FDR and the  Isolationists The Rise and Fall of Isolationism Between the World Wars, 1919-1941
Sources of Isolationism (Barriers to Collective Security) <ul><li>Memories of World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Twenties Forei...
Why Isolationism was Lunacy <ul><li>The Lawless World of 1919-1939 </li></ul><ul><li>The International power vacuum </li><...
Republican Foreign Policy, 1921-1932 <ul><li>Washington Naval Treaty (1922) </li></ul><ul><li>Kellogg-Briand Pact (1927) <...
Roosevelt as Isolationist <ul><li>Refused to alter Hoover’s Stimson Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>there was not a scintilla o...
Roosevelt as Isolationist (Continued) <ul><li>Lame Duck status encourages low profile </li></ul><ul><li>Refuses to endorse...
Powers Available to FDR: How Well Used? <ul><li>Speechmaking to change public opinion- but don’t leap too far ahead of the...
Roosevelt’s covert support for collective security (1925-1939) <ul><li>Neutrality policy helps Libya against Italy </li></...
Roosevelt’s Brilliant Twin Strategy <ul><li>FDR knew that a growing percentage of Americans were supporting aid short of w...
September 3, 1939: Casts World War II in Strong Moral Tones While “there will be no blackout of peace in the United States...
Effective use of Rhetoric  <ul><li>Speeches: </li></ul><ul><li>Kristallnacht (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Pledge (1...
Executive and Congressional Action <ul><li>Executive Orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyers for Bases </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Case Against FDR <ul><li>Campaign against civil liberties in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Lying about history, end runs arou...
The Case for FDR <ul><li>The world had gone to smash in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>There  were  subversives on the right and l...
What do you think? What else can be said for or against Roosevelt’s foreign policy before Pearl Harbor? Respond on the bul...
To Do this, you need to be on campus and have access to the resources of GALILEO. You WILL have classroom release time to ...
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FDR and the Isolationists, 1919-1941

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American foreign policy between the world wars

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FDR and the Isolationists, 1919-1941

  1. 1. FDR and the Isolationists The Rise and Fall of Isolationism Between the World Wars, 1919-1941
  2. 2. Sources of Isolationism (Barriers to Collective Security) <ul><li>Memories of World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Twenties Foreign Policy: Arms Reduction and “Abolition” of War by Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>The Nye Committee Hearings (1934) </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1937 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Isolationism was Lunacy <ul><li>The Lawless World of 1919-1939 </li></ul><ul><li>The International power vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>The differing impact of Versailles (1919) on the forces of peace and militarism </li></ul><ul><li>The Rise of Irrational Militarism in Europe and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The Un-Neutral Consequences of Neutrality Legislation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Republican Foreign Policy, 1921-1932 <ul><li>Washington Naval Treaty (1922) </li></ul><ul><li>Kellogg-Briand Pact (1927) </li></ul><ul><li>These only masqueraded as collective security </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits sought, responsibility shunned </li></ul><ul><li>Japan invades Manchuria, 1931 </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover’s Stimson Doctrine (1932) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Roosevelt as Isolationist <ul><li>Refused to alter Hoover’s Stimson Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>there was not a scintilla of evidence of “a new deal for immigrants” </li></ul><ul><li>Economic nationalism of the first New Deal (repeal of the Gold Standard in 1933 and inflationary measures </li></ul><ul><li>The Neutrality acts of 1935 and 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt’s retreat from the “quarantine the aggressors” speech (1937) </li></ul><ul><li>Refuses to aid Britain and France in the war scare of 1938 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Roosevelt as Isolationist (Continued) <ul><li>Lame Duck status encourages low profile </li></ul><ul><li>Refuses to endorse help legislation for refugee children (Wagner-Rogers, 1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Casts a blind eye on the plight of the passengers of the S.S. St. Louis (1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Bungles the debate on neutrality legislation revision (1939) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Powers Available to FDR: How Well Used? <ul><li>Speechmaking to change public opinion- but don’t leap too far ahead of the public and risk the fiasco of the Chicago speech </li></ul><ul><li>Using World Events to his advantage– but runs the risk of the warmongering charge </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership over Congress to change legislation– but don’t leap too far ahead and risk failure of passage </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Orders– but don’t go too far and risk accusations of dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>How well did FDR do? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Roosevelt’s covert support for collective security (1925-1939) <ul><li>Neutrality policy helps Libya against Italy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quarantine” speech in Chicago (1937) </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly condemns Kristallnacht in strong moral terms (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals for dramatic revision of Neutrality laws (1939) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Roosevelt’s Brilliant Twin Strategy <ul><li>FDR knew that a growing percentage of Americans were supporting aid short of war, but 80% opposed a War Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>1. Argues that collective security (aid to victim nations) is the surest way to prevent war </li></ul><ul><li>2. Speeches encourage “Un-Neutral” thinking to build support for this policy </li></ul>
  10. 10. September 3, 1939: Casts World War II in Strong Moral Tones While “there will be no blackout of peace in the United States,” Roosevelt declared “I cannot ask that every American remain neutral in thought. Even a neutral has a right to take account of facts. Even a neutral cannot be asked to close his mind or conscience.”
  11. 11. Effective use of Rhetoric <ul><li>Speeches: </li></ul><ul><li>Kristallnacht (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Pledge (1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Speech against Italy (June 1940) </li></ul><ul><li>Ballyhoo about the impact of the bases deal (Sep. 1940) </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenal of Democracy Speech (1940) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Four Freedoms” Speech (1941) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Executive and Congressional Action <ul><li>Executive Orders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyers for Bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoot on Sight order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting off Oil Supplies to Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congressional Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Service Bill (1940) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lend-Lease Act (1941) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Case Against FDR <ul><li>Campaign against civil liberties in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Lying about history, end runs around Congress with destroyers-for-bases deal in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Disingenuous reelection bid: “Your boys are not going to be sent….” </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic spying by FBI (and FDR knew) </li></ul><ul><li>Lying about the Greer episode (1941) </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbor, 1941: What did the President know and when did he know it? </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese America Relocation (1942) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Case for FDR <ul><li>The world had gone to smash in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>There were subversives on the right and left in 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Election-eve support for collective security showed real political courage </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenal of Democracy speech (December, 1940), Four Freedoms Speech (Jan., 1941) and Lend-Lease campaign brilliantly isolated the isolationists </li></ul>
  15. 15. What do you think? What else can be said for or against Roosevelt’s foreign policy before Pearl Harbor? Respond on the bulletin board, and let “FDR” or “Gerald P. Nye” rebut your post with a scholarly citation. After reading the scholarly rebuttal, answer with a post explaining or refuting the logical soundness of the scholarly article submitted by “FDR” or “Nye ”
  16. 16. To Do this, you need to be on campus and have access to the resources of GALILEO. You WILL have classroom release time to complet this assignment. The instructor will now explain how to do the assignment.

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