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4   earthsoft - full and full - quality in software organidation
 

4 earthsoft - full and full - quality in software organidation

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"Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) is working as an NGO/NPO for students - Education & Career ...

"Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) is working as an NGO/NPO for students - Education & Career
guidance and for Professionals for soft skills enhancements. I am working on speading , sharing
knowledge; experience globally.It has uploaded important presentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspx.
Also https://dl.dropbox.com/u/83265908/Links-events.xls has links for all ppt files.

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Be mentor using your education, knowledge & experience to contribute for a social cause & do conduct
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Kindly spread to your friends.Thank you!
- Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance
Let us make earth little softer..
Quality management, Assurance and control..
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  • Quality Management Group Designing & implementing the processes Conducting Audits & assuring compliances Improving the Processes Technology Management Group To create a technical pool of resources White Box Testing, Use of Open source Technical Skill Enhancement Knowledge Management Quality Assurance Group To improve quality of delivery To enhance the testing skills Review of RA and Test Cases & sample testing Testing Skill Enhancement Black Box Testing Inculcation of Testing Tools & Techniques Project Monitoring Group Review of variances of effort, schedule & quality Risk Management Resource Review Appropriate Project closure To track & improve the productivity To control the cost Education Service Group Learning through contribution & sharing Adopting emerging technologies Advance functions knowledge enhancement Advance professional practices Effective Communication Resource Management Group Better utilization & billability of the resources Skill enhancement Right resources for right tasks Infrastructure management Finance management
  • Quality Management Group Designing & implementing the processes Conducting Audits & assuring compliances Improving the Processes Technology Management Group To create a technical pool of resources White Box Testing, Use of Open source Technical Skill Enhancement Knowledge Management Quality Assurance Group To improve quality of delivery To enhance the testing skills Review of RA and Test Cases & sample testing Testing Skill Enhancement Black Box Testing Inculcation of Testing Tools & Techniques Project Monitoring Group Review of variances of effort, schedule & quality Risk Management Resource Review Appropriate Project closure To track & improve the productivity To control the cost Education Service Group Learning through contribution & sharing Adopting emerging technologies Advance functions knowledge enhancement Advance professional practices Effective Communication Resource Management Group Better utilization & billability of the resources Skill enhancement Right resources for right tasks Infrastructure management Finance management
  • Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time and on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organisations developing and procuring the software. Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the software.
  • Triple Constraint Five Stages Project Manager Role Decision Making Structure Communication Plan Meeting Management Team Development Navigating Organizational Politics
  • Quality means adhering to the commitments e.g. requirements, efforts, schedule, resources & total cost to customer
  • Following factors make the quality software
  • Interoperability  is the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate
  • Help desk - Maintaining a help desk service may be required, because the client has problems with the solution, or has questions understanding how to utilize the solution, which could be 24x7
  • Goals - Client delight & repeat business Mission – Quality is intrinsic function of our business & non negotiable
  • (1) Ensuring ‘ Delight ’ has to be made a part of the process. (2) Give example of Fitec – Dev a product – so parameter/config driven stuff Stronger build and release management Flexibility is important to meet as-yet unknown customer needs -> impact on design, coding and schedule
  • Fixing errors and reworking previously completed deliverables is a drain on productivity. In fact, they contribute to negative productivity.
  • These are the eight quality management principles. Now we will go through them one at a time. At the end we will have an assessment tool so that your organization can judge where your organization is using these principles. Your business can be design, manufacturing, or service, the principles are the same.
  • What is Quality - conformance to requirements’ - Crosby ‘ fitness for use’ - Juran ‘ the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied need’ - ISO 8402:1994 Customer-Based -> Fitness for use, meeting customer expectations. Manufacturing-Based -> Conforming to design, specifications, or requirements. Having no defects. Product-Based -> The product has something that other similar products do not that adds value. Value-Based -> The product is the best combination of price and features. 5. Transcendent It is not clear what it is, but it is something good... via: Quality Planning, Quality Assurance, and Quality Control Clearly Defined Quality Performance Standards How those Quality and Performance Standards are measured and satisfied How Testing and Quality Assurance Processes will ensure standards are satisfied Continuous ongoing quality control
  • Quality Planning involves identifying which quality standards and/or metrics are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Quality Planning is done on most project sometimes formally, and informally. Page 8. Quality standards should address both product quality and process quality. Examples of both. adapting Quality assurance - identifies the activities or tasks that must be performed in the project to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. Examples, adapting Quality Control - involves monitoring the products and process, to see if the project is meeting the quality standards - and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results. project cost exceeding $500.000 a 3 rd party is expected to perform the Quality Management Activities. Work with the 3rd Party, project management team, Department of Administrative Services QA Analyst to create the Quality Management Plan, determine the appropriate quality assurance activities and activity estimates, and conduct the quality control.
  • The spirit is to go beyond mere satisfaction, and search, identify and do different things to achieve customer delight – that add value beyond the original expectation.
  • To form a QAG group of 3 members in each division with clear objectives To encourage each division to have a weekly meeting to discuss technical achievement and spread knowledge and experience Guide & support for HR/ Recruitment activities Search and intake the best technical resources Filtering the intake of the resources To prepare a matrix of current and target skill levels for selected resources Lesson learnt and experience to be shared (Knowledge Management) To encourage resources to keep on implementing scheduled/non-scheduled and pre-identified program on week ends To conduct informal group discussions To identify & implement training needs & implement To create good resources To encourage self learning group discussions To differentiate the best technical skilled resources
  • To form a QAG group of 3 members in each division with clear objectives To encourage each division to have a weekly meeting to discuss technical achievement and spread knowledge and experience Guide & support for HR/ Recruitment activities Search and intake the best technical resources Filtering the intake of the resources To prepare a matrix of current and target skill levels for selected resources Lesson learnt and experience to be shared (Knowledge Management) To encourage resources to keep on implementing scheduled/non-scheduled and pre-identified program on week ends To conduct informal group discussions To identify & implement training needs & implement To create good resources To encourage self learning group discussions To differentiate the best technical skilled resources
  • To form a QAG group of 3 members in each division with clear objectives To encourage each division to have a weekly meeting to discuss technical achievement and spread knowledge and experience Guide & support for HR/ Recruitment activities Search and intake the best technical resources Filtering the intake of the resources To prepare a matrix of current and target skill levels for selected resources Lesson learnt and experience to be shared (Knowledge Management) To encourage resources to keep on implementing scheduled/non-scheduled and pre-identified program on week ends To conduct informal group discussions To identify & implement training needs & implement To create good resources To encourage self learning group discussions To differentiate the best technical skilled resources Reducing delivery time, First time right,Improving productivity To increase efficiency reducing development & delivery time Inculcating tools, mostly freeware and latest technology Maximizing automation within and across teams Setting up and following the best practices, processes and coding convention Encouraging & implementing automation tools Setting up knowledge management center, collecting experiences and lesson learnt Implementing automation tools Utilizing proven framework of open source Reducing development cost To reduce the cost of development and be competitive Utilization of Open source code and framework Process improvement Automation Minimizing licensing costsResource Review Utilization of Open source code and framework Capability building and enhancing Efficient & motivative environment Controlling indirect cost Delivering the best Quality To deliver the best possible quality as per schedule with minimum defects delivered to effort ratio Reviewing deliverables at each level; checking for completeness & coverage Training in writing/ executing UT, IT & AT Finding maximum defects in early phases Measurement & root cause analysis
  • To form a QAG group of 3 members in each division with clear objectives To encourage each division to have a weekly meeting to discuss technical achievement and spread knowledge and experience Guide & support for HR/ Recruitment activities Search and intake the best technical resources Filtering the intake of the resources To prepare a matrix of current and target skill levels for selected resources Lesson learnt and experience to be shared (Knowledge Management) To encourage resources to keep on implementing scheduled/non-scheduled and pre-identified program on week ends To conduct informal group discussions To identify & implement training needs & implement To create good resources To encourage self learning group discussions To differentiate the best technical skilled resources Reducing delivery time, First time right,Improving productivity To increase efficiency reducing development & delivery time Inculcating tools, mostly freeware and latest technology Maximizing automation within and across teams Setting up and following the best practices, processes and coding convention Encouraging & implementing automation tools Setting up knowledge management center, collecting experiences and lesson learnt Implementing automation tools Utilizing proven framework of open source Reducing development cost To reduce the cost of development and be competitive Utilization of Open source code and framework Process improvement Automation Minimizing licensing costsResource Review Utilization of Open source code and framework Capability building and enhancing Efficient & motivative environment Controlling indirect cost Delivering the best Quality To deliver the best possible quality as per schedule with minimum defects delivered to effort ratio Reviewing deliverables at each level; checking for completeness & coverage Training in writing/ executing UT, IT & AT Finding maximum defects in early phases Measurement & root cause analysis
  • Customers expect software quality to be very high, and yet we frequently hear in the news about bugs or design errors that cost time, money or worse, lives. Variant of Moore’s law: the amount of software in a system is doubled every 18 months As software development becomes more complex, innovative, and created by distributed teams, delivering quality is increasingly difficult. Quality assurance (QA) generally focuses on testing the software in the final stages of a project, when budgets are scarce and the pressure to deliver the product is high. To ensure quality, project managers must balance quality assurance with time to market.
  • QCG has to work with Defect Prevention Group proactively analyzing defects data with various matrices and finding root causes and suggesting, executing plans for defect prevention. QCG involvement in the projects to be from RA phase till project closure QCG member should be called in all the important project meetings .(looping qcg in mailing list) QCG should be involved in deciding the defect targets for project’s internal testing and review and project managers has to track those .(QCG to decide their own performances and acceptance level of challenges, let PM decide his / her own, he gets driven by org goal and objectives)) QCG defects targets to be discussed and agreed upon by the Project .(it will be based on QCG goal and objectives, so PM need not be involved) QCG has to work with Defect Prevention Group proactively analyzing defects data with various matrices and finding root causes and suggesting, executing plans for defect prevention. DP & QCG after understanding of the project, should caution PM & team using past data, how to minimise the defects on the project and improve upon the quality)
  • Test cases coverage to functionality to be maximum, aiming for 100% QAG will conduct training on “how to write effective test cases” If skills are higher, productivity will be higher
  • 04/22/13
  • Above processes remove the defects
  • Reviews at each phase during SDLC removes the defects and quality improves
  • Global Standards Compliance Checker - GSCC 250+ detailed code checks Built into the development process Impossible to release code that violates these checks Started with 11i6, previously, these errors were only discovered by code reviews or testing Many errors only occurred on specific datasets Automatic Generation of Patch Database (DB) Drivers DB driver is portion of patch that updates schema, seed data and pl/sql DB driver errors accounted for ~20% of patch install errors Started with 11i6, previously these were manually coded, which was extremely complex and error prone
  • Automated Performance Analyzer Every SQL statement (~280,000) is run against multiple (5) real world customer databases Worst case Explain plan is analyzed Bugs automatically logged for worst performing statements This activity performed every month Fixes consolidated into next release Critical issues fixed as one-off fixes ~1,500 issues fixed monthly Started with 11i5, previously these were only caught by performance testing Database group uses this on new versions of the database 100+ bugs fixed prior to release of 9iR2
  • Issues not easily resolved are escalated for resolution. Issues are typically identified throughout the project and logged and tracked through resolution. In this section of the plan the following processes are depicted: Where issues will be maintained and tracked The process for updating issues regularly The escalation process The vehicle by which team members can access documented issues Issue… already impacting the cost, time or quality   Risk… POTENTIAL negative impact to project
  • 04/22/13
  • 04/22/13
  • 04/22/13
  • Software Requirements: 8 Traps to Avoid
  • Software Requirements: 8 Traps to Avoid
  • Software Requirements: 8 Traps to Avoid
  • 400% increase in automated regression tests, Tests created for all key business flows Created by dedicated product QA teams All products now have RTs Used for Ongoing maintenance/bug fixes Platform certification (e.g. Linux) Technology certifications (e.g. 9iR2) eBusiness Flows certified prior to release With 11i7, 60+ Oracle consultants worked for 2 months to pre certify Oracle implementation flows Progress measured daily, and reported to executive management
  • (By changing system dates) After server side validations such as "Duplicate ID Check", retry entering valid data and save Read only fields Test (press enter key or click to verify that no unexpected events are getting fired)
  • Business Transactions – HKK Topacs Screen Flow Diagrams Hakkai ERP Application Testing Hakkai ERP Application Testing
  • “ There is always one more bug.” The amount of testing needed to ensure quality is hard to quantify. Very few project teams are able – or are willing – to predict how many bugs there will be in a release. Testing and fixing until all bugs have been found would be a very expensive task, if it were possible. And is it reasonable? Most organizations prefer to deliver a product on time, with a few unimportant defects, rather than to deliver it six months late. Needless to say, each industry has a different level of acceptable quality, for instance, word processors versus aircraft systems. In order to provide correct budget and schedule estimates, QA managers need the means to predict fault levels.
  • For translation projects
  • Leading organizations have successfully attained return on investment (ROI) for process improvement initiatives by adopting the Software Engineering Institute’s Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI®). Of the 878 organizations assessed by the SEI in 2005, two-thirds reported a clear increase in productivity, and half of them reported an increase in quality. When asked to measure ROI, the mean value reported was nearly 5 to 1, with some organizations reporting an ROI of up to 27–to-1.
  • The major difference between software engineering and other engineering artifacts is that software is pure design. Its unreliability is always the result of design faults, which in turn arise from human intellectual failures. Difficult to gain assurance of reliability especially for critical systems. Developing software is an inherently risky proposition; safety-critical software even more so. Balancing budget and schedule constraints while ensuring the efficiency, effectiveness, integrity, security, privacy, safety, and quality of the software. The software development process is a complex undertaking consisting of specifying, designing, implementing, and testing.

4   earthsoft - full and full - quality in software organidation 4 earthsoft - full and full - quality in software organidation Presentation Transcript

  • Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of GuidanceEdge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent
  • Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded followingpresentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspxBe mentor using your education, knowledge & experience tocontribute for a social cause & do conduct free training seekinghelp of existing platforms. Kindly share with your friends•Motivation for higher study, Planning for study, Educationguidance, Career guidance, Career available after SSC & HSC•Personality development – 3 files•How to prepare resume, Tips to attend interview successfully•Religion related –To understand basic religion, Do & Don’t tips•Health related - Be vegetarian, Be healthy, Manage health•Corporate - Project management, Assertiveness, Ownership,Effective communication, Leadership, Be entrepreneur•Finance - To avoid speculation in stock market•Social - Women empowerment, Choosing life partner, conflictresolution, stop ragging, stop alcohol, snakebite treatmentAbout us
  • Making earth little softer• Organisation• Quality• Quality management• Quality Assurance• Quality Control• Processes• Case studies experience• Strategic Quality PlaningIndex
  • Making earth little softerIndex
  • Making earth little softerOrganisation and projects
  • Making earth little softerFundamentals• Say what you do• Do what you say– Prove it– DocumentationCriteria for Excellence1.Leadership2.Strategic Planning3.Quality Focus4.Information & Analysis5.Human Resource Focus6.Process Management7.Business Results
  • Making earth little softerQuality Model•Reviews of deliverables atevery level by supervisor•Effective communication•Plan, Track, Monitor, Control &measure (efforts, schedule,cost, quality, resources, risks)•Reviews of deliverables atevery level by supervisor•Effective communication•Plan, Track, Monitor, Control &measure (efforts, schedule,cost, quality, resources, risks)•Skill enhancement•Stringent resourcerecruitment•Career Planning, Appraisals•Technical Skills•Skill enhancement•Stringent resourcerecruitment•Career Planning, Appraisals•Technical Skills•Governance•Practicing the bestprocess & formats•Institutionalization•Ownership & skill training•Audits & Process•Governance•Practicing the bestprocess & formats•Institutionalization•Ownership & skill training•Audits & ProcessQuality
  • Making earth little softerOrganization goalsTo create Technicalpool ,To enhancetechnical skills ofresources on latesttechnologiesTo improve thequality of deliveryFirst time right, Toimprove productivityTo increase efficiencyreducing development &delivery timeTo reduce the cost ofdevelopment and becompetitiveTo delight Clientsand make themhappy
  • Making earth little softerImportanceHigh-Quality but Slow to MarketNot a LeaderSpeedQualityFast to Market but Low QualityLow Customer SatisfactionThe quality is largely determined by thequality of the process that is used to developand maintain it, need a trade-off with speed!
  • Making earth little softerEnablersQuality Management Group• Designing & implementing the processes• Conducting Audits & assuring compliances• Improving the ProcessesTechnology Management Group• To create a technical pool of resources• White Box Testing, Use of Open source• Technical Skill Enhancement• Knowledge ManagementQuality Assurance Group• To improve quality of delivery, To enhance the testing skills• Review of RA and Test Cases & sample testing• Testing Skill Enhancement• Black Box Testing, Inculcation of Testing Tools & Techniques
  • Making earth little softerEnablersTo delight customersProject Monitoring Group• Review of variances of effort, schedule & quality• Risk Management Resource Review• Appropriate Project closure, To control the cost• To track & improve the productivityResource Management Group• Learning through contribution & sharing• Adopting emerging technologies & professional practices• Advance functions knowledge enhancement• Effective CommunicationEducation Service Group• Better utilization & billability of the resources• Skill enhancement, Right resources for right tasks• Infrastructure management. Finance management
  • Making earth little softerEnablersTo delight customersSoftware engineering process Group• Process definition & continuous improvement• Implementation and Audits• Capturing historical data & publishing PCB
  • Making earth little softerEnablers• Every deliverable must be reviewed by senior• Sharing experience & education from seniormanagement till project managers levels• Define Goal, Objectives, Mission for eachenabler group• Vibrant & visible enablers• QMG – Quality Management Group• TMG – Technology Management Group• RMG – Resource Management Group• SEPG – Software Engineering Process• PMO – Project Management Office
  • Making earth little softer Audits Process Design Process ImprovementsSE ProcessGroupTechnology Mgt.GroupProject MonitoringGroupQuality AssuranceGroup Black Box Testing Review of TestCases & RA Docs Testing SkillEnhancement Project Review Risk Management Resource Review White Box Testing Skill Enhancement KnowledgeManagementQualityApexCommitteeQuality mechanism
  • Making earth little softerMilestones& DatesMilestones& DatesSMC or FPor LOCSMC or FPor LOCMitigation& ownerMitigation& ownerDefect permmDefect permmMan-monthMan-monthInfra, PeopleTechnologyInfra, PeopleTechnologyProject Management
  • Making earth little softerProject ManagementPlan Track Control MeasureEffortsScheduleQualityCostRisksResources
  • Making earth little softer•Productivity•Efforts, Effort Distribution•Cost of Review, Rework, Testing and Training•Defect Injection, Delivered Defect, DefectDistribution•Schedule & efforts relationProjectPlanningProjectClosureProject Data(efforts, defects,schedule, estimate)ProjectExecutionProject StatusReportProjectClosureReportProjects CapabilityBaseline (PCB)StatusReviewOrganizationsCapability BaselineProject execution
  • Making earth little softerSuccessful Project• Successful project management is delivering aquality solution meeting the customer’srequirements within efforts, time, scope &budget making profit for the organisation.Requirementssatisfied/exceededRequirementssatisfied/exceededCompleted withineffort & time frameCompleted withineffort & time frameCompleted withinallocated budgetCompleted withinallocated budgetAccepted by thecustomerAccepted by thecustomer
  • Making earth little softerSuccess TipsRight ProjectManagementRight ProjectManagementRight TeamRight TeamRightProcessesRightProcessesProject Success(Quality &Timely delivery)Project Success(Quality &Timely delivery)
  • Making earth little softerProjects- Effective monitoring• Assure client/ sales• Safeguard decisions• Prevent collapse• Include basic details• Make comparisons• Underline problems• Allow question time• Be available• Write mom
  • Making earth little softerProjects- Effective monitoring• Don’t shout• Keep copies & readyreference• Incompleteprerequisites• Wrong estimation• In-efficiencies• Encourage ideas• Cost effectiveness• Judge the work
  • Making earth little softerProjects- Effective monitoring
  • Making earth little softerTriple ContraintQuality
  • Making earth little softerParametersCurrent focusQuality of the resourcesProject ManagementClient expectation managementCurrent FocusRight EstimationNo. of resourcesInclude all Efforts (Reviews, QA,KT, VC, Management)Would evolveAfter addressing Schedule & CostParallel initiatives are going onEducation to PM (Projectmanagement, Impact of CR, etc)System improvement would improvement transactions
  • Making earth little softerA lot ofproblemsA lot ofproblemsThe purpose of Kaizen activities is to improvecustomer satisfaction.KaizenActivitiesKaizenActivitiesCustomerSatisfactionCustomerSatisfactionKaizen activitiesshould be related tocurrent real problemsPurpose
  • Making earth little softer• Quality is often thought of as "degree ofexcellence," or "level of goodness”.• Quality is considered as "fitness for purpose."• Quality is "conformance to the requirements“• Quality is the way we live our lives!What is Quality
  • Making earth little softerQuality
  • Making earth little softerStructural responsibilities•Processes•Audits•Escalations•PCB•Recruitment•Training – Soft Skill & Tech•Grooming & Handholding•To be profitabledelivery•Enablers•TMG•QMG•RMG•SEPG•Translation•Growth•Clientrelationship•Cost control•Trackingprofitability
  • Making earth little softerQuality Policy• Customer Satisfaction is a key to successfulbusiness. We are determined to be anorganization to achieve “Customer Delight” byproviding products & services having minimumdefects, adhere schedule and cost effectiveness• We will create a culture of continuousimprovement in ourselves and in the value ofproducts and services we offer to thecustomers.• We want to continually change and improvevarious aspects of our organization with theobjective of being able to service our customer
  • Making earth little softerSynthesis• Start with focusing on only key area/objectives• Core Quality Needs : i.e. Minimizing the Defects& Total Cost to customer, adhering the Schedule• Utilise the best of the resources: i.e. People,Processes, Infrastructure• Need for continuous improvement• Quality objective to derive quantitativemeasurement on each of the above key areas• Over the period expand the objectives to bemeasured and monitored and keep improvingon the expected numbers
  • Making earth little softer• The perceptions of the user determine thepurpose. Quality therefore is a user perception.• Correctness : Does it as per users agreed on?(Unit Level)• Integrity : Does it maintain accurate data?(Integration Level)• Reliability: Does it behave right all the time?(Application Level)• Efficiency : Does it run as well as it could?(Application Level)• Robustness: Does it handle invalid data?(Application Level)Quality & User perceptions
  • Making earth little softer• Few other factors like Usability, Performance,Maintainability, Scalability, Flexibility,Reusability, Interoperability, Audit ability etcoffer judgment on Quality.• These factors to be well thought duringRequirement gathering & Design phases.Quality & user perceptions
  • Making earth little softer• Customer Delight is achieved• It saves the cost of implementation by reducingthe cycle time & efforts required• It is a joy, proud & tremendous job satisfactionto deliver defect free solution• Enhanced reputation & brandingAdvantages
  • Making earth little softerWhat makes client irritate?• UI OR minor level defects detected within threehours of the testing post delivery. These defectsturn out to be most critical in nature.• Functional defect detected within eight hours• Defect detection exceeding 1 defect per hourWhat makes client delight?• Timely delivery within budget• Graphics as agreed during requirement analysis• Solution functions as per agreed functionality• Defects detected are really very few during firstday of testingHow does client react?
  • Making earth little softer• Warranty work - that is performed on a productor application for free under a warranty• Repairs / maintenance - work that is done to fixproblems after the solution goes live• Client dissatisfaction - If a solution is of poorquality, the client may not continue future orders• Help desk service may be required to addressproblems client is facing with the solution• Poor morale - No one likes to work for anorganization that has poor processes orproduces poor quality solutions. Costs hereinclude increased absenteeism, higher attrition,less productivity and frustration from the staff.Cost of poor quality
  • Making earth little softer• Lower costs / shorter duration- an initial highercost to a quality process will result in lessrework & reduced project duration.• Lower team morale due to higher defects in thetesting process. If the testing goes smoothlywith lesser defects & deliverables being right thefirst time, team morale will rise accordingly.• Fewer errors / defects. Higher quality shows upover the life of the solution with fewer defectsand errors. If you are producing a product,higher quality means fewer returns, lesswarranty work, fewer repairs, etc.Results to be achieved
  • Making earth little softerIt’s a cost• Missing project completion deadline• Huge project efforts & cost overrun• Developers frustration• Sales losing the confidence on deliverycapability• Customer dissatisfaction• Organisational branding
  • Making earth little softerAt what cost…• Quality is free and have potential• To delight clients• To get repeat business• To grow business• Brand value for the organisation• Employee happiness & feel good factor
  • Making earth little softerQuality aspects• Quality :- There are 2 aspects of the quality• Quality of the project – To adhere to therequirements specified by client• Quality of serviceability –Aligning to the culturalexpectations & agreements
  • Making earth little softerObjectivesThere are 3 levels of quality achievements• Organizational level• Management level• Project LevelTo execute the project within agreed• Defect density• Defect Matrices• Test cases & related matrices• To service the client more than the expectations• Response to email, telecon, requests, SMS, etc• Following commitment as per communication/resolution or agreement
  • Making earth little softerObjectives• Audit should catch more than 1 NC for every 5projects audited for standard softwaredevelopment processes.• Project-specific feedback should result inimprovements actions for key parameters. Thisis to help continually fine tune the standardprocesses to ensure more effective delivery• Infrastructure : Continuous improvement invarious objectives defined by Enablers groupslike Education Service, Resource Management,Project Monitoring, Technology Management,Quality Management Administration & Finance
  • Making earth little softer• To achieve Excellence through Quality• To review at each stage of output, to maintainthe statistics and set a feedback mechanism• To deliver the extremely high quality solution tothe customers• Automatic mechanism to deliver qualitydeliveries in time thus excellence lasting forever• To minimise the personalities/hero basedapproach and drive towards process orientation• Process drivenObjectives
  • Making earth little softerObjectives• Defects: Number of defects detected by thecustomer post delivery should not be more than1 per 3 Person Months of efforts estimated• Schedule: Project completion extended tomaximum within 5% of accepted schedule• Total Cost to Customer : Customers overallrating (client happiness index) on servicesshould not be less than 4 on a scale of 1 to 5
  • Making earth little softerObjectives• People : We need to continually improve thequality of deployed resources.• The measure for this will be a combination of:1. Skills - Business analysis, Technical & softskills of customer interfaces (onsite &offshore), Technical expertise of thedevelopers2. Experience – Domain & industry related3. Success rate of the Project Managers
  • Making earth little softerObjectives• Extra ordinarily high reliability• Have minimum defects• Enhances testing skills• Through doing certifications in QA area• Through training on ‘How to write test cases ?’• Through training on ‘How to test ?’• Enhance testing process• Testing Process• Testing Methodology• Building Knowledge base• Achieve quality objectives
  • Making earth little softer• No. of defects to be within the organizational setobjective 1 defect for 3 mm efforts, Reducedcycle time, client delight & reduced total cost• Client will be more satisfied if quality is better• Higher service quality will make the clientexperience more pleasant. This will result ingoodwill and may translate into additional sales,or higher margins.• To charge premium to the customer for higherquality & higher productivity.• If the deliverables are produced with less effortthe first time, the overall productivity will go up.Expected results
  • Making earth little softerMake a statementTo aim your organisation to be the best in theindustry in terms “Defects Delivered Ratio” andthus be able to achieve the organization objectiveof being an extraordinarily reliable companyusing..•The best of the tools & technologies•Recruiting the best of the people•Incorporating processes•Measurements & feedback•Continuous Improvements
  • Making earth little softerMission Statement• To adopt Quality as an intrinsic culture of ourorganization• Quality function is to be called Mission.• Quality is to be not negotiable• To take organisation to newer height and to bethe lowest in the industry in terms of “Postdelivery Defects to efforts Ratio”• To achieve the organization objective of reliablecompany• To save the cost of customers
  • Making earth little softerQuality Management Principles?Basics of Quality Management principles• Customer focus• Leadership• People involvement• Process approach• Systematic approach to management• Continual improvement• Factual approach to decision-making• Mutually beneficial supplier relationships• Understand how these principles can be appliedto CEO management practices
  • Making earth little softerQuality management
  • Making earth little softerQuality ManagementQuality Management is the process that insurethe project will meet the needs•Conformance to requirements - Crosby•Fitness for use - Juran•The totality of characteristics of an entity thatbear on its ability to satisfy stated and impliedneed - ISO 8402:1994
  • Making earth little softerQuality ManagementHow will quality assurance and control beconducted?• Identify Quality Standards• Quality Assurance• Quality Control• Quality Matrices• ImproveHow?What?CheckSometimes performed by a 3rd PartyMeasureNext?
  • Making earth little softerDatabaseDatabaseDefectTrackingProjectManagementThe StakeholdersSenior ManagementReview Key ParametersReview Customer SatisfactionReview Process MaturityProcess ChampionVerify Process complianceReview SLAs/ DashboardMonitor SQA activitiesProject Management/ Dev.Manage Project DeliveriesEnsure Customer SatisfactionProject Resource ManagementSQA GroupVerify Prod. /Process QualityCausal AnalysisDefect Trend AnalysisMaint/Integ/Admin GroupNetwork ManagementWorkstation ManagementConfiguration ManagementMeasures &MetricsProcessDiagnosticsProcessDiagnosticsGap AnalysisGap AnalysisSolutionArticulationSolutionArticulationProjectPlanningProjectPlanningProcessDefinitionProcessDefinitionProcessImplementatioProcessImplementatioReviews,SLAs, MetricsReviews,SLAs, MetricsImplementation model
  • Making earth little softerDatabaseDatabaseProcessDiagnosticsProcessDiagnosticsGap AnalysisGap AnalysisSolutionArticulationSolutionArticulationProjectPlanningProjectPlanningProcessDefinitionProcessDefinitionProcessImplementatioProcessImplementatioReviews,SLAs, MetricsReviews,SLAs, Metrics• Major Milestones : Project Planning (Scope,Detailed Timeline, Deliverables etc.):Documentation, Review, Approval• Team Formation• Processes, Procedures, Policies: Definition,Documentation, Review, Approval, Release• Training• Implementation: Pilot, Review, Roll-outPlanning, Measurements, Roll-out• Continuous Improvement: Review thruMeasures/ Metrics, Goals & ObjectivesImplementation timeline
  • Making earth little softerQuality Assurance Group - QAG
  • Making earth little softerFact & aimSuccessful business cannot come withoutSatisfied CustomerOrganisation should aim to go beyond‘Satisfaction’ and achieve “Customer Delight”
  • Making earth little softer• Quality Assurance is a not an enforcingfunction, but includes all the standards, planningand monitoring processes. It’s orientationtowards preventing the defects from occurring.• Quality Control encourages for detection andcorrection of defects• Quality Assurance is proactive and preventative;Quality Control is detective and corrective.QA & QC
  • Making earth little softerQuality Assurance•Customers are extremely demanding for quality.We must reciprocate their expectations anddemands. In the process we improve ourdelivery capabilities and organization as awhole.•Org to aim to be the reliable software companywhich delivers the quality solution hence want totry to achieve lowest possible “Post deliveryDefects to efforts ratio”•It is essential to review all output critically andtest the application and ensure extra-ordinaryquality of delivery for the customer.
  • Making earth little softerQuality AssuranceTo encourage• To do first time right, so that there are minimumpossible defects in the output / delivery• To get output reviewed at every phase• To do self code review• To perform unit testing• To do peer to peer code review• To detect as much defects before delivery• To reduce the defects detected by the client• Thus saving cost of the client
  • Making earth little softerQuality Assurance• Define standards, processes, reports, forms &templates & check lists; complete the check listwithout fail for each step• Appropriate defect tracking system to be used• Measure the quality status and progress by wayof effective weekly/ periodic reports• Manage the quality by prevention,implementation and feedback• Improve using experience & knowledge sharing
  • Making earth little softerConfidential 61To improve quality of delivery
  • Making earth little softer• Ownership & first time right drive culture• Reviews – Every deliverable is reviewed bysupervisor• Process for marking completion of the tasksusing check list• Special attention for understanding/confirmingthe requirements• Brainstorming sessions, reviews of RA & DD &SI test cases (PL), Self review for LLD, Code,Unit test cases, testing for developers, audits ofthese phases; Framework for communicationQuality drive
  • Making earth little softer• Establishing quality framework (measurement,analysis, preventive & corrective measures,tracking & closure and audits)• HR & RMG framework & Project Structure –Assigning DM/AVP for each projects & teamingwith Account managers & OSC• Governance- To be scalableWe need• Guidance and structure• A way to assess improvements• Recognition of our improvement and• To demonstrate the resultsQuality drive
  • Making earth little softerImprove QualityImprove QualityCreating Technical resources•The best resource to create 3 – 4 resources ofbetter capability•To share technical achievement, lessons learntand spread knowledge & experience•To enhance of technical skills for latesttechnologies•To set up R & D center•To manage training•To recruit the best technical resourcesReduce CostReduce Cost Improve ProductivityImprove ProductivityOrganisational Goals
  • Making earth little softerConfidential 65Improve QualityImprove QualityDelivering the best Quality•To deliver the best possible quality as perschedule with minimum defects•Reviewing deliverables at each level; checkingfor completeness & coverage•Training in writing/ executing UT, IT & AT•Finding maximum defects in early phases•Measurement & root cause analysisReduce CostReduce Cost Improve ProductivityImprove ProductivityOrganisational Goals
  • Making earth little softerConfidential 66Reducing delivery time•First time right, Improve productivity, increaseefficiency•Inculcating tools, mostly freeware and latesttechnology, Utilizing open source•Maximizing automation•Following the best practices and processes•Setting up knowledge management center,sharing experiences and lesson learnt•Implementing automation toolsImprove QualityImprove Quality Reduce CostReduce Cost Improve ProductivityImprove ProductivityOrganisational Goals
  • Making earth little softerConfidential 67Reducing development cost•Utilization of Open source code and framework•Process improvement•Automation•Minimizing licensing costs•Utilization of Open source code and framework•Capability building and enhancing•Efficient & motivating environment•Controlling indirect costImprove QualityImprove Quality Reduce CostReduce Cost Improve ProductivityImprove ProductivityOrganisational Goals
  • Making earth little softer• Many organisations witnessed no. ofunmanageable defects in pre & post delivery• Many organisations lost some potentialaccounts due to bad delivery for ever• Management of organisation generally go bypersonalities and their feel about the projectthan actually reviewing the output at each stage• Reviews at each stage of the SDLC reduces therisk, efforts and the cost at later stageNecessity of QAG
  • Making earth little softer• QCG services not to be ‘Optional’ or ‘On CallBasis’, it should be mandatory organisationalprocess.• QCG acts as an internal customer for projects• Dedicated team for QA GroupQAG - Responsibility
  • Making earth little softer• Responsive• Affirmative & assertive• Good negotiator• Competent• Accessible• Courteous• Good communicators• Credible• Knowledgeable of the client business• Reliable• Commanding• Passion for QualityInternal customer
  • Making earth little softerInculcatingNew Tools &TechniquesBlack BoxTestingReview of TestPlan & documentTesting SkillEnhancementQAG – Key focus areas
  • Making earth little softerThe strength on a building is built in its planQAG – test plan
  • Making earth little softer• Review Test plan , test cases & execution• Track quality progress• Measure defect leakages• Causal analysis & improvement• Raise early warning signalsQAG – Test Plan
  • Making earth little softerResponsibilities• ITC Review and execution (sample basis)• Periodic defects data collection and analysis• Compiling standard functionalities components• Review of Requirement Analysis & proposal• Review of Functional Specifications• Review of Prototype• Review Unit Test cases & execution (Sample)• Review of Integration & Application Test cases &execution (100%)• Review of Test results (Sample Basis)• Effort matrix for QA Activities• Defects matrix for QA Activities
  • Making earth little softerBlack BoxTestingWhite BoxTesting• Macro- Project Plan• RequirementAnalysis• FunctionalRequirements• Prototype + ATC• ITC• UTC (Sample)Reviewed by TechnologyGroup:-•Design Review•Code ReviewTo be reviewed by Internal CustomerQAG - Responsibility
  • Making earth little softerConfidential 76Methodology
  • Making earth little softerWhy• Early warning mechanism• Reduction in number of defects since third partyviews• Reduction in number of cycles of testing,eventually reduce duration & cost & enhanceclient’s satisfaction
  • Making earth little softerMethodologyShort Term Goals• Teaming• Training• Formalize a process of QA for all projects• Measure Effectiveness of QA• Tune QA processLong Term Goals• Develop testing process• Building Knowledge base• Achieve quality objectives
  • Making earth little softerQuality Assurance Paradox• Software quality must be very high!• Bugs are much more visible than before.• Complexity is increasing• Time to market is critical• Cost control• Does quality assurance conflict with cost controland time to market?• Can QA actually decrease cost and improvetime-to-market???
  • Making earth little softerQuality Strategy Development• Enhancing the quality of teaching and learningexperience.• To enhance life-long skills of the students thatmatched with the demand and requirement ofthe industry/employer.• Enhancing the quality of research andpublication, etc.
  • Making earth little softer• PM to plan for QCG activities in right spirit rightfrom the beginning assuming internal customer• To plan complete involvement of assigned QCGmember from kickoff meetings, KT session,project meetings, etc• Project to fulfill the readiness criteria for QCG• QCG member to present understanding to PM• QCG member to be updated for requirements• QCG & PM to decide internal quality objectives• QCG to support PM for defect prevention &minimising using historical data & experience• To raise early signals to managementQCG – better services
  • Making earth little softerSkillEnhancementIdentify Trainingneeds usingSkill MatrixIdentify Trainingneeds usingSkill MatrixPlan trainingpreparing thecalendarPlan trainingpreparing thecalendarExecuteTraining bycompetentfacultiesExecuteTraining bycompetentfacultiesMeasureenhanced skills& FeedbackMeasureenhanced skills& FeedbackQAG – skill enhancements
  • Making earth little softerArea Description Sad ok HappyBlack BoxTestingPre-Delivery Defects per Man Month 10 15 20*Defect detected by customer per 3man month> 1 1 < 1Total Cost to Customer (Task,Review, Rework)1-2 3 4SkillEnhancementQuantify Skill level in theorganization in ‘n’ months time2 1.5 1Improve Skill level over 6 monthstime frame by2% 5% 10%Number of resources trained (% ofBillable team)2% 5% 10%Tools andTech.Introducing at least 1 new tools /technologies in the organizationevery ‘n’ months2 1 0.5ProcessImprovementImprove Processes / Define newones - 1 instance every “n” month3 2 1QAG – Key Objectives
  • Making earth little softer• Define & try to achieve Quality objectives• To detect as many review comments, internaldefects during Unit testing & IT/AT (Target 15-20defects per man-month of efforts)• To improve quality using defect eliminationwhere defect delivered ratio is not more than 1defect for 3 man-month of efforts• Testing of 3 hours should not detect the defect• Conduct Root Cause Analysis• Implement action plan derived after RCA• Training & Building Knowledge base• Achieve high level of satisfaction with the qualityQAG - Goals
  • Making earth little softerWhy spend all this time in finding, andfixing, and fighting when you couldprevent the incidents in the first place- Phil Crosby
  • Making earth little softer• Preparing, publishing & training using thecoding convention for each technology• Conducting technical skill enhancement training• Through design reviews• Through code review• Avoiding repeat issue in the code• Creating standard components & liabrary• Help your peer to make the code cleanQAG – White box testing
  • Making earth little softer• Preparing the detailed test cases• Through Testing during each and appropriatephase like Unit, Integration and Applicationtesting• Accepting the challenge that we will find thedefect ourselves and not anyone else• We will ask question .. Why should we bedelivering defects…??• Help your peer to make the code clean• Help your peer to unit test their codeQAG – Black box testing
  • Making earth little softer# Activity Type1 Review RA document , Prototype (ifavailable) & Functional specifications100%2 Review the Application Test Cases 100%3 Review the Unit & Integration Test Cases sample4 Conduct Unit and Integration Testing sample5 Review test results for Unit andIntegration testingsample6 Review test Application test results sample7 Conduct Application testing (pre-delivery) 100%QAG to give GO-ahead based on above resultsQAG – Black box testing
  • Making earth little softer• Designing & keep on improving test case format• Training how to write clear & crisp test cases• Writing a good test case is a skill, to be learned• Test cases coverage to be maximum• Efficient process of Task, review and rework• Appropriate & Higher skills is higher productivityand lesser cost• Improving skills through sharing experience andknowledge and by way of training• Skill enhancement is growth in personality• Test cases though well written might not cover100% scenarios, so testers skills can play a roleQAG – Skills enhancement
  • Making earth little softer•Executing Test cases is important process tocheck the functionality so test cases to bereviewed & enhanced•Phase wise (Unit / Integration/ Application testcases)•Module wise matching to functionality•Aim to cover maximum functionalityPurpose is to•Track depth of understanding•To detect gap in understanding the functionality•Measure defect leakages and•Raise early warning signalsQAG – review o test cases
  • Making earth little softer• Using apt tools and technologies can boostproductivity considerably• Your two hands can do a lot, but not all• Evaluate new testing tools and technologies• Conduct training on new tools and technologies• Publish white paper / develop proto application• Help projects with new tools and technologiesQAG – Tools & Technologies
  • Making earth little softer• Using tools and technologies we can improveproductivity which in turns help to reduce thecostTools• Code Quality Tools ( Open Source) – Emma,Junit, Findbugs, Checkstyle, JDepend and CPD.• Code review checklist• Recurring Issues Checklist• Internal Checklist - based on live issues andtesting feedback of previous releases(knowledge management)QAG – Tools & Technologies
  • Making earth little softer93• Need to spread awareness for Standard Codedefect detection & Quality measurement tools• Emma – Code Coverage Tool to find percentageof code covered by Junit test cases.• JDepend – Dependency checker to findinterdependencies within the java code.• CPD – A tool to find out the duplicate code thatmeans that bugs can appear in several places.It means more compilation times & biggerbinaries• FindBugs – A tool to find bugs in Javaprograms. It looks for instances of "bugpatterns" --- code instances that are likely to beerroneous.QAG – Tools & technologies
  • Making earth little softerQuality Control
  • Making earth little softerProject RAG StatusNOTE: Pl update the RAG status from spectrumfor last 4 weeks. If any of the parameter is Red /Amber, pl update the action required and statusfor the current week.Parameter LastWeek -1LastWeekCurrentWeekActionRequiredStatus TargetDateBudgetScopeEffortScheduleResourceQuality
  • Making earth little softer• Functionality related gap between expectationsof client and actual delivery• Defects are injected during Requirementanalysis, High & Low level Design and codingphase.• Continuous reviews help to prevent/ removedefect injection• Rigorous testing during Unit level, Integrationand application level testing detect the defects.RA R DesignR Coding R UT IT ATAchieving Quality
  • Making earth little softerReviews• Review helps• To confirm client’s requirements• To detect defects in early stages• To reduce rework at later phases
  • Making earth little softerRA Design Coding UT IT ATDefectsinsystemVarious Phases of SDLCTo be at better quality after every phase• Removing defects by reviewing & testing• From each deliverable• At each phaseReviews & Testing
  • Making earth little softerTeam structure & reviewsPMOReviewsPMOReviewsReviews of deliverables of each member at everylevel by supervisor help improving qualityCreating proposal Project Plan, ReportsFollowing Process & best practicesReview of DD, Coding conventionsReviews of Proposal; Reports, EscalationsCompliances of the best practices, clientmanagement & business growthCreating DD, Design Framework, Codingconvention, Reviews of deliverables ofDevelopers & testersCreating Specification, Code, Unit& SI test cases, Testing, etcCompletion checklist, Self review
  • Making earth little softerReviews• Assuring:-• Quality of design document impacts quality ofthe code & the test cases.• To identify the right resource for the reviewsdepending on entity to be reviewed• Assuring incorporating review comments• Reviews are discontinued when progress isdelayed. To assure to have reviews as planned• Tracking review efforts & duration for eachentity (like code, unit test cases, etc) (e.g.review time per page)
  • Making earth little softerReviews• Deciding on review density before starting theactivity• Review comments expected to reduce onrepeat cycle• Cause for concerns• No. of review comments & No. of majorcomments are not decreasing on progress asexpected is indication of unstable quality• Volume change of entity (e.g. no of pages fordesign doc, no. of test cases, etc) pre & postreview
  • Making earth little softerCode reviews• Build detailed code checks into the developmentprocess• Make it impossible to release code that violatesthese checks• Few errors would only be discovered by codereviews or testing• Many errors only occurred on specific datasets
  • Making earth little softerPerformance testing• Execute to check performance of each query• Create database as appropriate• Compile & Check manually all the queriesindividually for performance time, keep record• Every SQL statement is run against multiple realworld customer databases• Improve/ optimise the queries• Log the bugs for worst performing statements
  • Making earth little softerIssue Management• Issues are restraints to accomplishing thedeliverables of the project.• Typically identified throughout the project andlogged and tracked through resolution.Issues impact cost, time, quality, mostimportant is reputation and branding!Types of issue – Minor, Normal, Major,Critical, BlockerMinor issue is dangerous!
  • Making earth little softerIssues/Risks (non-financial)Highlight highest risks for management attention
  • Making earth little softerMetrics-Development & EnhancementNOTE: Pl highlight the summary from themetrics reportWorkPacketsEffortVarianceOn-timeDeliveryDefectDensityFieldDefectDensityProductivity COQ ReviewEffectivenessGoal Actual G A G A G A G A G A G A
  • Making earth little softerMetrics-Maintenance & SupportProvide the SLA compliance summary If you useany tool provide the snap shot of the same.The number of tickets includes the new receivedin the reporting month as well as the backlogfrom previous monthsPriority Number ofTickets/FaultsResponse SLACompliance%Resolution SLACompliance%RemarksGoal Actual Goal ActualP1P2P3P4
  • Making earth little softerASSIGNEDINVALIDCLOSEDDUPLICATELATERREMINDFIXEDVERIFIEDREOPENEDWONTFIXWORKSFORMENEWREASSIGNEDTesterUploadSnaps / Doc / XLS ,Steps to reproduce bug,Ref. to Db Backupin CVS* Bug Detected During* Bug Injected During* SeverityPLBug PriorityAssigned To (Induced By)Reassign ToTesterPLDeveloperShould theBug be fixed?PLPLRecurrenceof the Bug?YesNoYesNoUploadTest Result SnapRef to Bug AnalysisTemplate in CVSIssue tracking flow
  • Making earth little softerTesting Improvements• PM decides on type of testing - automated ormanual or both• 400% increase in automated regression tests inthe same efforts• Tests created for all key business flows• Created by dedicated product QA teams• Used for• Ongoing maintenance/bug fixes• Platform certification (e.g. Linux)• Technology certifications• eBusiness Flows certified prior to release• Progress measured daily, and reported
  • Making earth little softerPrerequisites of TestingTest Cases• Latest & Completed test cases documents fromCVS (or any Configuration management tool)Test Environments• Document that gives the details of H/W and S/Wrequired to start testing• Identical environment which client would havewhile going live• Development environment• Testing environment
  • Making earth little softerFlow of Testing• Test cases• Test Data• Unit Testing• Screen Layout, look & feel• Screen Validations• Functionality• Integration Testing• Application Testing• Users Acceptance Testing
  • Making earth little softerTesting GuidelinesWhy the testing guidelines?• “Test cases may not cover 100% aspects thusextend your thoughts beyond the writtenstatement of the test case.”
  • Making earth little softerWho should testThere are 2 possible actors• Developers to execute 100% unit testing• Reasons being they take the entire ownership ofquality of the delivery• Second possibility is dedicated testing teamexecuting test cases• Testing being skill of expert!
  • Making earth little softerUnit Testing - UITo use a check list & test for following• Consistency- Control sizes• Basic functionalities• Tables, navigation to next page• Search listing result• Validation error message• Layout (as per Prototype)• Spelling Mistakes• Font (Type & Size)• Icons display• Color Scheme• Screen resolution
  • Making earth little softerUnit Testing - UI• Tab sequence & Text selection• Links (Check each link to ensure it works)• Current selection indication• Alignments (Text, Numbers, Row, Column)• Compatibility with various browsers• Duplicate display of information• Mention of Copyright
  • Making earth little softerUnit Testing - Validations• Field type & Size (Numeric, Alphanumerical,Database field width)• Formatted fields (e.g. Date, E-mail, PhoneNumbers, Security ID)• Mandatory Fields• Messaging (Alert, Warning, field message,message post submissions, sequence, etc)• Database Records verification• Verify the values stored in database for Radiobuttons & Checkboxes• Test spaces trimming (leading & trailing spaces)• Update By & Update on fields
  • Making earth little softerUnit Testing - FunctionalityTo use matrix of screens & functionalitiese.g. File Upload/Download•Try all types of files – image files, office files,animated GIF•Try downloading files – verify they don’t containgarbage•Search using special characters like (%,_,’ etc.)Sorting functionality - Check the number ofrecords before and after the sorting are same• In case of mailing functionality, check for non-existing e-mail address. (The mail should bereturned back to some preset mail address)
  • Making earth little softerUnit Testing - FunctionalityTo use matrix of screens & functionalities•Test User login Case Sensitivity•Test the dependant behaviors of the controls•Enabling / Disabling based on some actions•Data shown in Popup Screens based on someactions (Refreshing)•Language Support Test (Wherever applicableJapanese / German/ French, etc Input)•Test readability by changing encoding type in thebrowser
  • Making earth little softerIntegration Testing• Refer Integration Matrix while testing• Enter boundary values (Min , Max, 0 , negativeetc)• Errors occur when values passed by oncescreen are used in calculations on other screen
  • Making earth little softer• Testing Business Transactions• Refer Screen Flow Diagrams while identifyingBusiness Transactions• Identify the User Roles to perform testing (SalesPerson, Purchase Manager, Dispatch PersonOR User , Administrator)• Ensure Test Data Variety & Test data Volume• Roles & Rights testing (Test for access rights)• Logging Mechanism testing (Errors and UserActions)• Deployment Testing (Perform Deployment asper the Deployment Document)Application Testing
  • Making earth little softer• Application Menu should be in sequence of thefunctionality• User Management->Master Data Mgt-> OrderEntry->Purchase Mgt->Dispatch• Navigation• Using Browser ‘Back’ & ‘Forward’ buttons• Using ‘Back Button’ & ‘Links’ in the application• Browser dependency• Test for all the browsers as per client request(Min should be IE & Netscape)• Disable Cookies and try to login or performTransactionsApplication Testing
  • Making earth little softer• Perform transaction using multiple instances ofapplication, Open other applications like (Word,Excel, Access, Others)• Quick Actions in the Application• Click Submit button twice• Switch between the screens quickly• Enter data in one instance & try to see itimmediately in another instance• Random operations• Enter any number of characters and clickanywhere• Clicks on read only areaApplication Testing
  • Making earth little softer• Copy Paste of the URLs• Copy URL after Logging in and paste it inanother instance of browser• Same operation while in the middle of abusiness Transactions• Session Timeout verification (test for < / = / >defined timeout value)• Disconnection Test (to verify there is noinconsistent data generated)• Disconnect Net connection in the middle of atransaction• Stop Database service while transaction is inprocess on the clientApplication Testing
  • Making earth little softer• Reports printing• Print Multiple Pages• Try to print without installing any printer driver• Verify Report Margins for the printed copy• Status related tests (Display only ‘Active’ / ‘Live’records)• Multi-user Testing• Concurrent users (Different users / users withdifferent roles)• Concurrent Transactions (Add / Update /Delete / File Upload)• Locking Issues Test• Common Tests…ref fileApplication Testing
  • Making earth little softerHow Much Testing Is Enough?• There is always one more bug…• So how much testing is needed to find “all” ?• Cost• Time to market• Feasibility• Rate of detection of defects• Industry-specific standards• To predict how many bugs will be in a release?• In order to provide correct budget and scheduleestimates, QA managers need the means topredict fault levels.
  • Making earth little softerTypes of defects• Blocker• Severe/ Critical• Major• Normal• Minor• Trivial• To publish phase wise defect data for eachmodule for above types• Responsibility wiseSample statistics
  • Making earth little softerUpdate defect passbook at end of day and checkstatus and trendDefect passbook
  • Making earth little softerConfidential 131QAG measures QualityQAG tracks and measures quality using followingtemplateOrganisation
  • Making earth little softerQuality measurementNo. of defects 1effort in manmonths 3Loc per hr 10Lines of code 4800no. of defects 1% of defects to LoC 1*100/4800=2.1%Achieved quality 97.9167%• 1 defect detected by customer for 3 manmonths of efforts is said to be fairly good quality• Count each type of defect (minor, normal,major, critical or blocker) ; Minor defect is worst!
  • Making earth little softerMeasure where are you• To set a quality baseline & remain determined• To seek feedback• To measure and conclude current levels fromdesired level• To draw action plan to be at set goal012345678Vertex NTTDDesired levelCurrent LevelCurrent level Desired level
  • Making earth little softerAim for Defect Metrics (sample)Phase Metrics UnitLowerLimitAverageUpperLimitRequirementdefinitionRequirementdocumentsReviewcommentsPer 100pages9.8 15 24DesignDetail design(DD)ReviewcommentsPer 100pages7.6 13 21Program design(PD)ReviewcommentsPer 100pages4.9 12 30CodingUnit TestingTest CaseDensityKLOC 65 110 170Defect density KLOC 3 6.4 9.7IntegrationTesting (SI)Test CaseDensityKLOC 16 39 92Defect density KLOC 0.7 2.2 3.6TestingSystem Testing(PT)Testing density KLOC 2.3 9.5 39Bug detectiondensityKLOC 0 0.7 1.4Entity which is measured, can be managed well
  • Making earth little softerBug content analysisPhenomenon Action exampleModule havingmajor changeSuspend test workReview of design document, review of sourcecode with the designerEnhanced test according to test items, bugcontentsTest density <allowable rangeEnhanced test according to test items, bugcontentsBug detectiondensity is lessthan allowableEnhanced test according to test item, bugcontentsBug detectiondensity exceedsallowable rangeAs per 1 above
  • Making earth little softerBug content analysisPhenomenon Action exampleBug causeProblem ofdefectivespecificationRe-check specifications for client, businessDesign document review with an expertIndetermination of specifications of designdoc. ambiguous partBug causeProblem ofdevelopmentfrom specificationConfirmation of specification to designerReview of design document & source codewith the designerClarification of implementation,implementation methodBug - Other thanspecificationThoroughness of walk through and sourcecode reviewOccurrence typeEnvironmentSpecify reason according to occurrenceperiod, contentsRe-examination of test environment, system
  • Making earth little softerBug content analysisOccurrence type Action exampleOperational error,without reproduction,identificationmistake)Review of test item, processRe-adjustment of design document, testenvironmentEducational guidance to designerCoding/ modificationmistakeThoroughness of source code reviewOccurrence ofimportant bug thatimpacts testprogressSuspend test workReview of design document & review ofsource codeEnhanced test according to the test item,bug contentsoccurrence of similarbugsCheck the latency of a similar bug inanother module
  • Making earth little softer• No. of pages/ characters of design document &LOC of the code• Check planned No. of test cases (a statisticalindex page for test cases shows the progress)• Test cases planned & actually execution• To capture No. of test cases executed on dailybasis and cumulative basis• No. of defects detected on daily andcumulative basis – check if volume is apt• Calculate defect density–check if volume is apt• Check if any delay in execution, understand &remove the delayQuantitative analysis
  • Making earth little softer•Check the pending test cases on daily &cumulative basis – check if volume is apt•Bug fixing on daily and cumulative basis - checkif volume is less or more•Check if any delay in fixing, understand &remove the delayQuantitative analysisMatrix AnalysisTest density Low Target value Upper limitBug Density -Low Less BugsdetectionRetest adding fewmore test casesMember skill level?Target Value Write additionaltest casesJudge verification ofthe result qualitativelyJudge verification ofthe result qualitativelyUpper Limit Multiple bugsoccurredMultiple bugs occurred Suspend testing, getinto other measure likecode review, etc
  • Making earth little softerQuantitative analysis# Category Details Type1 SpecificationInadequacyDescription Inadequacy Interface ErrorLogical ErrorData definition errorTable definition errorFormat ErrorOthersWrong descriptionAmbiguousStandard ViolationDocument not correctedDocument not consistent2 Issue whiledeployingSlipping over the specificationLack of understanding theLack of confirming the specificationInsufficient investigation of specs3 Issuesexcept themattersrelated tospecificationLess knowledge for language usageHalfway publicize / communicationStandard violationNot checked while re-usingNot checked while modifyingUnforced mistake
  • Making earth little softer• Root cause analysis – assign root cause toeach bug & conduct analysis (fishbone diagram)• Severity wise• Developer wise• Tester wise• Defect injection phase v/s defect detection• Defect injection phase v/s root cause• Daily status (like a bank passbook)Quantitative analysisDefect detected RA-Review HLD, IT -Review LLD, UT-Review Code review UT IT ATDefect injectedRAHLDLLDCoding
  • Making earth little softerProcess• This PCB is released as Organization PCB• This PCB should be referred to when providingOrganizational Data to the customers• Each project depending on the size, complexityand customer requirement shall define themetrics for the project.• This would be done in Process Plan as part ofthe project initiation.• In case the project targets are outside the UCLor LCL limits an approval would be requiredfrom the respective VP.
  • Making earth little softerPCB Contents• Productivity Data• Phase wise effort distribution• Effort – Actual Vs. Estimated• Schedule – Actual Vs. Estimated• Defect Metrics
  • Making earth little softerProductivity DataLOC/ 1 MMProductivity LCL Target UCLJava 700 1000 1300VB.Net 800 1500 2200C# .net 700 950 1200C 700 1000 1300This data applies to all the efforts spent on allSDLC Phases – from RA to Acceptance testingTo finalise parameters for data to be capturedTo create PCB data for each projectThus organisational data will be createdAnalyse & use the data
  • Making earth little softerPlan to Collect Data• PCB shall be updated every three months, Endof every quarter - Jun, Sep, Dec, and Mar• For development, testing & maintenance project• Finalise project metrics during kickoff of project• The project metrics collection plan shall befinalized as part of the project initiation process(Process Plan)• The projects shall contribute Phase End data orMilestone data every six months• To share PCB data during project closure
  • Making earth little softerProject ClosureTo conduct a meeting with all stake holdersTo share following information estimated & actual• Efforts• Schedule• Defect Matrices• Profitability• Client happiness IndexDetailing• Key learning• Best performance• What next?Remember
  • Making earth little softerProcesses
  • Making earth little softerDefining RoadmapCommunication tomanagement & SalesAppointing LeaderTeam BuildingConsensus of Roadmap,Governance & OperationsCommunication to AllFramework (Analysis,Measurement, Reporting,Methodologies, Checklist, Teambuilding, Asset management,PCB, Calendars,Institutionalization)Delivery runninglike an EngineWhen…time frame
  • Making earth little softer• Determine the appropriate review participant foreach project (Internal customer)• To receive the review material• Conduct the timely reviews• Send feedback review to the project manager• Interact till all points are closed• Conclude the reviewProcess
  • Making earth little softerProcess Improvement• CMMI-assessed organizations measured andreported clear improvements• Productivity• Quality• Schedule• Cost• Customer Satisfaction• Mean Return on Investment• measured = 4.8 : 1• Varies from 2:1 to 27.7:1!• They say, quality is free!
  • Making earth little softerQuality Management, Control & AssuranceMeasurement & AnalysisPrevention & ImprovementQuality Management, Control & AssuranceMeasurement & AnalysisPrevention & ImprovementProcess changeInitiativesAcceptanceProcess changeInitiativesAcceptanceProcess ImprovementTraining & EducationImplementationProcess ImprovementTraining & EducationImplementationStructureStructurePeopleSkillsPerformanceRewardDevelopmentLeadersPeopleSkillsPerformanceRewardDevelopmentLeadersSoftwareSolutionsDeliveriesClient DelightMorebusinessSoftwareSolutionsDeliveriesClient DelightMorebusinessProject ManagementPlan, Track, Monitor & Control, CommunicationEffort, schedule, Quality, Cost, Resource, RiskProject ManagementPlan, Track, Monitor & Control, CommunicationEffort, schedule, Quality, Cost, Resource, RiskBusiness process improvements
  • Making earth little softerUnique Innovative Functionality112Telelogic provides key functionality• CMMI compliance• Strategic QA• Project scheduling• Effort estimation• Causal analysis• Process enforcement• Duplicate management
  • Making earth little softerISO9000-2001CertifiedSEI CMMIVAbilitySEI CMM V(Target)dd-mm-yyyy(Target)dd-mm-yyyy• To prepare a realistic plan with target dates• To seek consensus from all stake holdersQuality certification
  • Making earth little softer• Capability Maturity Model – A non prescriptiveReference Model or a framework• In-built flexibility allowing organizations to definetheir own processes, templates, forms, reportsetc. to suit their needs, culture, practices etc.• Different models for different purposes(Software Development, IT Services, PeopleManagement ,etc.)• Based on evolutionary improvement path• Focus is on the organizational process maturityand not on individuals / individual services orprojectsCMM - Overview
  • Making earth little softer5 - Optimizing4 - Managed3 - Defined2 - Repeatable1 - InitialContinuouslyContinuouslyImprovingImprovingPredictablePredictableStandard, ConsistentStandard, ConsistentDisciplined ProcessDisciplined ProcessAd-hoc ProcessAd-hoc ProcessFive steps staged Framework
  • Making earth little softerCMMLevel 3 – Defined-- peer reviews, intergroup coordination-- software product engineering-- integrated software management-- training program-- organization process definition & focusLevel 2 – Repeatable-- software configuration management-- software quality assurance-- software project planning, tracking andoversight-- requirements managementLevel 1 – Initial
  • Making earth little softerCMMLevel 5 – Optimizing-- process change management-- technology change management-- defect preventionLevel 4 – Managed-- software quality management-- quantitative process management
  • Making earth little softerAudit-Definitions• Discrepancy: a condition averse to quality,violation of specified requirement, because of• Lack of system/ method/ procedure - this issystem discrepancy• Lack of implementation or practice not in linewith the intent - implementation discrepancy• System or practice is not effective -effectiveness discrepancy• Non Conformance (NC)• Clear case of deviation from the statedintentions or arrangements (plan) or absence ofa system to meet the requirement
  • Making earth little softerAudit-Definitions• Major NC: Significant non-compliance withspecified requirement & failure of system• Significant number of instances of minor failures• Minor NC: minor problem warrants for attention• an isolated witnessed incident of failure tocomply with the procedure• Small deviation, which if left unattended, couldlead to a problem in future or a failure in somepart of the system• Observation : Factual information gathered• Strengths :Practices observed that are betterthan the normal
  • Making earth little softerAudit-Definitions• Correction• Refers to repair, rework, or adjustment andrelates to the disposition of an existing nonconformity• Corrective Action• Relates to the elimination of the causes of a nonconformity• Preventive Action• Action taken to eliminate the cause of apotential non conformity, defect or otherundesirable situation in order to prevent re-occurrence
  • Making earth little softerAudit ProcessAudit PlanningAudit PlanningAudit ReportingAudit ReportingAudit PreparationAudit PreparationAudit ExecutionAudit ExecutionAudit Follow-upAudit Follow-upAudit AnalysisAudit AnalysisCorrective /Preventive ActionsCorrective /Preventive Actions
  • Making earth little softerProcess Improvements• Iterative Build Process• For Each Build• Upgrade Previous Versions• Installation Tests• Automatic Coding Standards Checkers• Review Documentation• Consulting Tests Setups & Flows• Central QA Tests Flows• Product QA Teams Test Flows/Products• Measure Everything• Install Issues, Product Bugs, % Tests Complete
  • Making earth little softerDevelopment Process OverviewProduct Deliverables•PrioritizedList of ReleaseCandidates•S & Adocumentsfor ReleaseCandidates•PreliminaryRelease Plan•S & AReview withKey Sponsors•UpdatedRelease Plan•DatabaseDiagrams•High LevelDesigns•High LevelDesign Review•FinalRelease Plan•DetailedDesigns•DetailedDesign Review•Unit and SystemTest Plans•CodedModules•Formal CodeWalkthroughPreliminaryPreliminaryRelease PlanningRelease PlanningStrategyStrategy& Analysis& AnalysisHigh LevelHigh LevelDesignDesignDetailedDetailedDesignDesignBuildBuildDesignDesignApplications Development ProcessBug/Error Feedback LoopCustomer FeedbackMilestones
  • Making earth little softerDevelopment Process OverviewProductDeliverables•CertifiedUnit Tests•CompletedUnit TestChecklists•CertifiedSystem Tests•System TestRegressionTests•CertifiedIntegration Tests•Integration TestRegression Tests•CompletedPerformanceTuning•ProductDocumentation•SatisfactoryFeedback•Final ProductDocumentation(Bound)•ShippingApplications Development ProcessSystemSystemTestTestIntegrationIntegrationTestTestCertificationCertificationTestingTestingUnit TestUnit TestBuildBuildProductionProductionReleaseReleaseTestingTestingBeta/Beta/CertificationCertificationBug/Error Feedback LoopCustomer FeedbackMilestones
  • Making earth little softerExperience – case study
  • Making earth little softerThe mistake made• Manager makes mistakes in project execution• Wrong estimation• Not freezing the requirements, specifications &documentation and sign-off• Timely team building & Resource talent• Research on technologies, Implementing codingconventions• Critical reviews and Traceability between RA,design & coding• Quality Assurance & Control; Processcompliance• Client expectation management
  • Making earth little softerThe problems faced• Limited budgets of client• Requirements changes• Increased the development time & efforts• Potential to make system unstable• Implementation of few functions which could betaken in next phase• Project tracking became difficult; lot of time ofproject manager spent with client in VCmeetings
  • Making earth little softerIssues & resolutionIssue ResolutionEducating managers Training & sharing case studyBudgets on quality Need to be budgetedParameters measurement Create format, assign responsibilityAuthority & responsibility To authorize PM/DM while expectingresponsibilityToo many interventions to be avoidedBandwidth of PM Dedicated front end team member forclient communication & reportingPM must focus in managing projectEstimation skill Education, Experience, TrainingReviews of everydeliverableAudits and measurements
  • Making earth little softerSoftware Problems• No “fundamentals laws” of software• - Complexity• Extreme modifiability• - Software is easy to change• - Difficult to control changes• - Significance of changes• - Defects• Technology churn• - Structured development process plus testing• Very low manufacturing cost• - Software quality: Primarily a design issue• No borders -----Philippe Kruchten
  • Making earth little softerSeveral serious problems happen in real project.Cost20MM(Client)20MM(Client)65MM (Org)65MM (Org)EstimationScopeA lot ofdiscussionhappenedA lot ofdiscussionhappenedGapcan’t chargeadditionallycan’t chargeadditionallyLosing business& RelationshipAfterExternalDesignAfterExternalDesignA lot ofrequestcomesA lot ofrequestcomesAnalyzeCR orDefectAnalyzeCR orDefectAlmostof themare CRAlmostof themare CRSpentmuchtimeScope isincreasingSpentmuchtimeCommon problems
  • Making earth little softerScheduleCost and Scopeis increasedCost and Scopeis increasedA lot ofdiscussionhappenedA lot ofdiscussionhappenedSpendmuch timeScheduleremainsthe samePhase I Phase IIED, ID,CodingUT, SICommon problems
  • Making earth little softerA lot of problemsin Cost andScheduleA lot of problemsin Cost andScheduleBefore handling only on quality issue, we needto tackle the bottleneck real issuesBefore handling only on quality issue, we needto tackle the bottleneck real issuesObjectiveDeliver realistically and success fullyQuality ImprovedQuality ImprovedOutputOutputMissing•Coding Standard•Strict ProcessMissing•Coding Standard•Strict ProcessFocus on the seriousissues in Kaizen ActivitiesFocus on the seriousissues in Kaizen Activities95 % 5 %Conclusion
  • Making earth little softerStrategic Quality Planning
  • Making earth little softerStrategic Quality PlanningVision DevelopmentThrough QualityInnovationsVision DevelopmentThrough QualityInnovationsCorporateStrategiesCorporateStrategiesQuality StrategyDevelopmentQuality StrategyDevelopmentQuality PerformanceObjectivesQuality PerformanceObjectivesPerformanceMeasurementPerformanceMeasurementQuality ActionPlansQuality ActionPlansKeyStakeholders’FeedbackKeyStakeholders’FeedbackQuality InitiativesIdentifiedQuality InitiativesIdentifiedStaffEngagementStaffEngagementBenchmarking(e.g. AUN-QA)Benchmarking(e.g. AUN-QA)AlignmentAlignment
  • Making earth little softerServices to achieve quality
  • Making earth little softerServices to achieve Q
  • Making earth little softerHow..delivery mechanism
  • Making earth little softerHow..delivery mechanism
  • Making earth little softerSimple things…governance
  • Making earth little softerSimple things…governance
  • Making earth little softerCheers- delegate & motivateHow to delegate effectivelyChoose Resource based on track record & potentialCommunicateclearlyCommunicate expectations clearly, exact natureof the tasks, Avoid ignoranceSet realistictargetsUnderstand potential, capability, experience &energy while setting the tasksMonitorprogressIndicate clear milestone, define % completion inagreement, check list to declare the completionof the tasks, seek inputs on daily basisGet & givefeedbackSeek updates on performance, check the results,ask the supervisor & give feedback setting /reminding the expectationsEncourageaccountabilityEncourage commitment & time from teammembers to complete the tasks as planned; tocover up if lagging, challenge their ownership
  • Making earth little softerCheers- delegate & motivateHow to motivate the teamQuestionmotivationUnderstand reasons liking of challenges, status ofthe assignment, recognition, salary, security &stability. Understand liking & disliking & act; demandhigh standards of them & encourage hard work,think something new always.Recognizegood workCredit members for the tasks well done, be specificon compliment,Steer them Understand the resistance to change, get theagreement sharing the cons of the old system,support while establishing the changeEncouragechangeSelect employee who dares & like the change,Support & guide to take more, share success storySet upappraisalsAppraise regularly, focus on hard facts & quantify.,set up measurement
  • Making earth little softerTop items to achieve Q• Quality drive across organisation- Ownership &first time right drive culture• Reviews – Proposal reviews by DM, process formarking completion of the tasks using check list,Special attention for understanding/confirmingthe requirements; Brainstorming sessions,reviews of RA & DD & SI test cases (PL), Selfreview for LLD, Code, Unit test cases, testingfor developers, audits of these phases;• Framework for communication & governance• Project monitoring office implementation
  • Making earth little softerTop items to achieve Q• Establishing quality framework (processes,measurement, analysis, preventive & correctivemeasures, tracking & closure and audits)• Project Cost Estimation & proposal• Software Project Planning, Project Tracking &Scheduling, Requirements Management• Development, reviews & testing• HR & RMG framework & Project Structure –Assigning sr manager to each projects &teaming with Sales, Account managers & OSC• Education of PM & resources• Governance- To be scalable
  • Making earth little softerQ1-Q2 Q3 Q4Focus on BasicProject Mgmt, RiskMgmt. & CustomerMgmtImplementing thelearning & bestwaysDefine Org. wideProcesses &Review / ControlAwareness,Training & Pilots(SST, Sales,PMPL)StrengthenDelivery Mgmt,QMG, TMG, & &coordinationGovernance &coordinationContinualImprovementStringentImplementationof Processes &best practicesReorganize andStrengthen Talent& skilled resourcesDelivery Organisation Road MapPredictable,Repeatable,Reliable Defined,Managed,OptimisedQuality ScheduleCustomerSatisfactionSuccessfullyComplete CurrentProjects & getstability inDelivery Org.ImproveRepeatability /Reliability inDeliveryOrganization
  • Making earth little softerVisionKnowledge/Tech.ManagementRight FacilitiesRight Skills / MotivationRightManagement(Plan/Measure/Control)Right ProcessesRightCommunicationTrust and Comfort FeelQualityofResponse Value for MoneyTech./ Domain Skills / ExperienceSpeedofResponseHuman Resource ManagementFacility/InfrastructureRight Skills / Motivation Finance ManagementEXECUTIONMARKETINGORGANISATION Minimum Defects Timely Delivery Minimum TCC
  • Making earth little softerThank YouAuthor has worked at as Sr management professionalVertex Software, now NTTDataTech MahindraSoftBridge Solutions, India& extremely thankful to these organisation for offering excitingopportunity to work in related areas, gain experience & contribute& a gentleman having deep passion about quality..MukandBhagwat