analysis of the negative terms used in the coverage of the event. To this end we employ two different statistical techniques: Multidimensional Scaling and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification.INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • CATHOLICISM AND POLITICS GROUPS IN SPAININTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • CATHOLICISM AND POLITICS GROUPS IN SPAININTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • World Youth Day 2011INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • World Youth Day 2011 in PressINTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • World Youth Day 2011 in PressINTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Proccess Parts Effects 1. Seeking News about World Youth Day We can observe the most 2. Extraction of negative terms in news problematic topics They show the central value of 3. Creation of a Co-Word Graphs. each negative terms 4. Creation of Similarity Matrix between We can observe the most similar Newspapers newspapers. 5. Similarity Matrix, creation of a We can see similarity and cluster Muldtidimensional Scaling of news 6. Simmilitude Matrix, creation of a Another form to see groups of Hierarchical Ascendant Classification similar newspress.INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Rk. Newspaper Nº News Distribution 1 La Razon 283 165148 2 ABC 232 326584 3 El Mundo 189 383713 4 Gaceta Negocios 175 89151 5 estrelladigital.es 82 -- 6 La Verdad Murcia 76 40478 7 Diario EL PAIS, S.A. 74 473407 8 Ideal 68 36675 9 La Voz de Cadiz 65 9637 10 La Rioja 59 16986 11 La Voz Galicia 58 111518 12 El Norte de Castilla 55 37027 13 Público 55 132409 14 Diario Sur 54 34929 15 El Progreso 53 18307 16 El Diario Montañés 52 39864 17 Ultima Hora 51 40492 18 El Correo 50 122663 19 Diario de Las Palmas 49 -- 20 El Diario de Sevilla 49 23172INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Rank. Word Freq. Rank. Word Freq.People opposers to the event Heridos 28 Laica (Laic) 200 370 31 (Wounded) Laicista 38 Policía (Police) 164 388 30 (Secularist) Manifestantes 89 92 451 Cargas (Charges) 26 (Protesters) Indignados Violencia 106 81 554 23 (Outraged) (Violence) Detenido 136 67 615 Protestar (Protest) 21 (Arrested) Antipapa (Pope- 137 Laicos (Laic) 67 627 20 opposers) Laicismo 256 Anti (Opposers) 40 647 20 (Secularism) Incidentes Antidisturbios 339 33 671 19 (Incidents) (Crowd control) Tensión 364 32 834 Abusos (Abuse) 16 (Tension) 367 Ateos (Atheists) 31 850 Disturbios (riots) 16 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Distribution of negative words according to themost productive newspapers Anti Laica Policía Detenido Tensión Ateos Manifestantes Indignados Laicos (Op Incidentes Rk Newspapers (laic) (police (Arreste (Tensio (Atheis (Protesters) (Outraged) (Laic) pose (Incidents) ) d) n) ts) rs) 1 La Razón 3 13 0 20 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 ABC 3 4 0 8 1 1 0 3 0 0 3 El Mundo 2 9 2 7 1 1 2 1 2 0 4 Gaceta Negocios 1 2 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 2 5 estrelladigital.es 13 4 6 1 4 2 0 3 2 3 6 La Verdad Murcia 2 6 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 EL PAIS, S.A. 14 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 1 1 8 Ideal 0 3 3 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 9 La Voz de Cádiz 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 10 La Rioja 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 11 La Voz Galicia 1 2 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 El Norte de 12 3 5 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 Castilla 13 Público 2 4 5 1 4 2 0 0 0 0 14 Diario Sur 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 15 El Progreso 6 3 3 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 El Diario 16 0 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Montañés 17 Ultima Hora 3 4 4 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 18 El Correo 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 Diario de Las 19 4 4 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Palmas El Diario de 20 2 4 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 Sevilla EFE 12 7 3 3 6 3 0 1 0 0 Europa Press 69 39 18 20 21 11 0 13 9 3INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Similitude Matrix. Newspapers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 221 La Razon 1 0,897 0,892 0,824 -0,124 0,695 0,010 0,318 0,056 0,270 -0,067 0,271 0,079 -0,030 -0,089 0,532 -0,081 0,150 0,213 0,201 0,223 0,2792 ABC 0,897 1 0,725 0,704 0,024 0,540 0,230 0,037 0,000 0,062 -0,130 0,192 0,000 -0,163 -0,016 0,234 -0,199 0,000 0,181 0,067 0,334 0,3993 El Mundo 0,892 0,725 1 0,615 -0,090 0,845 -0,019 0,529 0,089 0,448 0,219 0,534 0,285 0,036 0,010 0,724 0,018 0,292 0,443 0,543 0,292 0,3394 Gaceta Negocios 0,824 0,704 0,615 1 -0,061 0,639 0,019 0,262 0,469 0,491 -0,213 0,277 -0,063 0,287 -0,189 0,527 0,280 0,416 0,188 0,086 0,170 0,2055 estrelladigital.es -0,124 0,024 -0,090 -0,061 1 0,210 0,899 0,000 0,401 -0,096 0,362 0,498 0,388 0,289 0,713 -0,146 0,353 -0,143 0,737 0,431 0,828 0,8746 La Verdad Murcia 0,695 0,540 0,845 0,639 0,210 1 0,191 0,503 0,518 0,715 0,240 0,842 0,307 0,386 0,194 0,772 0,323 0,513 0,695 0,718 0,504 0,5497 Diario EL PAIS, S.A. 0,010 0,230 -0,019 0,019 0,899 0,191 1 -0,283 0,356 -0,204 0,081 0,377 0,206 0,197 0,650 -0,310 0,151 -0,192 0,648 0,330 0,872 0,8988 Ideal 0,318 0,037 0,529 0,262 0,000 0,503 -0,283 1 0,186 0,550 0,774 0,491 0,598 0,183 -0,035 0,838 0,579 0,453 0,463 0,598 0,025 0,0529 La Voz de Cadiz 0,056 0,000 0,089 0,469 0,401 0,518 0,356 0,186 1 0,739 0,087 0,659 0,089 0,816 0,110 0,421 0,797 0,760 0,595 0,435 0,445 0,43310 La Rioja 0,270 0,062 0,448 0,491 -0,096 0,715 -0,204 0,550 0,739 1 0,224 0,690 0,230 0,603 -0,093 0,830 0,662 0,935 0,439 0,568 0,123 0,08511 La Voz Galicia -0,067 -0,130 0,219 -0,213 0,362 0,240 0,081 0,774 0,087 0,224 1 0,521 0,625 0,106 0,160 0,462 0,517 0,197 0,611 0,617 0,217 0,28212 El Norte de Castilla 0,271 0,192 0,534 0,277 0,498 0,842 0,377 0,491 0,659 0,690 0,521 1 0,352 0,605 0,294 0,664 0,525 0,542 0,882 0,810 0,596 0,67113 Público 0,079 0,000 0,285 -0,063 0,388 0,307 0,206 0,598 0,089 0,230 0,625 0,352 1 -0,109 0,692 0,350 0,426 0,203 0,560 0,724 0,550 0,41014 Diario Sur -0,030 -0,163 0,036 0,287 0,289 0,386 0,197 0,183 0,816 0,603 0,106 0,605 -0,109 1 -0,039 0,459 0,586 0,620 0,444 0,246 0,245 0,30615 El Progreso -0,089 -0,016 0,010 -0,189 0,713 0,194 0,650 -0,035 0,110 -0,093 0,160 0,294 0,692 -0,039 1 -0,142 0,075 -0,168 0,517 0,510 0,817 0,69516 El Diario Montañés 0,532 0,234 0,724 0,527 -0,146 0,772 -0,310 0,838 0,421 0,830 0,462 0,664 0,350 0,459 -0,142 1 0,504 0,711 0,451 0,583 0,063 0,09317 Ultima Hora -0,081 -0,199 0,018 0,280 0,353 0,323 0,151 0,579 0,797 0,662 0,517 0,525 0,426 0,586 0,075 0,504 1 0,726 0,588 0,520 0,279 0,24318 El Correo 0,150 0,000 0,292 0,416 -0,143 0,513 -0,192 0,453 0,760 0,935 0,197 0,542 0,203 0,620 -0,168 0,711 0,726 1 0,354 0,457 0,085 0,01019 Diario de Las Palmas 0,213 0,181 0,443 0,188 0,737 0,695 0,648 0,463 0,595 0,439 0,611 0,882 0,560 0,444 0,517 0,451 0,588 0,354 1 0,877 0,804 0,84220 El Diario de Sevilla 0,201 0,067 0,543 0,086 0,431 0,718 0,330 0,598 0,435 0,568 0,617 0,810 0,724 0,246 0,510 0,583 0,520 0,457 0,877 1 0,637 0,59021 EFE 0,223 0,334 0,292 0,170 0,828 0,504 0,872 0,025 0,445 0,123 0,217 0,596 0,550 0,245 0,817 0,063 0,279 0,085 0,804 0,637 1 0,95822 Europa Press 0,279 0,399 0,339 0,205 0,874 0,549 0,898 0,052 0,433 0,085 0,282 0,671 0,410 0,306 0,695 0,093 0,243 0,010 0,842 0,590 0,958 1 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Clustering of newspapers and agencies bynegative terms. Multidimensional Scaling INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Dendrogram of newspapers by negative terms usedINTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Conclusions The data show that newpapers ABC, La Razón, El Mundo, and La Gaceta de los Negocios are the biggest producers of news pieces about WYD Frequency analysis shows, as it could be expected, that the majority of the most frequent terms are very representative of the event. The negative terms analysed cannot be related to elements belonging to the organisation of the event but to elements outside the event. Thanks to MDS we can find out how newspapers are grouped and located on the plane. Above the axis of abscissas, we can find mainly newspapers belonging to the centre, centre-right, and right. They show a positive alignment with the event and a negative attitude towards the groups that caused the public disturbances. Multidimensional Scaling illustrates which of the newspapers can be found near to the centre, and therefore which of them are the most representative of all newspapers. In this case, that place is occupied by local newspapers El Norte de Castilla and Diario de Sevilla and also by the news agencies.INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • Conclusions Clustering analysis is a complement to Multidimensional Scaling and it helps to define better the perception of clustering than MDS, particularly regarding the elements on the borders of groups, like La Voz de Galicia and Público. Clustering analysis divides the newspapers into three main components: most regional and local newspapers are together in a big group, most of the progressive newspapers form other component along with news agencies, and yet another group is formed by conservative newspapers, exhibiting a favourable view of WYDINTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
  • The Ideological Positioning of the Spanish Press in Relation to Catholicism: A Content Analysis of News Related with World Youth Day 2011 Thank you for your Attention• Rafael Repiso - ESCO rafael.repiso@gmail.com• Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Pinto - ESCO marp@escogranada.com• Francisco García García - ESCO fghenche@gmail.com