Earthsoft effective communication


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Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) is working as an NGO/NPO for students - Education & Career
guidance and for Professionals for soft skills enhancements. I am working on speading , sharing
knowledge; experience globally.It has uploaded important presentations at
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Be mentor using your education, knowledge & experience to contribute for a social cause & do conduct
free training/ workshop seeking help of existing platforms like rotary,etc
Kindly spread to your friends.Thank you!

- Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance
Let us make earth little softer..

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  • to open into each otherThe art and technique of using words effectively to impart information or ideas.But also nonverbal communication?
  • Input. The sender has an intention to communicate with another person. This intention makes up the content of the message. Sender. The sender encodes the message, e.g. the idea of "piece of furniture to sit on." Thus he gives expression to the content. Channel. The message is sent via a channel, which can be made of a variety of materials. In acoustic communication it consists of air, in written communication of paper or other writing materials. Noise. The channel is subjected to various sources of noise. One example is telephone communication, where numerous secondary sounds are audible. Fields of Response. In the process, the relevance of a code becomes obvious: The codes of the sender and receiver must have at least a certain set in common in order to make communication work. That frame of reference is the sum of experiences in the form of each person's knowledge, beliefs and values. Our frame of reference is also greatly influenced by the culture to which we belong. On the basis of that body of personal knowledge, each member of the audience decodes the message. As members of the audience differ, so will their interpretations of what they hear. Output. This is the content decoded by the receiver. Receiver. The receiver decodes the incoming message, or expression. He "translates" it and thus receives the outputSender: Initiate meaning, encode, send, interacts with feedback.Message: the meaning that sender transmits (words, ideas, body language, …)Encoding: put the meaning in codes including words, voice and body language.Noise or Interference: Things which change the meaning intended.Physical: external noise such as the car horns or the high sound of radio. It also includes unpleasant smell, the annoying weather, strong perfume smell or distracting behavior of the speaker.Mental: In the human mind, mental models impact or block the meaning of the message.Linguistic: the different interpretations of words. Technical: noise in communication channels such as telephone or GSM. Channel: The medium by which the message is transmitted. Normal channels include sound and light waves. Other channels include books, newspapers, magazines, movies, radio and TV broadcast, cassettes, photos, phones and computers.Receiver: Analyzes and translates it to meaning. He basically receives message, decodes and responds.Decoding: Since the message contains codes (verbal and nonverbal), every receiver will interprets and translates it based on his background and previous experiences. Feedback: The response that receiver sends to the sender. It shows if the message has been received and understood as intended to be.
  • The thoughts and ideas that you send do not necessarily reflect your own, Source - As the source of the message, you need to be clear about why you're communicating, and what you want to communicate. You also need to be confident that the information you're communicating is useful and accurate. Message - The message is the information that you want to communicate.senderencoding - This is the process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a form that can be sent and correctly decoded at the other end. Your success in encoding depends partly on your ability to convey information clearly and simply, but also on your ability to anticipate and eliminate sources of confusion (for example, cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information.)A key part of this is knowing your audience: Failure to understand who you are communicating with will result in delivering messages that are misunderstood. channel - Messages are conveyed through channels, with verbal including face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing; and written including letters, emails, memos and reports. Different channels have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, it's not particularly effective to give a long list of directions verbally, while you'll quickly cause problems if you criticize someone strongly by email.decoding - Just as successful encoding is a skill, so is successful decoding (involving, for example, taking the time to read a message carefully, or listen actively to it.) Just as confusion can arise from errors in encoding, it can also arise from decoding errors. This is particularly the case if the decoder doesn't have enough knowledge to understand the message. receiver - Your message is delivered to individual members of your audience. No doubt, you have in mind the actions or reactions you hope your message will get from this audience. Keep in mind, though, that each of these individuals enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence their understanding of your message, and their response. To be a successful communicator, you should consider these before delivering your message, and act appropriately. feedback - Your audience will provide you with feedback, verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated message. Pay close attention to this feedback, as it is the only thing that allows you to be confident that your audience has understood your message. If you find that there has been a misunderstanding, at least you have the opportunity to send the message a second time. context -The situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.).
  • To feel respected by self and othersTo cause or prevent inner and/or interpersonal change
  • Effective communication is an essential component of organizational success at all levels.
  • A "majority" of the meaning we attribute to words comes not from the words themselves, but from nonverbal factors such as gestures, facial expressions, tone, body language, etc.
  • A large percentage of the meaning we derive from the non-verbal cues that the other person gives. Often a person says one thing but communicates something totally different through vocal intonation and body language. These mixed signals force the receiver to choose between the verbal and nonverbal parts of the message. Most often, the receiver chooses the nonverbal aspects. Mixed messages create tension and distrust because the receiver senses that the communicator is hiding something or is being less than candid. This often called body language and includes facial expression, eye movement, posture, and gestures. The face is the biggest part of this. All of us "read" people's faces for ways to interpret what they say and feel.
  • Gestures across cultures can mean different in another culture. E.g. American culture agreement might be indicated by the head going up and down whereas in India, a side-to-side head movement might mean the same thing. The use of gestures, movements, material things and space can either clarify or confuse the meaning of verbal communication. Many gestures are culture bound and susceptible to misinterpretation
  • Gestures across cultures can mean different in another culture. E.g. American culture agreement might be indicated by the head going up and down whereas in India, a side-to-side head movement might mean the same thing. The use of gestures, movements, material things and space can either clarify or confuse the meaning of verbal communication. Many gestures are culture bound and susceptible to misinterpretation
  • For most of us, someone standing very close to us makes us uncomfortable. We feel our "space" has been invaded. People seek to extend their territory in many ways to attain power and intimacy. We tend to mark our territory either with permanent walls, or in a classroom with our coat, pen, paper, etc. We like to protect and control our territory. At the risk of stereotyping, we will generalize and state that Americans and Northern Europeans typify the non-contact group with small amounts of touching and relatively large spaces between them during transactions. Arabs and Latin normally stand closer together and do a lot of touching during communication.
  • Skillful communicators understand the importance of nonverbal communication and use it to increase their effectiveness, as well as use it to understand more clearly what someone else is really saying.A word of warning: Nonverbal cues can differ dramatically from culture to culture. , and it can occur at any point in the process (Goldsmith)
  • including your expectations, biases, wandering mind, or attention focused on other matters
  • Necessary to every management processidentifying and clarifying goalsmaking decisions related to planning and implementingevaluating results (feedback)
  • Necessary to every management processidentifying and clarifying goalsmaking decisions related to planning and implementingevaluating results (feedback)
  • the thoughts and ideas that you send do not necessarily reflect your own, and to get your point across without misunderstanding and confusion, your goal should be to
  • Unless told otherwise, supervisors are authorized to communicate.Being too busy is not an acceptable excuse for inadequate or ineffective communication.Care should be taken to decide what requires formal communication and by whom, and what can be communicated informally.Significant information should show who has authorized its release and be released in all locations at the same time.
  • E-mail is very popular as a source of timely news. But employees typically think that this is "information not communication".Only when communication is largely face-to-face with the immediate supervisor will it stand any real chance of being effective. Forget print. Communicate directly from senior executives to supervisors face-to-face (with printed support materials if appropriate) and get supervisors to communicate with their people.
  • That's because communication does not involve just words, but it also is related to behavior, and unless one is dead, one always "behaves". Even staying still is a behavior. Silence communicates. Our bodies communicate non-verbally. So, so long as there is life there is communication, even if the person is intentionally trying to cease all communication.
  • There are a number of situations when you need to solicit good information from others; these situations include:Interviewing candidatesSolving work problemsSeeking to help an employee on work performanceFinding out reasons for performance discrepancies.
  • To judge the content, not the messenger or delivery
  • , such as "How's the family?" and "What's going on with you?“The speaker may not want to say certain things out of fear of a negative reaction. To try to understand hidden messages in words & actions
  • Defensiveness can take the form of aggression, anger, competitiveness, avoidance among other responses but don't act them out (eg. tell a person that his behavior really upsets you; Be validating, not invalidating - ("You wouldn't understand"); Realize that when people feel threatened they will try to protect themselves; this is natural.
  • Be conjunctive, not disjunctive (not "I want to discuss this regardless of what you want to discuss"); Own up: use "I", not "They"... not “They have heard you are non-cooperative" Use various feedback techniques: rephrase what your employee has said. For example, after your employee presents his thoughts, you can say, “What you are saying is....”summarize what your employee has said. For example, when he has concluded a thought, you can say, “Let me recap what I’ve heard and you tell me if I’ve got it right.”interject questions in supportive and constructive tone whenever your employees’ points are unclear to you such as, “I’m not certain what you mean. Can you clarify that for me?”
  • FFeedback helps in reconfirmationeedback is a constant barometer to let you know if the message you are sending is the same one that your employees are receiving.fear of the other person's reaction; people can get very defensive and emotional when confronted with feedback and many supervisors are very fearful of the reaction the feedback may be based on subjective feeling and the supervisor may be unable to give concrete information if the other person questions the basis for the feedback the information on which the feedback is based (eg. performance appraisal) may be a very flawed process and the supervisor may not totally trust the information defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past misreading of body language, tone noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency) receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues power struggles language-different levels of meaning supervisors hesitation to be candid assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people Part of the feedback process involves understanding and predicting how the other person will react. Or in the case of our receiving feedback, we need to understand ways that we respond to feedback, especially threatening feedback. People often react negatively to threatening feedback. This reaction can take a number of forms including: selective reception and selective perception doubting motive of the giver denying validity of the data rationalizing attack the giver of the data
  • can improve the effectiveness of communication.To be careful choosing words and language to avoid confusion or offence. Imprecise, inaccurate words may mean differentAbility & style sender encodes a messageTo match characteristics of the message (clear vs ambiguous, rational vs emotional, and routine vs non-routine) to the channelTo select rich channel for the complicated message, such as a face-to-face meetingInconsistency confuses a receiver who tries to decode the message of the sender relying heavily on the non-verbal actionse.g. rich channel for the complicated message such as a face-to-face meeting
  • It affects what we hear and how we hear it, and whether and how we are willing to respond
  • ; upward (e.g. suggestion systems, performance reports, attitude surveys), downward communication (e.g., videos, newsletters, briefings and meetings) and horizontal communication (e.g. electronic networks and intranets, and quality circles)
  • Barriers in context tend to stem from senders offering too much information too fast. When in doubt here, less is oftentimes more. It is best to be mindful of the demands on other people’s time, especially in today’s ultra-busy society. within your own organization, in your country and even abroad.
  • The open (public) area contains things that are openly known and talked about - and which may be seen as strengths or weaknesses.  This is the self that we choose to share with others The blind area contains things that others observe that we don't know about.  Again, they could be positive or negative behaviors, and will affect the way that others act towards us. The unknown area contains things that nobody knows about us - including ourselves.  This may be because we've never exposed those areas of our personality, or because they're buried deep in the subconscious. The hidden (private) area contains aspects of our self that we know about and keep hidden from others.
  • Clarify the terminology before using it
  • Be aware that defensiveness is common, particularly with subordinates when you are dealing with a problem.
  • Should not be matters of public discussion in the workplace.
  • such as taking complaint to the manufacturer or getting media attention
  • ” Everyone is expected to do the job well” instead of “ his or her job”.
  • Over time you m and magazines that you are not particularly interested inay learn of a reporter’s bias towards various topics
  • . For example ,attire that is acceptable in a certain city may not be appropriate in the same situation in another oneFor example, when everyone in the office is dressed in business attire and you show up in jeans and a T-shirt ,you are not in appropriate attire unless it’s a day designated as “ casual”
  • . For example ,attire that is acceptable in a certain city may not be appropriate in the same situation in another oneFor example, when everyone in the office is dressed in business attire and you show up in jeans and a T-shirt ,you are not in appropriate attire unless it’s a day designated as “ casual”
  • . For example ,attire that is acceptable in a certain city may not be appropriate in the same situation in another oneFor example, when everyone in the office is dressed in business attire and you show up in jeans and a T-shirt ,you are not in appropriate attire unless it’s a day designated as “ casual”
  • Find single word substitutes for the phrases Along the same linesAt this timeConsensus of opinionDate of policyDue to the fact thatDuring the time of the dayDuring the year ofFew and far betweenFor a price of
  • We-Attitude: I Am delighted to announce that we will be extending our hours to make shopping more convenient.You-Attitude: You will be able to shop evenings with the extended hours.Reader may react positively when benefits are shown them. Benefits must meet recipients needs, address their concerns, or offer them rewards. Most important they must be perceived as benefits by the receivers.Avoid negative – unpleasant words to show considerationIt is impossible to open an account for you today.We don’t refund if the returned item is soiled and unusable.When you travel on company expense, you will not receive approval for first class fare.  To avoid further delay and inconvenience , we are sending this report by express mail.
  • Use Specific Facts and FiguresIt is desirable to be precise and concrete in both written and oral business communication.Vague, General, Indefinite --> Student GMAT scores are higher.Concrete, Precise --> In 1996, the GMAT scores averaged 600; by 1997 they had risen to 610.Put Action in Your VerbsVerbs can activate other words and help make your sentences alive, more vigorous.Use active rather than passive verbs.Put action in your verbs rather than nouns and infinites.
  • Clarity is achieved in part through a balance between precise language and familiar language. After v/s subsequentUnclear: Being an excellent lawyer, I am sure you can help us. Clear: Being an excellent lawyer, you can surely help us.Of course you know it is not simple. We all carry around our own unique interpretations, ideas, experiences associated with words.
  • Though few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt, these negative traits are a common cause of discourtesy.Good to be moderate & politeBad -> Stupid letter; I can’t understand any of it.Clearly, you did not read my latest fax.better -> It’s my understanding…Sometimes my wording is not precise; let me try againUse Expressions that Show RespectNo reader wants to receive message that offend.Omit Irritating Expressions-You are delinquent-You failed to-Contrary to your inference-Inexcusable-Simply nonsenseAnother requirement for courtesy is the use of nondiscriminatory language that reflects equal treatment of people regardless of gender, race, ethnic origin, and physical features.Show courtesy by avoiding tactless & blunt language.Your letter is not clear at all:Obviously, if you would read your policy carefully you will be able to answer these questions yourself.Apparently you already forgotten what I wrote you two weeks ago.
  • However a message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer.
  • , and actively seek feedback from their teams on the effectiveness of communication with them.
  • Some supervisors may be nervous of speaking in public, some employees do get militant
  • अनुकूल - Congruent
  • प्रेषक के भावनाओं की दृढ़ता 
  • Earthsoft effective communication

    1. 1. Earthsoft Foundation of GuidanceEdge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent Making earth little softer
    2. 2. About usEarthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded followingpresentations at has linksBe mentor using your education, knowledge & experience tocontribute for a social cause & do conduct free training seekinghelp of existing platforms. Kindly share with your friends•Motivation for higher study, Planning for study, Educationguidance, Career guidance, Career available after SSC & HSC•Personality development – 3 files•How to prepare resume, Tips to attend interview successfully•Religion related –To understand basic religion, Do &Don’t tips•Health related - Be vegetarian, Be healthy•Corporate - Project management, Assertiveness, Ownership•Finance - To avoid speculation in stock market•Social - Women empowerment, Choosing life partner Making earth little softer
    3. 3. Index• Communication & its components• Communication attributes• Effective Communication• Process• Active listening• Feedback• Barriers• Tips• Business Communication Making earth little softer
    4. 4. Communication & its cosmponent Making earth little softer
    5. 5. CommunicationCommunication is the process of conveyingFeelings, emotions, attitudes, facts, beliefs,suggestions, feedback, ideas, updates, information, thoughts between living beings Byclear ways in written or verbal or speech orsignals or behaviors form so that it issatisfactorily received or understood Making earth little softer
    6. 6. Process Making earth little softer
    7. 7. Successful communicationThe communication process which consists of sender, encoding, channel, decoding, receiver, f eedback and contextYou must understand • What your message is, What audience you are sending it to, How it will be perceived • Circumstances - Situational & cultural context• Aim is to get message across to others clearly and unambiguously• This involves effort from both the sender & the receiver Making earth little softer
    8. 8. Why to communicate• To give or get credible information• To feel deeply understood and accepted• To vent• To create excitement• To avoid something uncomfortable like silence Making earth little softer
    9. 9. Good communicator• An Active Listener• An Effective Presenter• A Quick Thinker• A Win-Win Negotiator Making earth little softer
    10. 10. Importance• People in organizations typically spend over 75% of their time communicating• Manager mostly manages using communication• Lack of effective communication skills can lead to problems for the manager• Many problems in any organization can be traced to a primary cause: Poor communication Making earth little softer
    11. 11. SuccessCommunication is only successful when• Both the sender and the receiver understand the same information• Getting your message across, convey your thoughts and ideas effectively.• Factors contributing to job success :- Communication skills, an ability to work with others & written & verbal presentations skills• Inability of effectively communicate makes difficult to compete at workplace & progress Making earth little softer
    12. 12. Supportive communicationTwo categories :• Coaching: giving advice, direction or guidance to improve performance…focus on abilities• Counseling: helping the person understand and resolve a problem themselves by displaying understanding… focus on attitudes Making earth little softer
    13. 13. Attributes• Simple or Complex• Formal or informal• Intentional or unintentional• Transactional• Avoidable or Unavoidable• Continuous• Learned• Complete• Interactive• Timely• Reversible or mostly irreversible Making earth little softer
    14. 14. Components• Communicators• Managers• Context• Content / Message• Physical environment (Places)• Mind set of communicators• Channels• Smooth/ Noise / Motivation• Barrier• Feedback• Conclusion Making earth little softer
    15. 15. Verbal Components Examples Meanings Communicated VocalHow things are Loudness, Pitch Differentsaid meaningsVocal intonations Rhythm, Pitch, Sarcasm, clarity disapproval SpatialBody closeness 0 – 2 feet Feelings of intimacyFurniture Keeping distance Formal andarrangement serious Making earth little softer
    16. 16. Non verbal Components Examples Meanings Communicated VisualImage Clothing, hygiene Values, competenceFacial Frown, smile, sneer Unexpressed feelingsExpressionsEye Movements Looking away, staring Intentions, state of mindPosture Leaning, slumped AttitudeGestures Handshake, wave Intentions, feelings TactileTouch Pat on the back Approval Touch on an arm Support and concern Making earth little softer
    17. 17. Places Making earth little softer
    18. 18. Actions• Be a champion for communicationAsk…• When you need information?• Who needs to know it?• When?• How to convey? Any preferred format?• To work in coordination with manager and staffMindset• Negative• Positive Making earth little softer
    19. 19. Interactions Communication is two way! For real communication to take place, there must be interactions with each player participating Boss Employee Making earth little softer
    20. 20. Channels• Verbal Communication Channels having critical role of body language, gesture, posture (direct, radio, TV, satellite, telephone & devices)• Face-To-Face meetings, Telephones, Video Conferencing• Written Communication Channels – Written text / paper-based (books, newspapers, report, letter, SMS etc ), Proof is available however emotions could be less• Letters, e-Mails, Memos, Reports• Electronic (e-mail,…)• Image/visual (TV, cinema,…) Making earth little softer
    21. 21. Distribution 7% spoken or written words38% voice dynamics : 55% non-verbal tone + inflection + communication-> volume + accent + face gesture & body non-word sounds languageMajorly communication is attributed fromnonverbal factors such as gestures, facialexpressions, tone, body language, etc Making earth little softer
    22. 22. Communication attributes Making earth little softer
    23. 23. Verbal communicationOnly verbal communication can create chaoswhile it reaches the last person.Thought process of individual influences theunderstanding. Making earth little softer
    24. 24. Nonverbal communicationSix ways of using non-verbal communicationskills effectively• Eye contact• Facial expressions• Gestures• Posture and body orientation• Proximity• Paralinguistic• Humor Making earth little softer
    25. 25. Nonverbal communication Making earth little softer
    26. 26. Nonverbal communication Making earth little softer
    27. 27. Visual• Posture how we stand or sit indicates self- confidence, aggressiveness, fear, guilt, or anxiety• Gestures such as how we hold our hands, or a handshake or nod the head or expression• Many gestures are culture bound Making earth little softer
    28. 28. Visual Making earth little softer
    29. 29. Facial ExpressionSmile covers the most part of facial expression:• Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits:• Happiness• Friendliness• Warmth• Liking• Affiliation Making earth little softer
    30. 30. Posture and body orientation• You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk, talk, stand and sit.• Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to audience that you are approachable, receptive and friendly.• Interpersonal closeness results when you and audience face each other• Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicates disinterest to your session Making earth little softer
    31. 31. GesturesIf you fail to gesture while speaking, you may beperceived as boring, stiff and unanimatedA lively and animated teaching style capturesattention of audience, makes the material moreinteresting, facilitates learning and provides a bitof entertainment.Head nods, a form of gestures, communicatepositive reinforcement to the audience andindicate that you are listening Making earth little softer
    32. 32. Eye ContactEye is an direct & most expressive part of body• Different ways of Eye Contact• Direct Eye Contact: (Shows confidence)• Looking downwards (careful or guilty?)• Single raised eyebrow (Doubting)• Both raised eyebrows (Admiring)• Bent eyebrows (Sudden focus)• Tears coming out (Emotional either happy or hurt) ………and many more Making earth little softer
    33. 33. Tactile (Physical)• This involves the use of touch to impart meaning as in a handshake, a pat on the back or an arm around the shoulder. Making earth little softer
    34. 34. Vocal• The meaning of words can be altered significantly by changing the intonation of voice• Think of how many ways you can say "no“ or “do you really mean it” or “oh! Come on!”• You could express mild doubt, terror, amazement, anger among other emotions. Making earth little softer
    35. 35. ParalinguisticThis facet of nonverbal communication includessuch vocal elements as:• Tone• Pitch• Rhythm• Timbre• Loudness• Inflection Making earth little softer
    36. 36. Proximity• Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with audience.• To move around the dais to increase interaction with audience.• Increasing proximity enables you to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities for audience to speak & interact! Making earth little softer
    37. 37. Physical spaceIntimate Two Family & zone feet closest friendsPersonal 2-4 Friends zone feet Intimate Zone Social 4-12 Business Personal Zone zone feet people Social Zone Public Zone Public > 12 Public zone feet Making earth little softer
    38. 38. Image • We use posh & stylish clothing and physical things to communicate. • This can involve expensive & neat things • It is to communicate our values and expectations. Making earth little softer
    39. 39. StyleHow to adapt to diversity of communicationstyles?Communication styles for each of following differs• The Socializer• The Director• The Thinker• The Relater Making earth little softer
    40. 40. Cultural difference Making earth little softer
    41. 41. Interference and NoiseInterference• Anything that distorts or interrupts messagesNoise• Interference in communication process prevents the message from being heard correctly• External noise: comes from the environment• Internal noise: occurs in the mind of sender & receiver both Making earth little softer
    42. 42. Internal noise• Internal noise can distract and distort your saying & hearingAs a speaker• Keep cool, be prepared & focused• Good rehearsal builds the confidence• To ask intermittent questions & feedback• To set the expectations of the audienceAs a audience• Offer the best & undivided attention• Acknowledge the importance of the subject Making earth little softer
    43. 43. Effective communication Making earth little softer
    44. 44. Effective communication• When there is no gap of understanding in the message between sender & receiver• It enhances the probability of meeting the goalsGood two-way communication is foundation of:• Understanding• Trust• Community• Efficiency• Progress Making earth little softer
    45. 45. Effective communication• Connect• Initiate• Listen• Filter (the “right” amount)• Interpret & Relate• Add Context• Global Perspective• Deliver• …in a timely manner• …to the right people Making earth little softer
    46. 46. Unsuccessful communication• Its a process that can be with error, often misinterpreted by the recipient• It has potential to create confusion, communication gap or misunderstanding• It can cause a communications breakdown or create the roadblocks• An effective communicator lessens the frequency of these problems at each stage of this process with clear, concise, accurate, well- planned communications. Making earth little softer
    47. 47. Open communication• Open communication is a key value & to be ensured• Track record & demonstration of truthful open communication build credibility & trust• To maintain sincerity, honesty & transparency• Communication about significant happenings needs to be thoroughly planned.• To decide content, respective speakers, locations, timing for release & authority Making earth little softer
    48. 48. Face-to-Face Communication• Few people prefer face to face communication• Can be friendly & possible to nicely articulate even for complex topics• Saves time in drafting & reviewing email/print• Does not maintain the record• Might not attract further actions• Either parties can claim misunderstanding if convenient• Likely to lose trust after bad experience Making earth little softer
    49. 49. Interpersonal Communication• Avoid barriers to communication.• Send message which can be eazily understood• Actively listen.• Utilize non-verbal signals.• Give and solicit meaningful feedback.• Adapt to diversity of communication styles… try multiple channels• Few people communicate only if requested Making earth little softer
    50. 50. Online communication• To subscribe to an online service• To learn to use email, groups, chat rooms, and bulletin boards• To compose letters for email• To be concise; get to the point quickly; few communication has limited no of letters• To learn customs and manners involved in using on line services.• E.g. use of all capital letters in email indicates that you are shouting Making earth little softer
    51. 51. Employee communication• Communication is more than merely keeping the employees updated as to what may be going on in your organization or in the company at large. To do that, all you need is an e-mail message and a computer. Real communication is to connect, listen & clarify, convey the message to employees Making earth little softer
    52. 52. Miscommunication• There is likely to lose some of the part of communication• In many situations much of message is lost and the message that is heard / understood is often far different than the one intended• There are likely chances for miscommunication and confusion. Making earth little softer
    53. 53. Communication Is it possible to NOT communicate??? NO Making earth little softer
    54. 54. Communication gap Making earth little softer
    55. 55. Poor communicationPoor communication in an organization results innegative outcomes, including errors, productivitydeclines, distrust, lower morale, confusion,absenteeism, and general dissatisfaction Making earth little softer
    56. 56. Bad communication• Letting a request go unaddressed• Ignoring inputs, to hear for the sake• Getting input and doing nothing with it• Sharing information with only few• Sharing information without context• Meeting with no point, purpose, focus or result Making earth little softer
    57. 57. Process Making earth little softer
    58. 58. Process Making earth little softer
    59. 59. ProcessSource:• Why to communicate?• What to communicate?• Usefulness• Accuracy of InformationEncoding:• Ability to convey the information.• Eliminate sources of confusion like cultural issues, wrong assumptions, missing information Making earth little softer
    60. 60. ProcessEffective decoding:• Listen actively• Reading information carefully• Avoid Confusion• Ask question for better understandingReceiver - Audience or individuals to whom we are sending the information.The influence for receiver• Prior knowledge helps for better understanding• Blockages in the receiver’s mind• The surrounding disturbances Making earth little softer
    61. 61. ProcessFeedback can be:• Verbal Reactions and Non-Verbal Reactions.• Positive feedback and Negative feedbackContext :• Various Cultures (Corporate, Regional, International, etc)Language• Location (Restaurant, Office, Auditorium)Situation• The sender needs to communicate the context to the receiver for better clarity Making earth little softer
    62. 62. Active Listening Making earth little softer
    63. 63. Active listeningTruly paying attention to what others are sayingListening is an active and involved processAim is to be absolutely certain about messagebeing received Making earth little softer
    64. 64. ListenFocus on the • Listener ( not yourself) • Message ( not the words) • Success (not the alternatives)• To judge the content, not the messenger or delivery• Visualize a positive outcome• Take a deep breath, relax, and be yourself• Do your homework, know what you want to say• Control your negative self talk• Speak from the heart rather than making impression or the ego Making earth little softer
    65. 65. Developing active listening• To start comfortably, may be by greeting• To listen sincerely & with empathy• To demonstrate passion towards listening• To ask friendly questions• To attend to non-verbal cues, body language, tone of voice & words; listen between the lines• To state your stand openly; be specific• To demo understanding• To use techniques -ask, repeat, rephrase, etc.• To ask as many detail, views or suggestions how not to interrupt• To reconfirm the understanding Making earth little softer
    66. 66. Developing active listening• To communicate the feelings, Dont get angry• To comprehend before you judge• Be validating, not invalidating• To acknowledge others uniqueness, importance• To be aware of the defensiveness & adjustment needed. Making earth little softer
    67. 67. Developing active listening• To be descriptive, not evaluative• To describe objectively, reaction & consequence• To be conjunctive, not disjunctive• To own - use "I", not "They“• To practice supportive listening, not one way listening• To decide on specific follow-up actions and specific follow up dates• Not to react to emotional words, but interpret the purpose• Not to totally control conversation; acknowledge & reconfirm what was said• Do not threaten Making earth little softer
    68. 68. Active listenerUnderstand your own communication style• High level of self-awareness to create good & long lasting impression• Understand how others perceive you• Avoid changing with every personality you meet• Make others comfortable by appropriate behavior that suits your personalityUse normal communication• Smile, Gestures, Eye contact, Your postureGive Feedback• Summarize to ensure that you understand.• Reconfirm what you think you heard Making earth little softer
    69. 69. Active listenerBe an active listener• Listen with a purpose.• One part of human mind pays attention, so it is easy to go into mind drift.• If it is difficult to concentrate then repeat the speakers words in your mind• Allow your conversation partner to speak• Respect the other person’s point of view• Concentrate on the conversation• Only hearing for the sake might miss vital information Making earth little softer
    70. 70. Feedback Making earth little softer
    71. 71. FeedbackFeedback has three main functions:• Insight• Adjustment• AssuranceFeedback should be• Specific• Timely• Descriptive• Sensitive• HelpfulIntension is to support for improvements Making earth little softer
    72. 72. Feedback• Be aware why people hesitate to give feedback• It is crucial that we realize how critical feedback can be and help to overcome our difficulties• It is very important and can be very rewarding, help to improve• It requires skill, understanding, courage, and respect for yourself and others• Request for feedback, particularly weaknesses to improve & seek for guidance Making earth little softer
    73. 73. Feedback• Maintain a high degree of feedback throughout the communication process.• Feedback taps basic human needs, to improve, to compete, to be accurate; people want to be competent.• Feedback can be reinforcing; almost always appreciated and motivates people to improve. Making earth little softer
    74. 74. Feedback• To ask questions to audience• To clarify your message• To improve understanding• To get deeper into the issues• To discover motives• To show interest by asking questions about ideas and experiences• To avoid questions that pry into personal matters.• To be sensitive when asking questions , frame them tactfully Making earth little softer
    75. 75. Giving feedback• Comments to be intended to help recipient.• Speak directly and with feeling• Describe what the person is doing and the effect the person is having• Don’t be threatening or judgmental• Be specific, not general, use clear and recent examples• Give feedback when the recipient is open to accepting it.• Check to ensure the validity of your statements.• Include the points which could be acted• Don’t overburden than person can handle Making earth little softer
    76. 76. Receiving feedback• Don’t be defensive.• Take feedback positively & as a opportunity to improve• Seek specific examples.• Be sure you understand (summarize).• Share your feelings about the comments.• Ask for definitions.• Check out underlying assumptions.• Be sensitive to sender’s nonverbal messages.• Ask questions to clarify. Making earth little softer
    77. 77. Positive feedback Making earth little softer
    78. 78. Barriers Making earth little softer
    79. 79. BarriersAny obstacle that blocks communicationAudience related• Ineffective listening• Wrong Perceptions, Attitude• Annoying or distracting mannerismsSpeaker related• Speech related problems• Lack of trust• Evaluation or judgment process• Appropriateness of language or other expression of the message (internal noise)External noise Making earth little softer
    80. 80. Interpersonal Barriers• To match characteristics of message & channel• To choose carefully method of sending• To minimize inconsistencies between words, style of speaking, facial expressions, posture.• To choose appropriate words and language• Ability & style sender encodes a message• Perception and perceptual selection processes Making earth little softer
    81. 81. Barriers Making earth little softer
    82. 82. Barriers To Communication• Frames of Reference• Semantics• Value Judgments• Selective Listening• Filtering• Distrust Making earth little softer
    83. 83. Interpersonal Barriers• Perception - How we perceive people, their motives, and intentions.• Perceptual selection – Choosing selectively• Perceptual Biases - Assuming characteristics of person without validating• Past experience & Interpersonal relationships• Receiver distortion : selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cuesHow to minimize this barrier?To improve• Self-awareness of values, beliefs, and attitudes• Understanding and sensitivity towards others Making earth little softer
    84. 84. Organisational barriers• To advice supervisor to minimise physical distractions noise, equipment breakdowns, etc• To optimise information overload & manage time• To choose timing for sharing the message• To simplify technical language & vocabulary• Reduce impact due to status difference by way of connect• Task and organization structure requirements defines who talks to whom & its content• Absence of formal channels – to implement upward, downward & horizontal channels Making earth little softer
    85. 85. Removing barriers• To deliver messages effectively, to break the barriers in each stage of the process.• If your message is too lengthy, disorganized, or contains errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted.• Poor body language & too much information offering confuse the message• To understand audience’s culture, making sure you can converse and deliver your message to people of different backgrounds and cultures Making earth little softer
    86. 86. Tips Making earth little softer
    87. 87. RequirementsEffective communication requires• Deep awareness and• A committed, cooperative effort• Voluntarily contribution• Willingness of either sides Making earth little softer
    88. 88. Johari window Making earth little softer
    89. 89. Improve communication skills Communication skills and effectiveness can be improved Making earth little softer
    90. 90. Understand the audienceAudience would have vast array ofmotivations, expectations, values, style andculture that need to be recognized tocommunicate effectivelyBy understanding audience, select the beststyle, channel, vocabulary, volume, sentencestructure, content, format, gesture, bodylanguage, and timing to communicatesuccessfully Making earth little softer
    91. 91. Have a clear message• Message should be clear in mind of speaker before being delivered• It is aligned with vision, mission, objectives, strategy, views, proc eedings, commitment• Vague thinking or unclear objectives would communicate message with the same attributes• Formulate the hierarchy of the message • Context • High level • Details Making earth little softer
    92. 92. Interact• Win the audience at the start• Engage them throughout• Interact with them • Participation • Agreement or disagreement • Question & Answer • Feedback• Keep interest alive Making earth little softer
    93. 93. Don’t be defensive• When negative information or criticism is involved. defensiveness is a typical response• To keep defensiveness to moderate• To be ready for the likely defense too Making earth little softer
    94. 94. Privacy of communication• Some subject needs privacy for discussions • An employees work performance • Disagreement about company policy • Difficulties with your supervisor• To keep confidential • Personal problem reported by employee • Personal information shared in confidence• To seek exception to adhere company policy Making earth little softer
    95. 95. Prioritize• In communicating, favour local issues, especially serious business issues• Business results• Customer feedback• Future of the business• Communication issues which arise at local level (e.g. cross-functional issues, rumours) to be addressed by those involved without delay Making earth little softer
    96. 96. Strategise talk• Think before you talk• Know your message• Get to the point quickly• It should be easier for the listener to remember• Know the outcome you want from your conversation• Practice the power of persuasion• Practice the power of persuasion.• Know something about the people before talking• For objective to be successful, plan in advance what you want to say and what you want to accomplish Making earth little softer
    97. 97. Control fear & anxietyFocus on the • Listener ( not yourself) • Message ( not the words) • Success (not the alternatives)• Visualize a positive outcome• Take a deep breath, relax, and be yourself• Control anxiety about the results• Do your homework, know what you want to say• Control your negative self talk• Speak from the heart rather than making impression or the ego Making earth little softer
    98. 98. Think before talking• Pause , think and consider what you want to say• Choose appropriate words that clearly express the message• Decide the tone• Determine the outcome• Know your audience, their viewpoint and level of understanding about the subject matter• Shape your message to be easily understood Making earth little softer
    99. 99. Believe in message• To speak with passion and conviction• To allow your feelings. delivery, body language and voice to flow naturally• To show your enthusiasm• To avoid faking it or you risk losing your credibility Making earth little softer
    100. 100. As a speaker• To ask questions, including open ended questions• To rephrase questions or responses for the listener to evaluate• To define terminology so there is less chance of misunderstanding• To offer alternatives/suggestions for the listener to evaluate• To reduce listeners spare time by use of vocal and visual cues as well as use of stories, humour and metaphors Making earth little softer
    101. 101. As an audience• To focus on speaker• To listen to speaker and interact by actively giving the speaker verbal and nonverbal feedback.• To use such nonverbal cues as nodding or smiling• To concentrate on the speaker’s point of view• To review or mentally check to see if you are in agreement Making earth little softer
    102. 102. Use mind mapping• To write a main point, central thought or idea• To circle the main point ,central thought or idea• To map the points you are thinking about.• You will generate more ideas ,map the relationships among key words, write less than in conventional note taking; and have more fun. Making earth little softer
    103. 103. Effective presentation skillsPresentation Skills while appearing for aninterview.• Dressing sense (Males & Females),• Documents needed to be carried,• Body language (while standing, while sitting, while walking),• Attitude (Soberness, Soft words, avoid western accent),• Confidence (while talking, body movements, aggression, etc). Making earth little softer
    104. 104. AttributesDescriptive versus evaluative• Avoid judgment• Describe objectively• Focus on the behavior• Your reaction not the attributes of others• Focus on solutionsConjunctive not disjunctive• Lack of equal opportunity to speak?• Extended pauses?• Who controls the flow?Two way not one way• Listening by responding Making earth little softer
    105. 105. DiversityHow to facilitate communication with diversity?• Assume differences• Emphasize description• Empathize• Treat Interpretations as guesses Making earth little softer
    106. 106. Convey message• To know & share the major points, follow hierarchy like • Context • High level points • Details• To articulate or Paraphrase to re-emphasize• To tactfully ask your listener for feedback• To ask questions to confirm understanding of the listener Making earth little softer
    107. 107. Map the complaint• To state the problem• To supply supporting evidence• To state the remedy you seek  State the problem• What do you want to do about it?  Supply supporting evidence• To  State the remedy you seek. What attacking the hold your temper & to avoid do you person listening to your complaint want done about it?• To  Hold yourknow when you want corrective let them temper action completed the person listening to your  Avoid attacking• Also complaint you may plan to consider other convey approaches know when you want corrective  Let them action completed Making earth little softer
    108. 108. Focus on point• To write a one sentence : purpose statement before writing letter, thesis or speech• To answer the question," What is my point ? “• To put your major point or request first• To use the who, what, where ,when, why and how format to keep message focused and brief• To write and rewrite until you are able to capture the idea in one sentence• To avoid the risk that your listener or reader will interrupt before you get to a major point• In closing , reiterate your point Making earth little softer
    109. 109. Focus on point• To make your requests as specific as possible• To ask for information• To ask help first from those closest to you. They are more likely to give a positive response• To guard against feeling rejected when the request you make is not granted• To expect a favorable reply• To visualize yourself receiving what you ask for• Formulate positive affirmations and repeat them aloud to yourself to develop a belief that you shall have what you ask for• Remember to say “ Thank You “ Making earth little softer
    110. 110. BFIR technique• Wonderful technique for articulating communication in difficult situation - BFIR - behavior - Feeling - Impact - Request• Speak about behavior which you did not like, convey feeling and impact, and then request for correction going forward!• Suspect your own judgment always, recheck..assumption you made might be wrong! Making earth little softer
    111. 111. Gender neutral• To use the plural instead of singular pronouns• Be consistent in addressing women and men of the same rank or status.• To use gender neutral terminology. For instance ,use “workforce” instead of “ manpower”• To provide guidance for both sexes on invitations eg “ business attire” instead of “ coat and tie”• Frequently ,women are addressed by their first names while men are called “ Mr. Surname” Making earth little softer
    112. 112. Personal touch• To help people to relate to you by sharing personal experiences• To build a source of personal examples by keeping a journal• To use stories from your past to illustrate the message you want to leave with your listeners Making earth little softer
    113. 113. Express emotions• To describe your feelings as well as facts• To set limits, extreme emotions become a barrier• To indicate that you are approachable• To use body language as a part of your emotional expression Making earth little softer
    114. 114. Use short sentences• To avoid run-on, rambling sentences• To review your written notes and see if conjunctions can be deleted to form two sentences Making earth little softer
    115. 115. Reading - Remain upto date• To question the intent of the reporter. To check bias of reporter?• To think as you read or listen. You are not required to accept everything as factual• To find another reporter’s point of view• To discuss events with your acquaintances• Do not expect everyone to interpret events in the same way• To scan all sections of newspapers eg sports, finance, arts Making earth little softer
    116. 116. Reading - Inspirational• To read inspirational books• To subscribe to newsletters or pamphlets which provide regular readings to lift the spirit• To begin to form a habit of regularly reading inspirational thoughts and verses• To carry internet sources for inspirational messages• To read or write poetry that inspires you Making earth little softer
    117. 117. Non verbal tips - Presence• Be aware of your role and audience• Be with your inner self• To derive strength & awareness through confidence and poise• To sit and stand erect• To let nonverbal cues reflect the message• To signal your self esteem and power• To draw attention to yourself in a positive way• To let body language agree with spoken words• To realize that others are getting an impression of you during the first visual or verbal contact Making earth little softer
    118. 118. Non verbal tips - Dressing• What dress is considered appropriate• Remember clothing sends the message• Before you say a word, what you wear make the first impression• To wear clothing that is congruent with your verbal message. Making earth little softer
    119. 119. Non verbal tips - Smile• To use a smile to signal that you are in a pleasant mood, positive and approachable• To practice smiling in front of a mirror to gain confidence .• To see how you look with a broad showing teeth parted ,possibly leading to a soft laugh• To smile to indicate a positive attitude: • Respect for the other person • Friendliness • Openness Making earth little softer
    120. 120. Non verbal tips - Touch• To be sensitive to the fact that when you touch someone, you are invading their space• To indicate warmth, caring and understanding• To develop the techniques of proper touching• To place your hand gently on the shoulder as a sign of friendly conversation• To break contact immediately if there is any resistance• To never use touch to enforce your will upon another person. Thats against the Law. Making earth little softer
    121. 121. THE SEVEN C’s OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Making earth little softer
    122. 122. Seven “C”• Completeness• Conciseness• Consideration• Concreteness• Clarity• Courtesy• Correctness Making earth little softer
    123. 123. Completeness• Business message is complete when it contains all facts the reader or listener needs for the reaction you desire.• As you strive for completeness, keep the following guidelines in mind;• Provide all necessary information.• Answer all questions asked.• Give something extra when desirable. Making earth little softer
    124. 124. Provide necessary information• Answering the five W’s helps make messages clear: Who, What, When, Where, and Why.• Answer precisely all the questions asked• Give extra when desirable – Make a good judgment in offering additional information if the sender’s message was incomplete or in doubt Making earth little softer
    125. 125. Conciseness• Conciseness is saying what you want to say in the fewest possible words without sacrificing the other C qualities. A concise message is complete without being wordy.• To achieve conciseness, observe the following suggestions;• Eliminate wordy expressions.• Include only relevant material.• Avoid unnecessary repetition. Making earth little softer
    126. 126. Be precise• Use single words in place of phrases• E.g. Use “now” instead of “at this time”• Use “because” instead of “due to the fact that”• Wordy: We hereby wish to let you know that our company is pleased with the confidence you have respond in us.• Concise: We appreciate your confidence. Making earth little softer
    127. 127. Consideration• Consideration means preparing every message with the receivers in mind• Try to put yourself in their place• You are considerate, you do not lose your temper, you do not accuse and you do not charge them without facts. the thoughtful consideration is also called “you-attitude”.• Focus on “You” instead of “I” and “We”.• Show audience benefit or interest in the receiver.• Emphasize positive, pleasant facts. Making earth little softer
    128. 128. Concreteness• Communicating concretely means being specific and definite rather than vague and general.• Often it means using donatives (direct, explicit,) rather than connotative words (ideas or notions)• Guidelines for composing concrete message • Use specific facts and figures. • Put action in your verbs. • Choose vivid, image building words. Making earth little softer
    129. 129. Clarity• Getting accurately the meaning from you to the reader is the purpose of clarity.• Choose precise, concrete and familiar words.• Construct effective sentences and paragraphs. Making earth little softer
    130. 130. Courtesy• True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others, but also their feelings.• Courtesy stems from a sincere you-attitude.Following suggestions for a courteous tone• Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative.• Use expressions that show respect.• Choose nondiscriminatory expressions. Making earth little softer
    131. 131. Correctness• At the core of correctness is proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling.Following three characteristics are applied• Use the right level of language.• Check accuracy of figures, facts, and words.• Maintain acceptable writing mechanics. Making earth little softer
    132. 132. Organisational Communication Making earth little softer
    133. 133. Role of team leader• To make important information available to team leaders in time to further communicate• Information to be both cascaded down across or direct to team leaders as appropriate• It is better to over-communicate than under- communicate.• To clarify on information is available and to be communicated• To communicate regularly with team members on a formal and informal basis & seek feedback Making earth little softer
    134. 134. Training• To plan for regular training sessions• To train regularly the staff for effective communication to team leaders & managers• To make communication materials and support available to team leaders & managers as appropriate• To check effectiveness of the training• To share feedback & results about training Making earth little softer
    135. 135. Respect individuals• All communication must be truthful• Impact and consequences of communication determined in advance and taken into account• To communicate periodically about performance. There should not be any surprises• Timing of the information to be the same time to everyone concerned & interested• The special communication needed for employees working in shift or remote locations• Mischievous communication (rumours) not to be tolerated Making earth little softer
    136. 136. Positive & negative news• To communicate bad news speedily, in advance, even if the full impact of the message is not yet clear, setting the appropriate context. It will strengthen the trust.• Rumours in the workplace to be addressed with effective communication as soon as is possible• Contradictory situation • Avoiding controversial issues • Delaying communication "until all details are clear" • Communicating "need to know" information Making earth little softer
    137. 137. Supervisors accountabilities• Supervisors need to be responsible for effective communication in their teams• They need to communicate face-to-face but not necessarily in meetings. It is fine to communicate one-to-one• Supervisors to consult with and involve their team members in decisions encouraging participative ways• They also need to represent employees to management, passing on employees feedback, suggestion, ideas, questions and concerns. Making earth little softer
    138. 138. Communication by supervisor• Supervisors have a good knowledge of whats going on in the organization.• Supervisors effectiveness to be measured• “What get measured gets done"• This can be done using appraisal system, or conducting communication survey asking subordinates & peers to rate communication effectiveness of a person, quality and frequency.• Also suggestions are invited to improve. The results are fed back to the person and managers Making earth little softer
    139. 139. Measure effectiveness• Be serious about internal communication• Plan to measure communication effectiveness periodically by audit or employee survey.• To use a questionnaire or focus groups, or both• Online questionnaires are good for measurement and for gathering the opinions of employees at onsite locations• With online questionnaire surveys its usually cost effective to survey all employees. Making earth little softer
    140. 140. Measure effectiveness• Focus groups are good for getting very detailed feedback from employees• Knowing exactly how to improve is more important than measurement.• To get representative sample of employees in a few key locations• Its best to use both a online questionnaire to all employees followed up by some focus groups to investigate specific problems or areas Making earth little softer
    141. 141. Managers• Manager to be responsible for effective two way communication & need to strongly commit• Managers are the vital link between staff and senior management and are in the best position to communicate management’s priorities to staff and to relate ideas and feedback from staff to management.• Manager is constantly advising, informing, explaining, discussing, reviewing, counseling, guiding, suggesting, persuading, convincing, coaching, humoring, and responding. Making earth little softer
    142. 142. Meetings & Updates• Having regular one-on-one meetings• Having regular stand up meeting with staff• Sharing information quickly about updates, decisions, expectations, etc • What was planned activity? • Was that completed? • If not, what is the reason? • What is plan to overcome the hindrance? • When would it be completed? • What is impact of delay? • What is plan to overcome delay? Making earth little softer
    143. 143. Better manager• Employees seek and deserve a manager who is open, accessible, good listener to their say, interact and responsive. They will trust, respect & support deeply Manager far more likely to identify issues before those become problems, and solve problems before they become crises Making earth little softer
    144. 144. Formal wording• Formal writing is characteristics of business writing, even more so if it is for E-mail message• Check Accuracy of Figures, Facts, and Words• Review yourself• Check of data is to have another person read and comment on the validity of the material. More Formal Less formal Participate Join Procure Get Endeavor Try Making earth little softer
    145. 145. Sending message• Own clearly, convey the truth• Be sincere & honest• Phrase/ Articulate accurately• Complete & specific, Remove redundancy• Keep hierarchy from high level to detail• Try to be congruent• Ask for feedback• Aligned to frame of reference• Convey right emotions• Describe other’s behavior without interpreting or hurting Making earth little softer
    146. 146. Receiving message• Do not evaluate content & feeling while listening/reading• Respect perseverance of sender’s feelings• Interpret sender’s message & seek confirmation• Negotiate till there is agreement & conclude• Conclude “agree to disagree” if there is disagreement Making earth little softer
    147. 147. Summary• Communication & its components• Communication attributes• Effective Communication• Process• Active listening• Feedback• Barriers• Tips• Business Communication Making earth little softer
    148. 148. Thank You Making earth little softer