33 part 2-earthsoft-water - pollution-issues

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  • Water is capable of dissolving or suspending a variety of materials, so it’s pretty tough to get "pure" water. All water, outside of a research laboratory, will have some other substance in it.
  • Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary economic activity which is a sign of man’s success has added to the effect of pollution Pollution is the contamination of an environment. causing harm to nature When harmful substances contaminate the environment it is called pollution Pollution refers to the very bad condition of environment Pollution means the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment The contaminate of air & water with undesirable substances which make those unfit for usage is termed as water pollution Pollution is caused by man’s growth and improper disposal of waste materials generated Industrialisation has had a great impact on the type and volume of pollutants released. Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the nature biological communities.
  • Although their pollutants are emitted in completely different ways, they both harm living organisms.
  • It is essential for everything on our planet to grow and prosper. 
  • Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary economic activity which is a sign of man’s success has added to the effect of pollution living in these bodies of water. It is the contamination of water bodies.
  • Serious due tyo human aCTIvities
  • Water comprises 70% of earth’s surface. Is a very important resource for plants and animals Pollution Sources Point sources Piped (sewage, oils) Storm water drains Non- Point sources Agricultural runoff Atmospheric pollution Seepage from mine/urban areas
  • More people require more food. To feed the increasing billions forests are being cut and converted to croplands
  • Forests play a major role in water management. Apart from facilitating water conservation and recharge, they prevent fertile topsoil from being washed away in the rains. When soil flows into water bodies, it causes siltation in the ponds, lakes and rivers.
  • It’s not just the quantum of agriculture that is changing, the way we do agriculture is also changing. There is increased use of fertilizers to increase yield per hectare. There is also increased use of pesticides to enhance the yield. Fertilizers and pesticides easily dissolve in water. They enter surface water sources through irrigation and rainwater runoff and also percolate into the ground to contaminate groundwater sources. Nitrogen based fertilizers are commonly used in India. Nitrogen is converted to nitrate. Excess nitrate that cannot be used by the crop leaches into soil and groundwater. Nitrate contamination of water can cause the blue baby syndrome. We invented insecticides, herbicides and fungicides to save our crops from pests and to save ourselves from diseases. Crop yields increased and pests like mosquitoes were destroyed. The pesticide industry grew to become a multi-billion dollar industry. We then started finding different kinds of cancers, birth defects and other medical problems. Studies across the globe showed pesticides to be the culprit. Pesticides contain complex organo-chlorides and other heavy metals that bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the food chain. Over time, their concentration in our bodies increase beyond safe levels and cause serious health problems most of which are fatal. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in India and the use of pesticides is rampant. World over pesticide production is reducing but in India it is still on the rise. We continue to use pesticides that are banned in other parts of the world. Untrained farmers overuse pesticides and are ignorant about the ill-effects of use and handling of pesticides. Today pesticides are considered the foremost chemical threat to our groundwater. We also use some pesticides in our homes – can you name one? (Insect sprays)
  • An increasing population is demanding more animal products – meat, dairy products, poultry products etc. Increased breeding of animals has resulted in faster depletion of resources – more water and food is required for the animals. Increased cattle rearing results in overgrazing, which washes away the fertile topsoil into freshwater sources during the monsoons. The topsoil being nutrient rich, pollutes the water sources. The meat, dairy and poultry industries are also very water intensive and waste water is rich in organic wastes. Untreated waste water contains pathogens which can cause diseases and can also cause eutrophication of freshwater sources.
  • Dyeing and bleaching of clothes generates a lot of waste water with harmful chemicals and heavy metals. In most cases this wastewater is not treated adequately and is discharged into the municipal sewage system or into surface water sources or groundwater aquifers. Case studies – Choki region of Gujarat, Tirupur in TN. The paper industry is one of the most polluting industries (air and water polluting). As we use more paper, demand increases and supply is also increased to meet this rising demand. While production of paper is a highly polluting industry, the main damage is caused by small scale units that do not manage their effluent properly and to meet the rising demand more small scale units start mushrooming. To make leather shoes, bags and other accessories, raw animal hide is converted into tough non-rotting leather. This requires a lot of water and dangerous chemicals like hexavalent chromium. A lot of toxic effluent is generated, which is let out into water bodies or into fields. Among the small scale industries, the leather industry is the worst pollutant. Cadmium is a heavy metal that is used for making batteries and cadmium rich effluent from this industry is contaminating our fresh water sources. Long term ingestion of water with excess cadmium can cause kidney failure and lung damage Metals are either electroplated or painted to keep them from tarnishing. The back cover of your watch or the watch dial itself, your geometry box, the refrigerator at home – we have many uses for metallic objects. List out some metallic objects you use in your daily life. Are they painted or electroplated? Both processes result in large amounts of effluents containing dangerous heavy metals. The industries that do these jobs are typically small scale and they do not have the resources to put in effluent treatment systems. So they just let out the waste water / effluents into drains, surface water bodies or the soil. Industrialization increases with growing demands for products. By law, industries are required to treat their effluent adequately before releasing it into our water sources. Big industries have the money and land to do this and can also be easily monitored. But the problem is with small scale industries and tiny industries that do not have the money to put in effluent treatment systems and who are so numerous and spread out – even in residential areas that monitoring them is not an easy task. Humans are at the root for increased industrialization, so we cannot just point fingers at industry and blame them for our pollution problems. It’s our growing demand that industries are setting out to meet. Can we change our lifestyles today to help in positive ways. It is the children of today who will be leaders of tomorrow. At that stage it is essential that responsible decisions are taken – decisions that don’t just look at short term monetary gains but at long term gains in all respects.
  • When there is increased demand for goods, before we set around to manufacturing them, we need to get the raw materials. Most raw materials are mined from the Earth. A large quantity of ore is extracted and processed to give us small quantity of the mineral that we need. Mining involves the separation of the essential material from the ore through washing in toxic substances like cyanide or sulphuric acid. Also, the amount of waste generated is huge and this waste containing toxic substances is piled up in dumps. Rainwater passing through mine tailings and falling over mine dumps carries the toxic substances which gets deposited in water bodies or seeps into aquifers.
  • More people – higher consumption – more waste generation (industrial and domestic). With a focus on domestic solid waste, more people are generating more solid waste. At the same time, waste generated by each person is also increasing due to changes in our lifestyle. Moreover, the regard our elders had for protecting our natural resources and not throwing waste anywhere and everywhere is a culture that’s fast disappearing.
  • We have discussed the sad state of sewage treatment facilities in India. In many places untreated sewage is let into freshwater sources. Solid wastes are typically disposed in open dumps. When it rains, the rainwater flows through these waste dumps, absorbing a range of chemicals that is present in the waste. This rainwater then flows either into a surface water body or seeps into groundwater, contaminating the water sources with the chemicals it has dissolved. Almost everywhere in the country, waste is also indiscriminately burnt. Burning of plastics, rubber and other material releases poisonous gases. Some of these gases dissolve in rainwater and contaminate surface and ground water sources.
  • More and more people are moving to cities. Cities represent a concentration of people. But most cities cannot cope with the rising populations and municipal services in many places are inadequate. Municipal services like water supply, sewage treatment and waste management. We have discussed the sad state of sewage treatment facilities in most urban centres of India. Untreated sewage pollutes surface and ground water sources. Water supply being inadequate in most cities, most poor people use polluted water and are prone to a range of diseases. In cities there is also increased waste generation and these wastes are dumped into open landfills outside the city / town limits. Toxic wastes from these landfills mix with rainwater and leach into groundwater aquifers. Villagers who live near the waste dumps also burn these wastes. Resulting air pollution dissolves in rainwater and enters our water sources. In cities there is increased vehicular traffic and small industries. The resultant air pollutants dissolve in rainwater and enter our water sources. In cities and towns there is a great demand for land. Not only is there increased concretization of land, in many cities, natural water bodies like ponds and lakes are landfilled and used for construction of buildings and roads. Therefore the natural recharge of groundwater resources is severely reduced (natural recharge through open lands and water sources such as ponds and lakes). At the same time, there is increased extraction of groundwater in cities since municipalities cannot cope and provide water supply to the ever increasing population. When the quantity of water in underground reservoirs reduces (increased extraction and reduced recharge), the concentration of certain minerals in the water (depending on the rock and soil constitution of the area) increases and this can adversely affect human health
  • The paints used for making idols of Ganesha, Durga etc during Ganesh Chaturthi or Durga Puja contain many toxic elements such as mercury, arsenic etc. When the idols are immersed in water bodies, the water quality is impacted negatively and the concentration of heavy metals in these water bodies increases. These heavy metals bioaccumulate in our bodies and can be fatal over time
  • Physical alteration and destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most important threats to coastal areas. Half of the world's wetlands, and even more of its mangrove forests, have been lost over the past century to physical alterations, with accelerating social and economic development and poor-planning being major causes (UNEP, 2002). There are currently about one billion people living in coastal urban areas. It is estimated that almost 50% of the world's coasts are threatened by development-related activities. The intense pressure on coastal ecosystems calls for preventive and protective action at all levels: local, national, regional and global. Source: Vital Water Graphics
  • Physical alteration and destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most important threats to coastal areas. Half of the world's wetlands, and even more of its mangrove forests, have been lost over the past century to physical alterations, with accelerating social and economic development and poor-planning being major causes (UNEP, 2002). There are currently about one billion people living in coastal urban areas. It is estimated that almost 50% of the world's coasts are threatened by development-related activities. The intense pressure on coastal ecosystems calls for preventive and protective action at all levels: local, national, regional and global. Source: Vital Water Graphics
  • Unsurprisingly, the coastal areas with the greatest population densities are also those with the most shoreline degradation. The areas surrounding the Black Sea, the Mediterranean and Southern Asia have the highest proportion of altered land, while the coastal zones of the Arctic, Northeast Pacific, South Pacific, West and Central Africa, East Africa, the Red Sea/Gulf of Aden, and Kuwait have the highest proportions of least modified land. Source: Vital Water Graphics
  • from water born disease in India.
  • Point sources Piped (sewage, oils) Storm water drains Non- Point sources Agricultural runoff Atmospheric pollution Seepage from mine/urban areas
  • Examples of point source of pollution include discharges from a wastewater treatment plant, untreated effluent from a factory, leaking underground tanks, etc. They enter a water stream through a specific point. Examples of non-point source of pollution include storm water runoff from agricultural fields and urban areas, or vehicular (air) pollutants that dissolve in water. Once cannot identify a specific location from where the pollutants are introduced into the water stream. For the past several decades, focus was on reducing point sources of pollution. In recent years, greater attention has come to be placed on non-point source contributions, especially in rapidly urbanizing areas.
  • 22% of the 1.2 million UST are LUST
  • , such as clay.
  • Students can be encouraged to name things that they see in their homes that can dissolve in water
  • Some contaminants may introduce a change in colour, taste or smell of water, but in many cases, especially inorganic contamination, such changes are not observed. Water contamination can be confirmed only by testing the water in a certified laboratory.
  • Natural sources of water pollution. The geology of a place can introduce inorganic contaminants into groundwater. As water seeps into the ground, if the rocks and soil are rich in compounds of fluoride, arsenic, iron etc, these compounds dissolve in the groundwater. When groundwater is extracted and used for drinking, these compounds enter our bodies.
  • Compounds of arsenic, fluoride etc. accumulate in our bodies over time due to bio-accumulation. Natural pollution is a non-point source of pollution.
  • Excess fluoride in the groundwater is a problem being faced in most parts of India. Fluoride in small levels is required for healthy teeth and bones. That is why many toothpastes used to contain a small amount of fluoride. But when levels of fluoride are beyond an acceptable limit, they accumulate in our bodies and cause fluorosis. Fluorosis is of two types – dental and skeletal. In the initial stages, teeth started getting discoloured and with increasing concentrations, people get severely crippled. Though defluoridation kits are available, people living in fluoride affected areas are advised on counteracting the affects of fluoride contamination by diet restrictions – eating foods rich in Vitamin C, Calcium and iron and avoiding foods with black salt etc. West Bengal and Bangladesh are affected by high arsenic concentration in groundwater. This causes arsenicosis in humans, which is a life threatening disease. Such contamination is aggravated when there is excessive groundwater extraction. Concentrations of polluting compounds increase in the existing groundwater. People living in areas which have high levels of natural inorganic pollution in groundwater are advised to recharge their groundwater reservoirs with rainwater, so that the concentration of the salts in the groundwater reduces.
  • Most of water used in a home comes out as waste water – black water (sewage) and grey water from sinks, bath water, waste water from washing clothes etc. Our waste water treatment systems are inadequate. Excess untreated waste water is either led into surface water bodies (lakes, ponds, rivers, seas), or into the soil. This contaminates surface and ground water. Sewage contains pathogens which can cause diseases like cholera, typhoid, jaundice etc. Grey water from washing contains phosphates and other chemicals which assist organic growth. This leads to eutrophication of water bodies like lakes and ponds.
  • Increase in sewage content in the soil can result in contamination of groundwater sources with nitrates. Nitrate contamination can result in dangerous diseases like blue-baby syndrome. (Under certain conditions, consumed nitrate gets reduced to nitrite, which reacts with haemoglobin and reduces the capacity of blood to carry oxygen. When pregnant women drink nitrate contaminated water, it affects the baby and the baby can even die if adequate oxygen does not reach the brain.)
  • There is also increased solid waste generation (industrial and domestic). This waste is either thrown into surface water bodies or is left in waste dumps. Chemicals seep down from these waste dumps into the soil and into our groundwater resources, contaminating them.
  • People bathing and washing of clothes also contaminates surface water bodies. Soaps and detergents have phosphates which are nutrient rich and can cause eutrophication of surface water bodies.
  • Agriculture uses large quantities of pesticides and fertilizers. Water used for irrigating farms, or rainwater that falls on these lands dissolves the fertilizers and pesticides and seeps into the ground contaminating the soil and groundwater with pollutants like nitrates, phosphates and non degradable synthetic organic pollutants. Nitrogen based fertilizers are commonly used in India. Nitrogen is converted to nitrate. Excess nitrate that cannot be used by the crop leaches into soil and groundwater. Nitrate contamination of water can cause the blue baby syndrome. We invented insecticides, herbicides and fungicides to save our crops from pests and to save ourselves from diseases. Crop yields increased and pests like mosquitoes were destroyed. The pesticide industry grew to become a multi-billion dollar industry. We then started finding different kinds of cancers, birth defects and other medical problems. Studies across the globe showed pesticides to be the culprit. Pesticides contain complex organo-chlorides and other heavy metals that bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the food chain. Over time, their concentration in our bodies increase beyond safe levels and cause serious health problems most of which are fatal. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in India and the use of pesticides is rampant. World over pesticide production is reducing but in India it is still on the rise. We continue to use pesticides that are banned in other parts of the world. Untrained farmers overuse pesticides and are ignorant about the ill-effects of use and handling of pesticides. Today pesticides are considered the foremost chemical threat to our groundwater. We also use some pesticides in our homes – can you name one? (Insect sprays)
  • Industrial processes also use a lot of water and the resultant effluents are not treated to the required extent in many cases. Some industries let out untreated effluent into municipal sewage drains and the municipal waste water treatment systems are geared to handle only sewage, not these chemical – laden wastes. The output of the municipal wastewater treatment systems ends up in surface water bodies, which are contaminated by these untreated chemicals. Some industries may let out untreated effluent directly into water bodies, polluting them and others may let it out into the soil, from where it seeps into our groundwater resources. Wastes from agro industries contain many organic substances which are nutrient rich. These wastes boost the growth of weedy species of plants in surface water bodies and can result in eutrophication.
  • Water is required for the process of cooling in power plants and during this process, its temperature increases slightly. This water, when released into a water body, alters its temperature and affects the ecosystem, which is in a state of delicate balance. Even a change of 1 -2 degrees centigrade of the water can alter the aquatic ecosystem considerably.
  • Industries are supposed to treat their wastewater before releasing it into a water body. This treatment is done in ‘effluent treatment plants’, which are custom designed to handle the type and quantity of wastes generated by a particular industry. Larger industries usually have effluent treatment plants but medium and small scale industries find this a very expensive proposition. Due to the high cost, most medium and small scale units do not have effluent treatment plants and release untreated wastewater into municipal drains, surface water bodies or soil. Some industrial estates have tried to make a common effluent treatment plant which can be used by a group of industries together, but there have been technological issues due to the waste constituents, its quantity and the frequency at which the wastes are released.
  • Oil spills cause a very localised problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea otters.
  • and one of the most polluted seas in the world is the Mediterranean, Mediterranean (only 1% of the world seas) concentrates 28% of global oil pollution.
  • Some pollutants (typically organic pollutants) introduce and favour the growth of germs in water, which can cause diseases like typhoid, cholera and jaundice. Others pollutants (typically inorganic pollutants) can collect in our bodies and affect our bones or cause diseases like cancer over time. These pollutants are excreted from our bodies very slowly and if the rate of intake is greater than the rate of excretion, they collect in our bodies. This process is called bio-accumulation. Higher concentration of these pollutants in our bodies results in chronic diseases like cancer, organ failure, nervous system disease etc.
  • USA - Goal not fully met
  • 33 part 2-earthsoft-water - pollution-issues

    1. 1. Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of GuidanceEdge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent
    2. 2. Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded followingpresentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspxBe mentor using your education, knowledge & experience tocontribute for a social cause & do conduct free training seekinghelp of existing platforms. Kindly share with your friends•Motivation for higher study, Planning for study, Educationguidance, Career guidance, Career available after SSC & HSC•Personality development – 3 files•How to prepare resume, Tips to attend interview successfully•Religion related –To understand basic religion, Do & Don’t tips•Health related - Be vegetarian, Be healthy, Manage health•Corporate - Project management, Assertiveness, Ownership,Effective communication, Leadership, Be entrepreneur•Finance - To avoid speculation in stock market•Social - Women empowerment, Choosing life partner, conflictresolution, stop ragging, stop alcohol, snakebite treatmentAbout us
    3. 3. Making earth little softer• Water cycle• What is pollution• Form of Pollution• Types of Pollution• Causes• Effect• Prevention• Ground water• Water quality• Diseases• SolutionsIndex
    4. 4. Making earth little softerUniversal solvent
    5. 5. Making earth little softerCycleIt spreads pollutants introduced by human activityall around the planet.The Earth’s water cycle iscontinuous
    6. 6. Making earth little softerCycle
    7. 7. Making earth little softerSources of Water pollution
    8. 8. Making earth little softerState of waterNatural Water has,• Physical attributes (Temperature, Smell, Colour)• Chemical attributes – pH, DO, ions• Biological attributes – microorganismsOrganisms & users will adapt to water withphysical, chemical and biological attributes• Salty sea• Fresh WaterWater Pollution• Alteration of the water features/attributes aredetriment to its inhabitants and users
    9. 9. Making earth little softerPollution
    10. 10. Making earth little softerWhat is Pollution?• Pollution is the contamination of harmfulsubstances into natural environment say air orwater causing harm to nature• Pollution is anything which harms theenvironment in any way.• Pollution causes instability, disorder, harm ordiscomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physicalsystems or living organisms.• It makes those unfit for usage
    11. 11. Making earth little softerCauses• Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can beforeign substances or energies, or naturallyoccurring.• When naturally occurring, they are consideredcontaminants when they exceed natural levels.• These can be chemical substances, or energy,such as noise, heat, or light.• Pollution is caused by man’s growth andimproper disposal of waste materials generated• Industrialisation has had a great impact on thetype and volume of pollutants released.
    12. 12. Making earth little softerHarmful Water Pollution• One thing that can be especially & most harmfulto the Earth, animals, plant life and humanbeings is water pollution.• Water Quality - The degree of pollution fromview of organisms living in or using the water• If a water source becomes contaminated, it candevastate entire ecosystems.• Becoming more educated on water pollutionfacts can help prevent this destruction.
    13. 13. Making earth little softerTypes of Pollution• Air Pollution• Water Pollution• Soil Pollution• Noise Pollution
    14. 14. Making earth little softerAIRWATER EARTHTypes of Pollution
    15. 15. Making earth little softerTypes of Pollution
    16. 16. Making earth little softerAir Pollution
    17. 17. Making earth little softer
    18. 18. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    19. 19. Making earth little softerPollution and Society• Pollution in our world effects two essentialaspects of our planet: air and water.• Air pollution is emitted though the exhaust ofmotor vehicles, chimney, combustion of fossilfuels, etc• Water pollution is the result of industrial wasteand environmental accidents.
    20. 20. Making earth little softerPollution and Society• Pollution is harmful and a serious problem forEarth but generally people don’t care.• Everyone needs to contribute to prevention andpay attention to government control norms• Industry contributes a good share of the wastepolluting our planet• Government to define norms, regulate toxins,build waste systems, to protect air and waters
    21. 21. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    22. 22. Making earth little softerIntroduction• Comprising over 70% of the Earths surface,water is undoubtedly the most precious naturalresource that exists on our planet; since only2.6% water is usable• Without the seemingly invaluable compoundcomprised of hydrogen and oxygen, life onEarth would be non-existent.
    23. 23. Making earth little softerWater Pollution1. Industrial pollution2. Surface pollution3. Groundwater contamination4. Sewage pollution5. Oil pollution6. Thermal pollution
    24. 24. Making earth little softerWater StressEvery item needs waterfor productionDomesticbathing, flushing,washing, cooking,drinking…AgriculturePeople requirefood to eatIndustryIncrease demandfor goodsIncrease inPopulationPowerwater evaporation fromreservoirs of large hydropower projects
    25. 25. Making earth little softerPollution types• Thermal Pollution (Heated factory water orcooler water from another basin)• Warmer …less dissolved Oxygen• Cooler …more dissolved Oxygen• Suspended solids (Silts, Clay, living organisms,dead organic Matter).• Dissolved solids (chemicals)• Acid rain water (Nox and sox) Leaching effects• Trace elements (Heavy Metals)
    26. 26. Making earth little softerWater Pollution• "Water pollution" is defined as the addition ofharmful or objectionable material causing analteration of water quality i.e. physical, chemicaland biological property of water• It affects plants, organisms & users• It is damaging to individual species, populationsand nature biological communities.• Water pollution are natural and man made.• It occurs when pollutants are discharged directlyor indirectly into water bodies without adequatetreatment to remove harmful constituents
    27. 27. Making earth little softerWater Pollution•Uncontaminated water does notoccur in nature•Less serious → Natural-N2, Co2,H2S Rain fall←•Serious → Sewage, Industrialwaste, Agricultural waste,radioactive sub. Urbanization &←industrialization
    28. 28. Making earth little softerWater Pollution• Water pollution is the contamination of waterbodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, andgroundwater.• Contamination of water resources by harmfulsubstances. Also affects drinking water• Point source- derived from discrete location( pipe or drain) and non-point source- no singlepoint of origin, contaminants are spread over alarger area. ( leaching of fertilizer)
    29. 29. Making earth little softerWater PollutionWater pollution is divided into:• Natural, derived from impurities contained in thesurface waters and groundwater’sArtificial associated with human activity:a) biological, due to the presence of pathogenicmicroorganisms such as bacteria, viruses,algae, fungi, protozoa and their toxinsb) chemical, refer to changes in chemicalcomposition and pH.• E.g. oil, petrol, grease, oil, detergents, fertilizers,pesticides,aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metalsalts, strong acids, alkalis, phenols and cresols.
    30. 30. Making earth little softerWater pollutionRun off fromagricultural fieldsAir pollutantsdissolve inrainwaterUntreatedIndustrial wastesTourism andreligionSoaps, Detergent,ChemicalSoaps, Detergent,ChemicalPesticidesFertilizersPesticidesFertilizersChemicalsSMOKEChemicalsSMOKESMOKE fromexhaustSMOKE fromexhaustSewage IndustrialwasteAcidWater
    31. 31. Making earth little softerNatural impurities• Natural impurities derived from the atmosphere,catchment area and soil but in such a lowconcentration that they do not pollute the waternormally.• Rather their presence is some time essential formaintaining the portability and other usefulproperty of water.
    32. 32. Making earth little softerEffect• All water pollution affects organisms and plantsthat live in these water bodies and in almost allcases the effect is damaging either to individualspecies and populations but also to the naturalbiological communities.• The effect is damaging not only toindividual species and populations, but also tothe natural biological communities.• It affects plants animals and organisms living inwater bodies
    33. 33. Making earth little softerIndustrial Water Pollution• Industries discharge a variety of pollutants intheir wastewater including heavy metals , resinpellets, organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids.
    34. 34. Making earth little softerIndustrial wasteIndustrial waste has severe detrimental effects onwater quality
    35. 35. Making earth little softerWater Pollution• It is chemical, physical or biological change inthe quality of water that has a harmful effect onany living thing that drinks or uses or lives in it
    36. 36. Making earth little softerGround Water PollutionPollution of aquifers• Non-point and Point sources• Pollutants slow to break down in cold & dark
    37. 37. Making earth little softerWater PollutionInorganic plant nutrients(fertilizers)• From agriculture, lawns &gardens• Eutrophication• Natural process• Accelerated by excessnutrient input• Algae die, sink, becomeoxygen-demanding waste
    38. 38. Making earth little softerWater PollutionIn streams, rivers• Higher flow rate, dilution effect• Turbulent• Well mixed• Well oxygenated• Long riverbanks, contact with land• Subject to non-point source pollutants• Often flow near cities
    39. 39. Making earth little softerWater PollutionIn lakes, reservoirs• Low flow rate, long residence time• Deep, stratification• Pollutants can accumulate, concentrate
    40. 40. Making earth little softerWater Pollution• Water pollution is the pollution in the water andthat can cause many problems and diseases tohumans and animals.• Water pollution is a very harmful pollution.
    41. 41. Making earth little softerWater PollutionPollutants discharged• Directly• From land• Poisonous
    42. 42. Making earth little softerWater Pollution• It is a large set of adverse effects upon waterbodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, andgroundwater caused by human activities• Irrigation• Clear cutting of forests• Watershed disturbance• Loss of minerals through runoff• Desertification
    43. 43. Making earth little softerWater Pollution• Harmful or objectionable material insufficient quantity in water to measurablydegrade water quality
    44. 44. Making earth little softerWater PollutionNon-point and Point sources
    45. 45. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    46. 46. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    47. 47. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    48. 48. Making earth little softerPolluted River
    49. 49. Making earth little softerPollution of LakesEutrophication
    50. 50. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    51. 51. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    52. 52. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    53. 53. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    54. 54. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    55. 55. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    56. 56. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    57. 57. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    58. 58. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    59. 59. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    60. 60. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    61. 61. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    62. 62. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    63. 63. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    64. 64. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    65. 65. Making earth little softerAgricultural runoffsThe stuff not dissolved / suspends is bad for us
    66. 66. Making earth little softerOpen well
    67. 67. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    68. 68. Making earth little softerPolluted water
    69. 69. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    70. 70. Making earth little softerPURE WATER!!Do we have
    71. 71. Making earth little softerDumping of solid wastes
    72. 72. Making earth little softerPumping of sludge
    73. 73. Making earth little softerIndustrial effluents
    74. 74. Making earth little softerHuman interaction
    75. 75. Making earth little softerSand mining
    76. 76. Making earth little softerSand mining
    77. 77. Making earth little softerMore food required to feed the growing millionsIncrease in PopulationConverting forests into croplandsFewer ForestsWater PollutionFertilizers andpesticidesChain
    78. 78. Making earth little softerTopsoil washed out into freshwater sources &reduced recharge of water into the groundFewer Forests
    79. 79. Making earth little softerFertilizers and pesticides easily dissolve inwater. They enter surface water sourcesthrough rainwater and irrigation runoff and alsopercolate into the ground to contaminategroundwater sources.World agriculturalarea under irrigationGlobal fertilizerconsumptionAgriculture
    80. 80. Making earth little softerOvergrazing – soil washed out intofreshwater sourcesAnimal bathing in freshwater sourcesAnimal faeces pollutes water and soilWater pollution caused byfood processing industriesIncreased demand for animal products
    81. 81. Making earth little softerClothes we wear – dyes and bleachesPaper, paper, paper everywhereLeather bags and shoesBatteriesMetal platingPaintsPlasticsPharmaceuticalsLet’s look around us …..Increase demandfor goodsIncrease inPopulationMore IndustrialisationAll these industries are highly water pollutingIncreased industrialization
    82. 82. Making earth little softerThe Damodar river travels through6 coal fields,183 coal mines,28 iron ore mines,33 limestone mines,5 copper ore mines,84 mica mines andNumerous graphite, silverand uranium extracting units.‘ Water in this river is polluted beyond repair ’Mining is a highly polluting industryIncreased mining
    83. 83. Making earth little softerLifestyle changesUse and throw cultureHigher aspirationsChange in packagingDisregard for natural resourcesInadequate waste management systemsSolid waste generation
    84. 84. Making earth little softer• Waste dumped in surface water bodies• Waste dumped in open landfills – toxic materialsleach into soil and groundwater• Waste burnt – air pollutants dissolve inrainwater and pollute surface water sources orseep into ground water aquifersSolid waste generation
    85. 85. Making earth little softer• Lakes, tanks and ponds being destroyed. Landfilled for construction purposes.• Unsustainable extraction of groundwater inurban areas, affecting groundwater quality.• Receive sewage that cannot be handled bysewage treatment plants.• Disposal of solid and liquid wastes above orinto groundwater aquifers.Additional water stress
    86. 86. Making earth little softer• Hotels• Laundry – detergents, bleach, hot water• Landscaping – fertilizers, pesticides• Cleaning and washing• Waste generation• Kitchen• Travelers• Sanitation• Bathing in rivers• Waste generation (use and throw)Most tourism is close to water sources andareas of rich biodiversityMost tourism is close to water sources andareas of rich biodiversityTourism & water pollution
    87. 87. Making earth little softerBathing in holy riversMore than10 million peoplebathe in the Ganga daily!During the annual KumbhMela, more than a millionpeople take a dip inAllahabad alone!Dead bodiesPrayer materialsIdol immersionPaints contain manyheavy metalsReligion & water pollution
    88. 88. Making earth little softerNot just Fresh Water, We are polluting ourOceans tooOcean & water pollution
    89. 89. Making earth little softerOcean pollution
    90. 90. Making earth little softerOcean pollution
    91. 91. Making earth little softerOcean pollution
    92. 92. Making earth little softerWater Pollution: Many Forms• Synthetic Organic Compounds• Organic chemicals• Inorganic chemicals & Mineral Substances suchas Acids, Inorganic plant nutrients, etc.• Oxygen-demanding wastes• Plant Nutrients• Thermal Discharges• Pathogens, parasites• Sediments• Radioactive material• Heat (thermal pollution)• Usually from sewage, feedlots, slaughterhouses
    93. 93. Making earth little softerWater PollutionViruses - Bacteria (cholera, ...)• Coliform bacteria usually not pathogenic,• Used as indicators of pollution• Protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)• Oxygen-demanding wastes• Organic materials from sewage,slaughterhouses, etc.• Decomposed by bacteria• Bacteria require, consume dissolved oxygen• “Biological Oxygen Demand” (BOD)• Measure of water quality• Low in pristine water
    94. 94. Making earth little softerWater PollutionInorganic chemicals• Mostly from industry• Heavy metals• Lead, arsenic, mercury, copper ions, etc.• Ammonia• Acids• Sulfuric acid, nitric acid from acid deposition• Also from industry• Bases (caustic alkalines)
    95. 95. Making earth little softerWater PollutionInorganic plant nutrients (fertilizers)• From agriculture, lawns & gardens• Leaching into groundwater• Run-off into surface waters• Stimulate growth of algae (algal blooms),eutrophication• Algae die, sink, become oxygen-demandingwaste
    96. 96. Making earth little softerWater PollutionOrganic chemicals• from industry, restaurants, cars, households,farms• Gasoline, oil• Engine coolant (ethylene glycol)• Solvents• Detergents• Pesticides• insecticides, herbicides, fungicides• Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
    97. 97. Making earth little softerWater PollutionSediments• Erosion from construction sites, streets & roads,farms, sewage• Dense sediments sink, accumulate• Sedimentation in reservoirs• Less dense sediments may stay in water• Reduce clarity (increase turbidity)• Reduce light penetration & photosynthesis
    98. 98. Making earth little softerWater PollutionRadioactive material• From spills, waste from atomic weaponsproduction• Hanford, Washington• Savannah River Plant, South Carolina• From nuclear power plants (minor)• Closely regulatedHeat (“thermal pollution”)• Heated water from cooling of electricalgenerating equipment• Alters ecosystem of river, lake
    99. 99. Making earth little softerWater Pollution
    100. 100. Making earth little softerManmade pollutants of water• Pesticides and biocides.• Radioactive substances from nuclear weapontest.• Domestic sewage (bathing, washing, cooking)water waste.• Plastics.• Industrial waste (toxic agents ranging frommetal salts to complex synthetic organicchemicals).• Thermal pollution.• Agricultural pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides).• Physical pollutants (thermal pollution,radioactive substances).
    101. 101. Making earth little softerNatural impurities of water• Dissolved gases (nitrogen,CO2, H2S etc. whichmay be picked up during rainfall)• Dissolved minerals like: Salts of Calcium,Magnesium, Sodium etc. from the soil ofcatchment areas.• Suspended impurities (Clay, silt, sand andmud).• Microrganisms – mainly the enteric bacteria,viruses etc.
    102. 102. Making earth little softerCauses & effect• When harmful components are added towater sources such as Chemicals , fertilizer,insecticides, pesticides etc.Causes:-• Untreated water from factories , Excessive useof fertilizers and insecticides, Sewage disposal,Oil leakage etc.Effects:-• Diseases, unfit drinking water, aquatic plantsand animals also die due to polluted water.
    103. 103. Making earth little softerEffect• It effects on the Health of man and animals• About four million children die yearly in India• Biological water-borne disease (cholera,dysentery, gastro enteritis, diarrhea, jaundice,typhoid, hepatitis and guinea pig disease).• Chemical borne diseases (heavy metal diseaselike minamata disease, bone softening disease)• Increase concentration of floride cause damageto dental enamel.• High nitrite content –cyanosis in infants.• High arsenic content in endemic areas causearsenic poisoning.
    104. 104. Making earth little softerEffect• Water is polluted by infectious bacteria,inorganic, organic chemicals & excess heat.• Water pollution is any chemical, biological, orphysical change in water quality that has aharmful effect on living organisms.• The WHO estimates that 3.4 million people dieprematurely each year from waterbornediseases.• In the U.S., an estimated 1.5 million people ayear become ill from infectious agents.
    105. 105. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• Improvement of water quality - Removal oforganic matter thru aerobic decomposition;chlorination to remove bacteria, suspendedsolids; precipitation of salts, desalination etcduring water treatment is expensive for pollutedwater• Increased salinization and salt runoff leading tosalinization of major rivers• Heavy metals cause unpleasant taste and odourto drinking water;• Suspended particles cause unpleasant taste &discoloration to drinking water;
    106. 106. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• Hard water with usually high levels of calciumand magnesium can cause a build-up ofminerals in pipelines/boiler scales and causeerosion and blockage problems. Watersofteners and conditioners can be used in thewater to reduce limescale but can be expensive.
    107. 107. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• 1. Effects on Agriculture:-use of wastewater andpolluted surface and groundwater whichcontaminate crops and transmit disease toconsumers and farm workers; Depositions ofdeleterious chemicals in soil leading to loss ofsoil fertility• 2. Effects on Environment/ecosystems:-pungentsmell, discolourisation; increased temps;contamination; change the pH; decreasedoxygen; detergents that create a mass of whitefoam in the river waters
    108. 108. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• 3. Enrichment of groundwater with salts,nutrients from irrigated lands; eutrophication /algal blooms - what is the effect on recreationalactivities, water treatment plants/waterproviders; loss of aesthetic value; Algae clogsour waterways• 4. Domestic effects;-toxic substances such aslead, mercury, cadmium, and chromiumor cyanide, which may affect the use of thereceiving water for domestic use or aquatic life.
    109. 109. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• 5. Effects on industry; boiler scales, Heavymetals cause unpleasant taste and odour todrinking water; Suspended particles causeunpleasant taste & discoloration to drinkingwater• 6. Economy• Unsightly color, reduced clarity, and obnoxiousodor of the receiving waters also make it unfitfor recreation and other productive uses;• Adverse effects of water pollution lead toeconomic losses in terms of reduced health,agricultural productivity, and low-quality tourism.
    110. 110. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• There is also economic losses to family incomedue to the desire for safe bottled water which ismore expensive than unbottled water.• When water is polluted, fish and other aquaticresources can perish, which leads to a declinein fisheries production.• Erosion from degraded uplands and pollutionfrom silt and sedimentation, as well as untreatedsewerage, cause productivity losses in fisheries.Silt and sedimentation are major causes forlosses in fishery production.• High levels of turbidity leads to economic losses
    111. 111. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• 7. Leisure• Swimming pool water can becomecontaminated with a number of differentpollutants and may cause changes in watercolour and odour, some pollutants may also beharmful to human health.• Discolouration of the swimming pool water couldbe due to a number of reasons. It may be dirtyand cause the water to change a milky colour ifthe filter is inadequate or blocked.• Algae contamination can also causediscolouration, black algae cause black spots to
    112. 112. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• Other forms of algae contaminate pools whenchlorine levels are too low, these often turn thewater a green colour.• Chlorine is used in many swimming pools tokeep them clean. There are detergents andsome forms of make-up, that don’t mix well withchlorine. These can cause adverse effects tohuman health such as skin and throat irritations.• Pond water can also become polluted withdifferent chemicals or microbes. This can makethe pond less attractive and can be harmful toaquatic life within the pond.
    113. 113. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• An overgrowth of algae and accumulation of leafdebris are often the main problems with pondsin the home; UV filters are efficient at reducingalgae levels in ponds and also remove decayingvegetation. These are useful for long termmaintenance of your pond.
    114. 114. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• 8. Effects on human health;• Increased incidence of tumours, ulcers due tonitrate pollution; skin disorders due to contactwith pollutants; constipation, diarrhea, andinfections to intestine; Dangerous effects ongrowing foetus in pregnant women;Concentration of pollutants due tobioaccumulative pesticides through secondaryand tertiary food chains in case of non-vegeterians;
    115. 115. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• Still births, abortions, and birth of deformedchildren; Blue baby disease caused bymethaneglobinema-which results in asphyxia(reduced oxygen supply);• Reduced activity of immune system; Loss ofmemory power and reduced mental sharpness;Water borne diseases like jaundice, hepatitis,gasteroenteritis, will be more prevalent due towater pollution; Reduced bone developmentand muscular development; Reduced malefertility; Shifts in physiological cycles of humanbody.
    116. 116. Making earth little softerEffects of polluted water• 9. Effects on animal health;• Large scale death of aquatic and terrestrialanimals; Reduced reproduction rate; Increaseddisease incidences; Imbalances created insecondary foodchains; Accumulation ofbioaccumulative and nonbiodegraddablepollutants in animal bodies; Bioaccumulation egof organochlorine pesticides; Biomagnification;Cause health hazards like impotence,cancerous tumours etc
    117. 117. Making earth little softerTypes of water pollution
    118. 118. Making earth little softerWater pollutants come from?• Point Sources – A single definable source of thepollution, Contaminants enter a waterway at adiscrete point• e.g. a factory, a sewage plant, etc. Point-sourcepollution is usually monitored and regulated.• Non-point sources – No one single source, but awide range of sources, e.g. runoff from urbanareas, or farmland.• Contamination gathered by water over a largearea• Non-point sources are much more difficult tomonitor and control.
    119. 119. Making earth little softerPoint and Nonpoint Sources
    120. 120. Making earth little softerPoint and Nonpoint SourcesUrban streetsSuburbandevelopmentWastewatertreatmentplantRural homesCroplandFactoryAnimal feedlotPointsources
    121. 121. Making earth little softerSources of water pollution
    122. 122. Making earth little softerSources of water pollution• The leading sources of water pollution areagriculture, industries, and mining.• Agricultural activities from erosion, overgrazing,fertilizers and pesticides, and excess salt fromirrigated soils.• Industrial facilities & mining are another largesource of water pollution
    123. 123. Making earth little softerSources of water pollution• Non-biodegradable waste• Insecticides, pesticides leaching intogroundwater• Oil spill• Hot water from industries• Untreated waste and nutrient accumulation• Toxic chemicals
    124. 124. Making earth little softerSources of water pollution• Throwing trashes in water• Throwing low batteries in water, lakes, rivers,etc• The chemicals from factories that might flow torivers
    125. 125. Making earth little softerPoint sources• Single large source• Can localize it to one spot• Industrial Plants• - Sewage pipes
    126. 126. Making earth little softerPoint sources• LUST - Leaky Underground Storage Tanks
    127. 127. Making earth little softerPoint sources• Clearing of land can lead to erosion of soil intothe river.• Sewage generated by industry can get into thewater supply, introducing large organicpollutants into the ecosystem.• Factories, including oil refineries, pulp andpaper mills, and chemical, electronics andautomobile manufacturers, typically dischargeone or more pollutants in their dischargedwaters (called effluents).
    128. 128. Making earth little softerPoint sources• Point source pollution refers to contaminantsthat enter a waterway through a discreteconveyance, such as a pipe or ditch.
    129. 129. Making earth little softerPoint sources• Various types of point-source pollutants found inwater are as varied as the types of business,industry, and urban sources that produce them.
    130. 130. Making earth little softerPoint sources• Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in thetemperature of a natural body of water causedby human influence. A common cause ofthermal pollution is the use of water asa coolant by power plants and industrialmanufacturers & being discharged at a source
    131. 131. Making earth little softerPoint sources
    132. 132. Making earth little softerPoint sources• Thermal pollution kills fish outright, block fishmigrations, grow the nuisance species, andcreate series of other problems as well.
    133. 133. Making earth little softerNon-point sources• Non-point source (NPS) pollution refers todiffuse contamination that does not originatefrom a single discrete source.• NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect ofsmall amount of contaminants gathered from alarge area• Example:- The leaching out of nitrogencompounds from agricultural land which hasbeen fertilized is a typical example
    134. 134. Making earth little softerNon-point sources• Agriculture, including commercial livestock andpoultry farming, is the source of many organicand inorganic pollutants in surface waters andgroundwater.• These contaminants include both sediment fromerosion cropland and compounds of phosphorusand nitrogen that partly originate in animalwastes and commercial fertilizers.
    135. 135. Making earth little softerNon-point sources• Diffuse source or many smaller point sources• Automobiles• Fertilizer on fields
    136. 136. Making earth little softerNon-point sources
    137. 137. Making earth little softerNon-point sources• Nutrient runoff in storm water from "sheet flow"over an agricultural field or a forest
    138. 138. Making earth little softerNon-point sources
    139. 139. Making earth little softerNon-point sources• Contaminated storm water washed offof parking lots, roads and highways,called urban runoff
    140. 140. Making earth little softerNon-point sources• The run offs due to rain, from places like parkinglots and garages may contain pollutants.• The pollutants in runoff can be quite harmful.
    141. 141. Making earth little softerNon-point sources• Mining operations can generate significantamounts of non-point source pollution.• Abandoned mining operations can leach ironand other chemicals such as copper, lead andmercury into nearby water bodies
    142. 142. Making earth little softerNon-point sources• Garbage dumps get washed away due to heavyrains and floods and get stagnated in the nearbywater bodies
    143. 143. Making earth little softerGround water• 95% of all fresh water on earth is ground water.Ground water is found in natural rockformations. These formations called aquifers,are vital natural resource with many uses.• Ground water is one of the pure forms of waterstored in the aquifers (space between rocks).• Nationally 53% of the population relies onground water as a source of drinking water. Inrural areas this figure is even higher.• Eighty one percent of community water isdependent on ground water.
    144. 144. Making earth little softerGround water• Although the 1992 Section 305(b) State WaterQuality Reports indicate that, overall, theNations ground water quality is good toexcellent, many local areas have experiencedsignificant ground water contamination• Ground water pollution refers to thecontamination of the ground water present inthe aquifers.• Some examples are leaking undergroundstorage tanks and municipal landfills
    145. 145. Making earth little softerGround water pollution• Experts rate groundwater pollution as a low-riskecological problem; however it is rated as ahigh-risk health problem• The extent of groundwater contamination isgenerally unknown• Prevention is the most effective and affordableway to protect groundwater from pollutants.
    146. 146. Making earth little softer146Coal stripmine runoffPumpingwellWastelagoonAccidentalspillsGroundwaterflowConfined aquiferDischargeLeakage fromfaulty casingHazardous wasteinjection wellPesticidesGasolinestationBuried gasolineand solvent tankSewerCesspoolseptic tankDe-icingroad saltUnconfined freshwater aquiferConfined freshwater aquiferWaterpumpingwellLandfill• Low flow rates• Low oxygen• Few bacteria• Cold temperaturesGround water pollution
    147. 147. Making earth little softerGround water pollution• >70,000 chemicals are used; effects of manyare not known• Each year additional 700-800 new chemicalsare produced• 55 million tons of hazardous chemical wastesare produced in the US each year• The 20 most abundant compounds ingroundwater at industrial waste disposal sitesinclude TCE, benzene, vinyl chloride…all arecarcinogens, and also affect liver, brain, andnervous system
    148. 148. Making earth little softerGround water pollution• Fertilizers and pesticidesapplied to crops reachunderlying aquifers, if theaquifer is shallow and not"protected" by anoverlying layer clay, oflow permeability material• Drinking-water wellslocated close to croplandmay contaminated byagricultural chemicals.
    149. 149. Making earth little softerGround water pollution• Aquifers in industrialized areas are at significantrisk of being contaminated by chemicals andpetroleum products.• E.g. contamination of ground water bypetroleum leaks while extraction and also due toleakage of chlorinated chemicals.
    150. 150. Making earth little softerGround water pollution• The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) has recorded that there have been over400,000 confirmed releases of petroleum-basedfuels from leaking underground storage tanks.
    151. 151. Making earth little softerA special case: Groundwater• What forms of pollution can affect groundwater?• All of them except thermal pollution!• Renewal time of groundwater is important• Rivers: 12-20 days• Soil Moisture: 280 days• Groundwater: 300 years
    152. 152. Making earth little softerMolgora WartapH sourcepH coursepH tapTemperature sourceTemperature courseTemperature tapWater hardness sourceWater hardness courseWater hardness tapProperties
    153. 153. Making earth little softerCan you name thingsthat dissolve in water?Know any 2 that can becalled ‘pollutants’ –those dangerous tolife?Can you name thingsthat dissolve in water?Know any 2 that can becalled ‘pollutants’ –those dangerous tolife?Dissolution• Arsenic• Nitrate• Fluoride• Heavy metal
    154. 154. Making earth little softerIs water polluted?Sometimes it stinks……but not alwaysSometimes polluted water changescolour…..but not alwaysSometimes it tastes different……..but not always
    155. 155. Making earth little softerIs water polluted?• Water pollution can be confirmed only by testingit in a lab
    156. 156. Making earth little softerWater can get polluted naturallyWater can get polluted naturallyWhen water seeps into the ground, it absorbsdifferent substances depending on the type ofsoil and rock that it flows through.Natural way
    157. 157. Making earth little softerWater can get polluted naturallyWater can get polluted naturallySome of these substances (arsenic, iron, fluorideetc) can be harmful to healthNatural pollution is a non-point source ofNatural way
    158. 158. Making earth little softerArsenicFluorideNatural pollution can introduce chemicals thatcollect in our bodies. This can cause chronicproblems and even life – threatening diseasesNatural pollution can introduce chemicals thatcollect in our bodies. This can cause chronicproblems and even life – threatening diseasesIn groundwaterIn groundwaterPollution way
    159. 159. Making earth little softerDoes Man Pollute Water?“ If you had a bottle of life-preserving fluid, would youpour into it all in sewage alongwith other poisonouschemicals? And yet, that isexactly what we are doing toour water supply – all over theworld.”This is what a people have to sayThis is what a people have to say
    160. 160. Making earth little softerThe various waysUntreated municipal sewageYamuna, when it leaves Delhi, resemblesa sewer full of the city’s wastes.Downstream is Agra, where this ‘sewer’ isthe main municipal drinking water source.An example of Point source of pollutionThe various ways in which man pollutes water 
    161. 161. Making earth little softerReaches ground water bodiesUntreated sewage seeps in and contaminatesgroundwater aquifers, Such aquifers show ahigher than acceptable level of nitrate contentThe various ways
    162. 162. Making earth little softerThe various waysWhen garbage is dumped in a landfill, toxicchemicals leach into the soil and groundwater.Dumping garbage in surface water bodies
    163. 163. Making earth little softerThe various waysOver 10 million people bathe in the Ganga daily!Washing and bathing introduces detergent,phosphates and other chemicals into water
    164. 164. Making earth little softerThe various waysAgriculture is a major sourceof groundwater contamination.Agriculture - Anexample of Non-Point source ofpollutiondissolve in irrigation water or rainwater.They contaminate surface water andgroundwater with pollutants like nitrates,phosphates and non degradable syntheticorganic pollutants
    165. 165. Making earth little softerThe various ways• Wastes of Agro industries havehigh concentration of dissolvedorganic matter• E.g. Sugar, food processing• Waste of Chemical Industries arenot treated properly, the chemicalsdestroy soil and water resources• E.g. Pulp and paper, distilleries• Water used in the process inPetroleum refining needs to beseparated from all the oil beforereleasing it into nature
    166. 166. Making earth little softerThe various ways• Thermal power plants – water is needed to coolthe process.• The water gets hot and when it’s released into alarger water body, it upsets the ecology bymodifying the delicate temperature balance.• This is called ‘Thermal pollution’
    167. 167. Making earth little softerEffluent treatment plants• Liquid wastes from an industry are treated ineffluent treatment plants.• Large industries would have in-house effluenttreatment plants• It’s expensive for small industries• A group of small industries have a commoneffluent treatment plant.
    168. 168. Making earth little softerEutrophication• When wastes with high organiccontent (such as sewage wastes)are dumped into a water body like alake or pond, eutrophication canoccur, killing all life in the water body.• Organic wastes are rich in nutrients(nitrates and phosphates)• They stimulate excessive plantgrowth – especially weedy species
    169. 169. Making earth little softerEutrophication• On dying, the plants add organic waste in water• Microorganisms decomposes organic materialin water, a lot of dissolved oxygen is used• This depletes the available oxygen in the waterand upsets ecological balance, since specieslike fish perish without adequate oxygen.• Eventually all the oxygen is used up.
    170. 170. Making earth little softerEutrophication
    171. 171. Making earth little softerEutrophication
    172. 172. Making earth little softerEutrophication• Anaerobic organisms then attack the organicwastes, releasing gases such as methane andhydrogen sulphide.• The result is a foul smelling, waste filled body ofwater, quite like many of the lakes in India.• These water bodies are also naturalgroundwater recharge system and theircontamination leads to groundwater pollution
    173. 173. Making earth little softerEutrophication• An increase in the concentration of nutrientcontent to an extent that increases the primaryproductivity of the water body.• It is the "bloom" or great increaseof phytoplankton in a water body.• Organic wastes such as sewage impose highoxygen demands on the receiving water leadingto oxygen depletion.• Increases in nutrient loadingmay lead to eutrophication
    174. 174. Making earth little softerEffects of eutrophication• Increased biomass of phytoplankton• Toxic or inedible phytoplankton species• Increases in blooms of gelatinous zooplankton• Decreased biomass of benthic andepiphytic algae• Changes in macrophyte species compositionand biomass• Decreases in water transparency(increased turbidity)
    175. 175. Making earth little softerEffects of Eutrophication• Dissolved oxygen depletion• Loss of desirable fish species• Reductions in harvestable fish and shellfish• Decreases in perceived aesthetic value of thewater body• Colour, smell, and water treatment problems
    176. 176. Making earth little softerMinamata disease• Industrial wastewater from Chisso corporation(manufacturing fertilizers and other chemicals)was released into the Minamata Bay in Japan• The waste water was rich in methyl mercury• Mercury content in shellfish increased• People ate the shellfish and the cats ate theleftovers
    177. 177. Making earth little softerDid you know?One mercury thermometer cancontaminate up to 95,000 litres ofwater to beyond the drinkingwater standard.Mercury
    178. 178. Making earth little softerMercury• Strange things started to happen – cats hadconvulsions and died, crows fell from the sky,dead fish floated..• Young children had convulsions and difficulty inwalking and speaking• People died• Investigation showed organic mercury poisoningaffecting the nervous system• First discovered in 1956• Lawsuits and claims continue till today
    179. 179. Making earth little softerCritical elements of PollutionCauses of Water Pollution
    180. 180. Making earth little softerActivities that contribute• Overgrazing• Poor agricultural land management• Removal of riparian vegetation• Sewage, industrial, and domestic discharges• Construction, Mining• Release of gases and aerosols to theatmosphere• Mismanagement of reservoirs• Accidental spills
    181. 181. Making earth little softerCausesMain Causes of Water Quality Degradation• Pollution due to Domestic Wastewaters:• Environmental problems are water supply,wastewater generation and its collection,treatment and disposal.
    182. 182. Making earth little softerCauses• The causes of water pollution• Marine dumping• Dumping of litter in the sea can cause hugeproblems. Litter items such as 6-packring packaging can get caught in marineanimals and may result in death
    183. 183. Making earth little softerCauses• The substances that pollute water are calledwater pollutants• Types of water pollutants:-• Sediments• Organic wastes• Organic compound• Inorganic nutrients• Inorganic chemicals
    184. 184. Making earth little softerCauses• Garbage• Oil spills• Harmful chemicals released by factories• Sewage water released in water bodies• Defection in open
    185. 185. Making earth little softerCauses• The sewers of the city• They contain large amounts ofhuman excrement and shouldbe purified.• Sludges can containmicroorganisms that causediseases (cholera,salmonellosis, etc.), and can bevery dangerous for human.
    186. 186. Making earth little softerCauses• Agriculture• Pesticides used in agriculture remain on theground and plants, so when it rains the waterenters in the ground and it becomes polluted.• Then water reaches water-bearing stratumswhere nitrates and phosphates, which are in itbecause of fertilizers used in agriculture, arereleased and then they spread.
    187. 187. Making earth little softerCauses• Sewage is the term used for wastewater thatoften contains urine and laundry waste.• Untreated sewage water in such areas cancontaminate the environment and causediseases such as diarrhoea.• Sewage is treated in water treatment plants andthe waste is often disposed into the sea.
    188. 188. Making earth little softerCauses• Unfortunately, the everyday products we use,such as household cleaning products, personalhygiene products and pharmaceuticalmedications are some of the most significantcauses of water pollution. .
    189. 189. Making earth little softerCauses
    190. 190. Making earth little softerCauses
    191. 191. Making earth little softerWater Pollution & Cleanup
    192. 192. Making earth little softerA special case: Groundwater• What forms of pollution can affect groundwater?• All of them except thermal pollution!• Renewal time of groundwater is important• Rivers: 12-20 days• Soil Moisture: 280 days• Groundwater: 300 years
    193. 193. Making earth little softerWater Pollution - WasteGeneral causes:• Release of sewage• Industrial wasteResponse• Sewage treatment plants• However, some substances are non-biodegradable
    194. 194. Making earth little softerForms of Pollution – Details• Inorganic – acids, salts, toxic metals• One gram of lead in 20,000 liters of watermakes it unfit for drinking. Lead is often foundin the pipes of older homes• - What is the safe drinking water limit forarsenic?• - For lead? How much does UA water supplyhave?• - How much does OU’s water have?
    195. 195. Making earth little softerOxygen and Water• Biochemical Oxygen Demand – What does thismean?• Anything in the water that bacteria can breakdown.• Bacteria will use up oxygen in the water• Other aerobic organisms will dieWhat else can affect the amount of O2 in thewater?• Temperature• Speed of water flow• Roughness of surface• Over which water flows
    196. 196. Making earth little softerSuccession in Aquatic HabitatsLakeSediments &Nutrients AccumulateOligotrophic EutrophicLow in nutrients High in nutrientsCan sometimes see Methane gas bubbling upFrom sediments – process of decomposition
    197. 197. Making earth little softerMarine dumping• Cardboard – Takes 2 weeks to degrade.• Newspaper – 6 weeks• Photodegradable packaging – 6 weeks• Foam – 50 years• Styrofoam – 80 years• Aluminum – 200 years.• Plastic packaging –400 years• Glass – It takes so long to degrade that we don’tknow the exact time.
    198. 198. Making earth little softerIndustrial waste• Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carryaway waste from the plant and into rivers, lakesand oceans.
    199. 199. Making earth little softer0500100015002000250030003500400045001 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Volume,mldValue of wastewater Generated fromDifferent Industries in India (Total 10,215mld)Series11.Distilleries2.Pulp& Paper3.Fertilizer plants4. Steel Industries5.Sugar industries6.Textiles (Cotton)7.Engineering8. OrganicChemicals9. OthersIndustrial waste
    200. 200. Making earth little softerComparison of pollution load generationfrom domestic and industrial sources05000100001500020000250001 2 3IndustrialDomesticWastewater Generation (mld)BOD Generation ( t/ d)BOD Reduction ( t / d )Comparison
    201. 201. Making earth little softerMicrobial contamination• Microbial contamination of water• Over 1 billion people lack access to safe watersupplies, while 2.6 billion people lack adequatesanitation. This has led to widespread microbialcontamination of drinking water.• Water-associated infectious diseases claim upto 3.2 million lives each year, approximately 6%of all deaths globally.
    202. 202. Making earth little softerDrought• Drought causes more damage and sufferingthan any other natural disaster.• 80 countries experience droughts lasting morethan 1 year.• According to the UN, almost 500 million people,in 31 countries experience chronic watershortages today.
    203. 203. Making earth little softerFlooding: oversupply• Water Logged Soil• Nutrient Leakage• Topsoil Erosion
    204. 204. Making earth little softerAcid rain• Acid rain is formed when moisture in the cloudsmixes with sulfur or nitrogen in the air.• Acid rain includes rain, sleet or snow with a pHlevel that falls below 5.6 (normal rainwater).• The sulfur and nitrogen get into the air by theburning of fossil fuels such as coal andgasoline.• The average pH of rainfall is 4.3.
    205. 205. Making earth little softerAcid Rain
    206. 206. Making earth little softerAcid participation• When Air Pollution Becomes Water Pollution
    207. 207. Making earth little softerAcid Rain Effects• Acid preparation - When the pH drops below 6.0species start to die off.• When a species dies, others dependent also die
    208. 208. Making earth little softerAcid Neutralization• How does this work?• Cation Exchange on clay minerals• Role of chemical weathering
    209. 209. Making earth little softerMobilizing metals• How does acid kill the fish?One reason is mobilizing metals• When all base cations are striped from soils• Acid now reacts with metals e.g. aluminum• Normally aluminum is immobile• below pH 5 - mobile aluminum• Fish breath in the water• Aluminum comes out of solution• Clogs gills - suffocate
    210. 210. Making earth little softerRiver pollution• Asian rivers are the most polluted in the world.• Three times as many bacteria from humanwaste as the global average• 20 times more lead than rivers in industrializedcountries.
    211. 211. Making earth little softerMass fish killing
    212. 212. Making earth little softerPlastic waste in water• Each year, plastic waste in water and coastalareas kills up to:• 100,000 marine mammals• 1 million sea birds, and• Countless fish
    213. 213. Making earth little softerNon-biodegradable waste• Covers surfaces or obstructs current pathwayspreventing or poisoning organisms.• Clogs waterways restricting movement ofaquatic organisms
    214. 214. Making earth little softerHot water• Derived from industrial sources where water isused for cooling.• Can kill organisms due to high temperaturesand also change the abiotic conditions ofhabitat.• Solution - Cooling of water before release
    215. 215. Making earth little softerFreshwater Streams• Streams can recover from moderate levels ofdegradable water pollutants if the flows are notreduced.• A combination of dilution and biodegradationcan allow recovery of stream pollution• The breakdown of pollutants by bacteria createsan oxygen sag curve. Organisms that have ahigh oxygen demand can’t survive in the curve.• Volume of the stream, volume of wastesentering, flow rate, temperature, and pH levelsall affect how great a sag curve is produced.
    216. 216. Making earth little softer216Oxygen Sag Curve
    217. 217. Making earth little softerPollution of Rivers• Developed countries have reduced point sourcepollution, but toxic chemicals and pollution fromnon-point sources are still problems.• Stream pollution in most developing countries isa serious and growing problem. Half of theworld’s 500 major rivers are heavily pollutedwhich run through developing countries. Wastetreatment is minimal or not existing• For example: Religious beliefs, culturaltraditions, poverty, little economic development,and a large population interact to cause severepollution of the Ganges River in India.
    218. 218. Making earth little softerPollution of Lakes
    219. 219. Making earth little softerOcean pollution
    220. 220. Making earth little softerCold water pollution• In many areas fish and other river organismsare adapted to relatively warm water.• Building a dam results in very cold waterrelease downstream killing organisms andchanging species
    221. 221. Making earth little softerOil spill- Causes of Water Pollution
    222. 222. Making earth little softerOil pollution• Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil thatenters the ocean. The rest come fromshipping travel, drains and dumping.• A huge quantity of oil being spilt & is a severeproblem• Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thicksludge in the water. This suffocates fish,gets caught in the feathers of marine birdsstopping them from flying and blocks light fromphotosynthetic aquatic plants.
    223. 223. Making earth little softerOil pollution• Most of the seas are polluted by oil, because itswater is renewed very slowly (80-100 years).• Some oil tankers wash their tanks with seawater• There are also a lot of accidents in sea. Milliontons of oil is discharged into the oceans.• The oil forms a thick, surface layer, called "blacktide", which prevents oxygenation of water andsunlight penetration.• Organisms cannot live without oxygen &sunlight so damages to the environment areirreparable.
    224. 224. Making earth little softerOil pollution• Often, people pour motor oil down the drainafter performing an oil change. This cancertainly pollute local water supplies. Instead,make sure to recycle any motor oil you want toget rid of.
    225. 225. Making earth little softerOil pollution• Both Point and Nonpoint Sources• Largest source is pipeline leaks and runoff• Sources: offshore wells, tankers, pipelines andstorage tanks• Effects: death of organisms, loss of animalinsulation and buoyancy, smothering• Significant economic impacts• Mechanical cleanup methods: skimmers andblotters• Chemical cleanup methods: coagulants anddispersing agents
    226. 226. Making earth little softerOil pollution• Oil Pollution Act of 1990• Only about 15% of an oil spill can now berecovered• Crude oil—3 years• Refined oil– 10-20 years
    227. 227. Making earth little softerForms of Pollution – Details• Organic: sewage, pesticides, plastics, etc.• One drop of oil can render up to 25 liters ofwater unfit for drinking• One gram of 2,4 D can contaminate 10 millionliters of drinking water!• One gram of PCBs can make 1 billion liters ofwater unsuitable for freshwater aquatic life!
    228. 228. Making earth little softerPollutant forms: Oil• Both Point and Nonpoint Sources• Largest source of oil pollution is pipeline leaksand runoff• 61% ocean oil pollution river & urban runoff• 30% intentional discharges from tankers• 5% accidental spills from tankers
    229. 229. Making earth little softerOil Well Drilling & Groundwater
    230. 230. Making earth little softerOil Drilling Protocols• Well must be cased from surface to belowfreshwater zone• Casing must be for 150 feet above pay zone• Logging apparatus must be retrieved
    231. 231. Making earth little softerOil Drilling Protocols• Drilling fluids must be disposed of properly –e.g. no Midnight Haulers• Any spills must be reported and cleanedimmediately• Area will be subject to remediation efforts
    232. 232. Making earth little softerProtest Drilling
    233. 233. Making earth little softerOil Spill Clean-up
    234. 234. Making earth little softerOil pollution
    235. 235. Making earth little softerOcean Pollution
    236. 236. Making earth little softerCoastal Water PollutionPrevention• Reduce input of toxic pollutants• Separate sewage and storm lines• Ban dumping of wastes and sewage bymaritime and cruise ships in coastal waters• Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardousdredged material• Protect sensitive areas from development, oildrilling, and oil shipping• Regulate coastal development• Recycle used oil• Require double hulls for oil tankers
    237. 237. Making earth little softerCoastal Water PollutionCleanup• Improve oil-spill cleanup capabilities• Sprinkle nanoparticles over an oil or sewagespill to dissolve the oil or sewage withoutcreating harmful byproducts• (still under development)• Require at least secondary treatment of coastalsewage• Use wetlands, solar-aquatic, or other methodsto treat sewage
    238. 238. Making earth little softerEffect
    239. 239. Making earth little softerEffects
    240. 240. Making earth little softerDiseases due to water Pollution
    241. 241. Making earth little softerHealth
    242. 242. Making earth little softerDiseases• If we drink polluted water, we can get sick
    243. 243. Making earth little softer80% of all illness indeveloping countries iscaused by water relateddiseases.90% of wastewater indeveloping countries isdischarged directly intorivers and streamswithout treatment.80% of all illness indeveloping countries iscaused by water relateddiseases.90% of wastewater indeveloping countries isdischarged directly intorivers and streamswithout treatment.Diseases
    244. 244. Making earth little softerMajor water related diseasesType Diseases Cause Effects Prevention1 Water borne(Diseasecausingvector carriedin water)CholeraTyphoidDiarrhoeaDysenteryDrinkingcontaminatedwaterEatingcontaminatedfoodDehydration Use clean water fordrinkingKeep flies away fromfood & waterAvoid unprotectedwater sources2 WaterwashedDue to lack ofwater orimproper useScabiesEyeinfectionsDiarrhoeaNot washingLack of enoughwater forwashingItchy lashesSore eyesBlindnessFever fromlice diseasesIncrease wateravailability forwashingImprove personalhygiene3 Water Based(Vector livesin water)Bilharzias Worms from thesnails enterthrough the skinin infected waterBlood in stoolPain instomachReduce contact withinfected snailsControl snails4 Insect vectorrelatedMalariaRiverblindnessMosquitoesbitesSemolina wormFeverAchesBlindnessRemoval potentiallarvae breeding sitesUse mosquito nettingIntroduce fish inponds river water
    245. 245. Making earth little softer.Diseases• Diseases spread through water pollution• Diseases spread this way include: Cholera• typhoid fever• e-coli infections• PSA infections• diphtheria• enteric fever• dengue• Diseases also result from heavy metals(mercury, lead, arsenic) and organiccontamination (benzene, phenol, PCB) of thewater
    246. 246. Making earth little softerEffects of water pollution• Because of polluted water the sea creatures dieand when the people who are non-vegetarianeat them they get diseases.• When we drink the bad water or bath with it weget harmful diseases.• Water pollution also affects the marine foodchain.• Extincsion of species
    247. 247. Making earth little softerEffects on health• High blood pressure• Sleep disturbance• Color blindness• Aquatic animalsEffect on human organs• Cancer• Kidney stone formation• Organ Failure• Nervous Damage• Tooth Decay
    248. 248. Making earth little softerEffects on health• Skin Irritation• Infection• Birth Defects and Fertility Problems (Male andFemale)• Susceptibility to H1N1 (Swine Flu)• Diseases caused by the ingestion of watercontaminated with pathogenic bacteria, viruses,or parasites include:• cholera• typhoid• schistosomiasis• dysentery and other diarrheal diseases
    249. 249. Making earth little softerDisease from water pollution• Water-associated infectious diseases claim upto 3.2 million lives each year, approximately 6%of all deaths globally.• The burden of disease from inadequate water,sanitation, and hygiene totals 1.8 million deathsand the loss of greater than 75 million healthylife years.
    250. 250. Making earth little softerDisease from water pollution• Disease: In developing nations, 80% ofdiseases are water-related.• Synthetic Organic Compounds• Inorganic Compounds & Mineral Substancessuch as Acids, etc.• Radioactive substances• Oxygen-demanding wastes• Plant Nutrients• Sediments• Thermal Discharges
    251. 251. Making earth little softerEffects of water pollution• The food chain is damaged.• Diseases can spread via polluted water.• Acid rain.• Pollutants in the water will alter the overallchemistry of water.• Marine food sources are contaminated.• Altered water temperatures can kill marine life.
    252. 252. Making earth little softerWater Quality
    253. 253. Making earth little softer• Water quality is closely linked to water use andto the state of economic development.• In industrialized countries, bacterialcontamination of surface water caused serioushealth problems in major cities throughout themid 1800?s.• By the turn of the century, cities in Europe andNorth America began building sewer networksto route domestic wastes downstream of waterintakes
    254. 254. Making earth little softerWater quality• Scientists monitor water quality by usingbacterial counts, chemical analysis, andindicator organisms.• It is measuring the number of colonies of fecalcoliform bacteria present in a water sample.• Drinking water should not contain anycolonies/100 milliliters,• Chemical analysis includes checking inorganicand organic chemicals present, sedimentcontent, and turbidity of water.• Indicator species are living organisms that aremonitored to determine levels of pollution.
    255. 255. Making earth little softerWater quality• Improvement since 1970• Surface waters no longer regarded as opensewers• More and better sewage treatment systems• Less dumping of industrial waste• Clean Water Act of 1972, 1977• Make all surface waters “fishable andswimmable”
    256. 256. Making earth little softerWater quality• Water Act, 1974• ‘Water Use Map’ of the country was preparedbased on the ‘Designated Best Use’• ‘Water Quality Map’ of India and ‘Water UseMap’ of India will be super imposed, so as toidentify water bodies which are in need ofimprovement (restoration)
    257. 257. Making earth little softerDissolved oxygen• Only a few fish species can survive in water lessthan 4ppm at 20°C.
    258. 258. Making earth little softer# Parameters InlandSurfacewatersOn landforirrigationMarinedisposal1 pH (mg/L) 5.5 - 9.0 5.5 - 9.0 5.5 - 9.02 TSS (mg/L) 100 200 1003 B.O.D (mg/L) 30 100 1004 C.O.D (mg/L) 100 - 2505 HexavalentCr. (mg/L)0.1 0.1 1.0Disposal of Treated Effluents• Indian Standards
    259. 259. Making earth little softerMonitoring Water Quality• Number of colonies of fecal coliform bacteria• Bacterial source tracking (BST)• Measure biological oxygen demand (BOD)• Chemical analysis• Indicator species• Genetic development of indicator organisms
    260. 260. Making earth little softerDrinking Water Quality• Purification of urban drinking water• Protection from terrorism• Purification of rural drinking water• Safe Drinking Water Act• Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)• Bottled water
    261. 261. Making earth little softerDrinking Water Quality• Development of LEDC’s and NIC’s has lead to ageneral decline in water quality• Manufacturing chemical waste often untreatedand deposited into rivers only to be used furtherdownstream for irrigation, cleaning and drinkingwater (R. Citarum West Java)• 40% of world’s agriculture comes from irrigatedland – this has salinity issues
    262. 262. Making earth little softerDrinking Water Quality• Free of pollutants• Tastes good• Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Sulfate insame concentrations as found in saliva10 oC• As little chlorination as possible• Calcium & magnesium account for most waterhardness, death rates (cardiovascular disease)higher in areas soft water than in hard water• Copper needed to absorb & metabolism iron,but >1mg/liter makes water unpalatable• Does taste correlate with presence of toxiccompounds?
    263. 263. Making earth little softerApproach• For maintaining quality of water in the river, it isnecessary to limit entry of pollutants into theriver both in quality and quantity.• Treatment of effluent to the required degreebefore disposal is needed.• The industrial and domestic effluents may beconsidered for reuse for Irrigation, Industries,etc after necessary treatment.• Recharging of ground water after treatment ofsewage should be considered.
    264. 264. Making earth little softerA recap• Water can be polluted naturally• Water can be polluted by man• Sewage in our water bodies• Garbage dumps• Washing and bathing• Pesticides and fertilizers• Industries
    265. 265. Making earth little softer
    266. 266. Making earth little softerReferences• www.wikipedia.org; www.google.com, www.slideshare.net• Gannon; Osmond, , Humenik, Gale, Spooner, Agricultural Water Quality Water resource• U.S.A. Environmental protection agency, washington, dc (usa)• MacKenzie, SH The Ecosystem ISLAND PRESS, CA (USA), 1996, 240• Water pollution and society ByDavid Krantz and Brad Kifferstein• Water pollution, By Mahesh & Ram, By Shohail Motahir Choudhury, Prasen Raptan,ExecutiveDirector,Jankalyana• Living in the Environment, By G. Tyler Miller’s• Authors Arnone Matteo,Belingheri Omar,Fasce Federico,Migliorino Lorenzo,Ernest Kyć,• Michał Stolarski,Adam Chłąd,Kamil Tratkiewicz• Water Pollution by Dr. B. Victor• Refresher course on sewage treatment plant design by PAUL• Trends and Scenarios in Agricultural Development by COLIN CHARTRES; International Water ManagementInstitute• Diamond Energy Water. The close relationship between Water & Our Body. 19 April 2008• <http://www.be-with-you.com/dew/WaterAndOurBody.html>.• We Rise. Water Facts. Allabout_facts. 15 May 2008 <www.werise.us/allabout_facts.html>• “Olympic Science: The Hydration Rate.” Popular Mechanics. August 2008. 68.• Water Security: Leadership and Commitment by Shuichi Hirayama• Environmental Pollutants By Dr.Rathnakar U.P.MD.DIH.PGDHM (K.M.C. Mangalore)• Water Pollution By DiGiT• Water Pollution & Cleanup By Andrew J Penniman• Water Pollution by Home• Air, Water and Soil pollution - By B.Tungalagtuya• John Rodgers - Lecture 8: Water Pollution• pppst.com• kangenforall.com

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