33 part 1-earthsoft-water - critical resource-basic
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"Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) is working as an NGO/NPO for students - Education & Career ...

"Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) is working as an NGO/NPO for students - Education & Career
guidance and for Professionals for soft skills enhancements. We are working speading , sharing
knowledge; experience globally.It has uploaded important presentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspx.
Also visit www.slideshare.net and search using key word - earthsoft

Read http://tl.gd/jm1gh5 and view picture http://twitpic.com/cept60
http://www.slideshare.net/rrakhecha/efg-activities-of-one-year27-mar2013

Be mentor using your education, knowledge & experience to contribute for a social cause & do conduct
free training/ workshop seeking help of existing platforms
Kindly spread to your friends.Thank you!
- Earthsoft Foundation of Guidance
Let us make earth little softer..
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  • amongst planets of our solar system because of The vast majority of water on the planet is the salt water in the oceans and seas. We can not drink salt water or use it for crops because of the salt content & is heavy. Process of removal of salt is very expensive.
  • Men recognized since ancient times its importance, and identified as one of the main constituents of the universe, giving it a deep symbolic value, found in major religions. that covers more than three-fourths of the Earth's surface.
  • Means of support - Turgid plant cells /Hydrostatic animal support systems Organisms are composed 70%-95% of water Supportive external environment for aquatic organisms Cellular medium within which biochemical reactions can occur Transport medium for food, oxygen, and other things needed by cells Means of support-Turgid plant cells /Hydrostatic animal support systems
  • It does not include water from the toilet. By recycling grey water, you can reduce domestic water consumption by up to 20%. Collecting and using rainwater can save large amounts of water.
  • ; leaves salts in ocean. and transpired.
  • or an unconsolidated deposit
  • Tamilnadu used more than 50% of Ground water resources.
  • On Water Consumption: 
 (Source: Every Body Counts, Every Drop Matters, UN Classroom Resource Guide)
  • On Water Usage: 
 (Source: Jefferson County Water Issues; Ecological Integrity: Integrating Environment, Conservation and Health (Island Press, Washington DC, 2001)
  • Feel free to print the slide for each team. Make them submit it back with the answers on the back perhaps so the questions aren’t floating round if you have other classes doing this activity. After they submit the answer, document their points on the page for their records and back up for you. They should keep this in a team notebook.
  • Feel free to print the slide for each team. Make them submit it back with the answers on the back perhaps so the questions aren’t floating round if you have other classes doing this activity. After they submit the answer, document their points on the page for their records and back up for you. They should keep this in a team notebook.
  • Feel free to print the slide for each team. Make them submit it back with the answers on the back perhaps so the questions aren’t floating round if you have other classes doing this activity. After they submit the answer, document their points on the page for their records and back up for you. They should keep this in a team notebook.
  • More water facts that can be added to the slide show and tests if desired. (Source: http://www.epa.gov/reg5rcra/wptdiv/p2pages/water.pdf) EARTH’S TOTAL WATER SUPPLY Oceans (saltwater) = 97.2% Fresh water = 2.8% EARTH’S FRESH WATER SUPPLY Ice caps and glaciers = 82.1% Groundwater (aquifers*) = 14.3% Surface water (lakes, rivers, and streams) = 2.4% Air and soil = 1.2%
  • (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Blood contents – Plasma contains ),and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide Blood Is made of white cells, red cells, platelets, and plasma. The plasma is the part that has water. Plasma is 55% of the blood. 90% of plasma is water. So….90% of 55% which is 49.5%. What percentage of blood is water? 90% of 55% which is 49.5% When spun in a centrifuge, the cells and cell fragments of blood are separated from the liquid intercellular matrix. Because the formed elements are heavier than the liquid matrix, they are packed in the bottom of the tube by the centrifugal force. The light yellow colored liquid on the top is the plasma, which accounts for about 55 percent of the blood volume and red blood cells is called the hematocrit,or packed cell volume (PCV). The white blood cells and platelets form a thin white layer, called the "buffy coat," between plasma and red blood cells. Plasma is the watery fluid portion of blood (90 percent water) in which the corpuscular elements are suspended. It transports nutrients as well as wastes throughout the body. Various compounds, including proteins, electrolytes, carbohydrates, minerals, and fats, are dissolved in it.
  • Students would need nine sources here perhaps to gain full credit. I was not able to find one source that had all the information. The last question can be calculated by using the water lost in a day times the number of days you can survive without water.
  • Recall how much water the average person loses in one day through their urine, sweat, and normal breathing. Calculate the amount of water loss for each based on the amount of water lost per day. Students could present this with a bar graph of body outlines with the water levels shaded in. Students could list the actions and the amount of water. Attach page of math calculations! Expect a professional looking graph for this, not a sketch. Eggling, Sue. Effects of Water Loss. Clackamas Community College. 8 December 2008 .
  • Students could present this with a bar graph of body outlines with the water levels shaded in. Students could list the actions and the amount of water. Expect a professional looking graph for this, not a sketch.
  • The State of the World's Freshwater: 
 (Source: The United Nations, Division for Sustainable Development)
  • The State of the World's Freshwater: 
 (Source: The United Nations, Division for Sustainable Development)
  • The State of the World's Freshwater: 
 (Source: The United Nations, Division for Sustainable Development)
  • JWF: The Asia-Pacific Water Forum is necessary, because the Asia-Pacific region is in water crisis (as shown) and demands immediate and concerted action.
  • It does not include water from the toilet. By recycling grey water, you can reduce domestic water consumption by up to 20%. Collecting and using rainwater can save large amounts of water. Water harvesting reduces water bills Others will also get enough water to use You will never run out of water or stand in queues on the road waiting for water lorries! Using water-efficient products, save money on water & electricity bill and help the environment. Covering the swimming pool lowers the pool temperature, decreases evaporation and prevents debris from falling on the pool surface. By preventing sunlight from penetrating the water, you will also reduce the amount of chemicals needed to keep the pool clean.
  • A water efficient garden contributes less to storm water flow, reducing the need for costly public storm water projects. Water efficient gardens can be healthy gardens. By using the correct products and plants, you can maintain plant life and improve soil conditions. Grey water will usually require treatment. By covering your vehicles when not in use, use less water & efforts for washing Utilise grey water in societies & save water & electricity bill Water efficient gardens can reduce water bills and running costs. They can require less maintenance saving in time Water efficient gardens use plants that attract native birds, making your garden a more enjoyable, relaxing environment. A water efficient garden directs water to where it is needed, so no problem with runoff or erosion.
  • A water efficient garden contributes less to storm water flow, reducing the need for costly public storm water projects. Water efficient gardens can be healthy gardens. By using the correct products and plants, you can maintain plant life and improve soil conditions. Grey water will usually require treatment.
  • A water efficient garden contributes less to storm water flow, reducing the need for costly public storm water projects. Water efficient gardens can be healthy gardens. By using the correct products and plants, you can maintain plant life and improve soil conditions. Grey water will usually require treatment.
  • A water efficient garden contributes less to storm water flow, reducing the need for costly public storm water projects. Water efficient gardens can be healthy gardens. By using the correct products and plants, you can maintain plant life and improve soil conditions. Grey water will usually require treatment.
  • A water efficient garden contributes less to storm water flow, reducing the need for costly public storm water projects. Water efficient gardens can be healthy gardens. By using the correct products and plants, you can maintain plant life and improve soil conditions. Grey water will usually require treatment.

33 part 1-earthsoft-water - critical resource-basic Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of GuidanceEdge-Aggressive-Reliable-Trust-Honesty-Soft-Obedient-Fun-Transparent
  • 2. Making earth little softerEarthsoft Foundation of Guidance (EFG) has uploaded followingpresentations at http://myefg.in/downloads.aspxBe mentor using your education, knowledge & experience tocontribute for a social cause & do conduct free training seekinghelp of existing platforms. Kindly share with your friends•Motivation for higher study, Planning for study, Educationguidance, Career guidance, Career available after SSC & HSC•Personality development – 3 files•How to prepare resume, Tips to attend interview successfully•Religion related –To understand basic religion, Do & Don’t tips•Health related - Be vegetarian, Be healthy, Manage health•Corporate - Project management, Assertiveness, Ownership,Effective communication, Leadership, Be entrepreneur•Finance - To avoid speculation in stock market•Social - Women empowerment, Choosing life partner, conflictresolution, stop ragging, stop alcohol, snakebite treatmentAbout us
  • 3. Making earth little softer• Earth as water planet• The Hydrologic Cycle• Water usage & its distribution• Water & sanitation• Data – Globally• Water – an issue• Global Scarcity & challengesIndex
  • 4. Making earth little softerIndex
  • 5. Making earth little softerEarth as water planet• Earth is often referred to as `the water planet.• Without water, life could not exist• Earth is unique due to its abundant water - inoceans, rivers, ponds, atmosphere, glaciers,fresh water/ground water• Ocean Water : Most of the water on Earth, 97%to be exact, is salt water found in the oceans.• Due to salt content, it can not be used. Processof removal of salt is very expensive.• Groundwater: Freshwater is stored inunderground aquifers. Water that enters anaquifer remains for an average of 1,400 years!
  • 6. Making earth little softerWhat kinds are there?AvailabilityWater is essential to life on earth• 97% of the water is salt water, andis found in the oceans of the world.• 3% of the water is fresh water onwhich we depend.
  • 7. Making earth little softerSignificance of water• Water is the main constituent of ecosystem & isthe basis of known life forms, including humans• It was the basis of the origin of life on our planet• Water is an integral part of life on this planet.• It is an odorless, tasteless, substance• It is essential to civil, agricultural & industrial use• Thus it is main constituent of the universe
  • 8. Making earth little softerThree forms of Water• Solids: When water becomes very cold andfreezes it changes from a liquid to a solid state.It has a definite form and shape.• Liquids: When water takes the shape of itscontainer it is in a liquid form.• Gases: When water is seen in a vapor form andhas no definite size or shape it is in a gas form.These 3 forms are interchangeable
  • 9. Making earth little softerImportance of water• Organisms are composed 70%-95% of water• Transport medium for food, oxygen, and otherthings needed by cells• Cellular medium within which biochemicalreactions can occur• Supportive external environment for aquaticorganisms
  • 10. Making earth little softerA precious natural resource• We use water for drinking, irrigation, industrialpurposes and energy production.Water use• Agriculture and energy production - 80%• Industry and public use - 20%Usage• As a nourisher of plant, animal & human life• A bearer of food & drinks• A prime element of industrial processes• A medium for transportation
  • 11. Making earth little softerA precious natural resourceTransports oxygen& nutrientsPrevents clogging ofarteries & brain cellsMain lubricant inthe joint spacesReduces theeffects of agingPreventsmemory lossRegulates bodytemperatureHuman BodyHuman Body - -- - WaterWater75%
  • 12. Making earth little softerA precious natural resourceHuman BodyHuman Body - -- - WaterWater75%Muscles75 % waterMuscles75 % waterBrain Cells85 % waterBrain Cells85 % waterBones25 % waterBones25 % waterBlood82 % waterBlood82 % water
  • 13. Making earth little softerDaily use of waterFresh water is used as
  • 14. Making earth little softerHow much water do we use?• The kitchen consumes 10% of total householdfor cooking, cleaning, washing or drinking.• 15-20% of all water consumed in laundry• Nearly 50% in the bathroom, 20% of that wateris flushed down the toilet.• A slowly dripping tap can waste 20,000 liters ina year• Evaporation is a major loss from swimmingpool.• A lot of water is used in washing cars, bikes,cycles and garages.• 20% Grey water is typically water from baths,
  • 15. Making earth little softerCondensationThe Clouds formEvaporationvapor risesTranspirationThe movementthrough plantsPrecipitationThe rain falls
  • 16. Making earth little softer• Saltwater evaporates from suns energyproducing fresh water in clouds• Water vapor cools and condenses toprecipitation over oceans and land.• Runoff forms fresh water lakes, streams, ponds,groundwater, and is held in soil & plants
  • 17. Making earth little softer• Surface water is water collected on the groundor in a stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean
  • 18. Making earth little softer• Two main processes: precipitation &evaporation• Powered by energy from the sun• Hydrologic cycle purifies water
  • 19. Making earth little softerOceanEvaporationEvapo-transpirationrunoffWaterSupplyDischargetreated waterSalt Water IntrusionAquiferInfiltrationRechargeEvaporationExtractionPrecipitationPrecipitationEvaporation/ETSurface WaterGroundwaterSoil moistureInfiltration (Art)Extraction Return flowTreate water Aquifer intrusionSoil moistureSoilmoisture
  • 20. Making earth little softerThe Hydrologic Cycle
  • 21. Making earth little softerGround Water• Ground water is located beneath the groundsurface in soil pore spaces and in the fracturesof rock formations.• A unit of rock is called an aquifer when it canyield a usable quantity of water
  • 22. Making earth little softerEvaporation and transpirationEvaporationStreamInfiltrationWater tableInfiltrationUnconfined aquiferConfined aquiferLakeWell requiring a pumpFlowingartesian wellRunoffPrecipitationConfinedRecharge AreaAquiferLess permeable materialsuch as clayConfirming permeable rock layerGround Water
  • 23. Making earth little softerWater world
  • 24. Making earth little softer•Two thirds of our planet iscovered by water.•97.5% of the water issaltwater.•The majority of freshwater isbeyond our reach, locked intopolar snow and ice.•Two thirds of our planet iscovered by water.•97.5% of the water issaltwater.•The majority of freshwater isbeyond our reach, locked intopolar snow and ice.Water world
  • 25. Making earth little softerWater world• Less than 3% of the world’swater is fresh – the rest isseawater and undrinkable.• Of this 3% over 2.5% isfrozen, locked up inAntarctica, Arctic & glaciers,and not available to man.• Thus humanity must rely onthis 0.5% for all of man’s andecosystem’s fresh waterneeds.
  • 26. Making earth little softer• Only about 2.5% of Earths water is fresh.• ~ 2% of the Earths water is in solid form, foundin ice caps and glaciers.• One percent of all the Earths water in a formuseable to humans and land animals.• This fresh water is found in lakes, rivers,streams, ponds, in the ground & as vapor in theatmosphere• India has 16 % of the world’s population and 4%of its fresh water resources.
  • 27. Making earth little softerThe earths water supply• Water covers 70.9% of the Earths surface.• The amount of fresh water accounts for 2.6%,which is vital for all forms of life.• 97.2% of the Earths water supply is salt water.• Only 2.8% is fresh water!• 97.200% salt water in the oceans• 02.014% ice caps and glaciers• 00.600% groundwater• 00.009% surface water• 00.005% soil moisture• 00.001% atmospheric moisture
  • 28. Making earth little softerSalt & freshwater relationship
  • 29. Making earth little softerDistribution of global water
  • 30. Making earth little softerOceans 97%Atmosphere 0.01%Rivers, Lakes, &Inland Seas 0.141%Soil Moisture0.0012%Ground Water0.4 – 1.7%Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.725%Distribution-Water reservoirs
  • 31. Making earth little softer22%8%70%01020304050607080Agriculture Domestic IndustryWater uses%oftotalwaterusedWorld water usage
  • 32. Making earth little softer• 66% of the human body ismade up of water• We should drink at least1½ litres of water a day.• At just 2% dehydration yourperformance decreases byaround 20%• 66% of the human body ismade up of water• We should drink at least1½ litres of water a day.• At just 2% dehydration yourperformance decreases byaround 20%Human need
  • 33. Making earth little softerWater Resources - Rainfall• Annual average rainfall : 105 cm• Largest in the world for a country• River area = 3288000 km2• Surface flow : 1880 km3 /700 km3 for beneficialuse• Ground water : 600 Km3/420 km3 usable
  • 34. Making earth little softerWater Bodies• River & Canals : 7420 Km• Reservoir : 0.52 Lakh hectares• Tanks, Lakes & ponds : 6.91 Lakh hectares• Brackish Water : 0.56 Lakh hectares
  • 35. Making earth little softerWater Resources - Rainfall
  • 36. Making earth little softerWater Resources - Rainfall• India’s total annual replinishable undergroundfresh water is 433 BCM (km^3)• 344 BCM through natural from rainfall• 89 BCM from canal irrigation system• There are 12 major river basins, the largest isGangetic Plain Aquifer with replinishable groundwater at 206 BCM or 48%.• India has been reasonably rich in Ground waterand is one of the main reason of sustenance itsvariety of life species• http://www.indiastat.com/meteorologicaldata/22/rainfall/238/stats.aspx
  • 37. Making earth little softerGround water• Total potential : 431 km3 per year• Drinking & Industrial purposes (16% of totalpotential)• 68% is still remaining untapped
  • 38. Making earth little softerWater consumed In 1990• Fresh water (rain & snow) - 4,000 BCM, Most ofwhich returns to the seas via rivers.• Surface and ground water - 1,869 BCM. Of this,40 % is not available.GroundwaterConsumption• 92% - Agricultural• 5% - Industrial• 3% - Domestic.GroundwaterConsumption• 92% - Agricultural• 5% - Industrial• 3% - Domestic.Surface waterConsumption• 89% - Agricultural• 2% - Industrial• 9% - Domestic.Surface waterConsumption• 89% - Agricultural• 2% - Industrial• 9% - Domestic.
  • 39. Making earth little softerWater consumed In 1990• 25 BCM of water for domestic• 460 BCM of water for agricultural• 40 BCM of water for industrial (10 BCM asprocess water + 30 BCM as cooling water)• Total 525 BCM (km3)
  • 40. Making earth little softerWater Resources - Rainfall2010 2025 2050WATER(BCM) Low H Low H Low HighIrrigation 543 557 561 611 628 807Domestic 42 43 55 62 90 111Industries 37 37 67 67 81 81Power 18 19 31 33 70 70InlandNavigation 7 7 10 10 15 15Flood Control Not availableAfforestation Not availableEnvironment /Ecology 5 5 10 10 20 20EvaporationLosses 42 42 50 50 76 76Total (BCM) 694 710 784 843 980 1180• Water Demand isrising, to grow 34% innext 25 years• Domestic/Industrymix demand growingfaster than Irrigation• Ground waterrepresents about46% in AgricultureSupply and 80% ofDomestic Supply.And its Growing
  • 41. Making earth little softer01002003004005006007008009001 2 3 4 5Demand,BCMUseWater Demand for Different Uses199020252050Irrigation Domestic Industry Power OthersWater demandBCM – Billion cubic meter
  • 42. Making earth little softerUse of Water Resources Humans use about 54% of reliable runoff Agriculture Industry Domestic Power plantsUnited StatesIndustry 11%Public 10%Powercooling38%Agriculture38%
  • 43. Making earth little softerWater Consumption# Country Average Usage perday1 Kenya 10 litres (3 gallons)2 Canadian 326 litres (86 gallons)3 American person 500 litres (132 gallons)4 India 53 litres (14 gallons)5 Japan 292 litres (77 gallons)6 Switzerland 405 litres (107 gallons)
  • 44. Making earth little softerWater Usage# Task Av. use in gallon1 To make four car tires 20722 1 pound of plastic 243 To refine 1barrel of crude oil 18514 To produce 1 pound of potato 605 To produce 1 pound of wheat 1086 To produce 1 pound soybean 2407 To produce 1 pound of beef 120098 To produce 1 kg Sugarcane 8009 Cotton per kg of fabric 767210 To produce 1 kg of Rice 13251 Gallon = 3.78 Lit
  • 45. Making earth little softerUses of waterFive Designated Best uses of water bodiesClass Designated Best UseA Used for drinking without any treatmentbut with disinfectionsB Used for outdoor bathingC Used for drinking with treatmentD Used for propagation of wild life andfisheriesE Used for irrigation, Cooling and controlledwaste disposal
  • 46. Making earth little softerWater UsabilityClass Designated best use pH DO(mg/L)BOD(mg/L)MPN/100 mlA Drinking withouttreatment, but chlorination6.5 –8.56 ormore2 orless50B Outdoor Bathing 6.5 –8.55 ormore3 orless500C Drinking with treatment 6.5 –8.54 ormore3 orless5000D Propagation of wild life,fisheries6.5 –8.54 ormoreNA NAE Irrigation, Industrialcooling & controlled wastedisposal6.0 –8.5NA NA NA
  • 47. Making earth little softerDrinking Water QualityIndian Standards for Drinking Water QualityS No Characteristics Acceptable Cause forRejection1 Turbidity (NTU) 1 102 TDS (mg/L) 500 20003 Nitrates (mg/L) 45 454 E Coli Must not be detectable5 Chromium(mg/L)0.05 0.05
  • 48. Making earth little softerDrinking Water QualityIndustrialization&TechnologyIndustrialization&TechnologyLeadLeadMercuryMercuryAgri-PollutionAgri-PollutionDrugs&ShampooDrugs&ShampooChlorineChlorine ArsenicArsenicFluorideFluorideAluminumAluminumTap WaterRustRust
  • 49. Making earth little softerWater for Food–1 liter/calorieDescription Liters of WaterDaily Drinking Water 2 – 5 Liters of WaterDaily Household Use 20 – 500 Liters of Water1kg of Grain 500 to 2,000 Liters ofEvapotranspiration (ET)Livestock products(meat, milk)5,000 to 15,000 Liters ofET
  • 50. Making earth little softerSectoral water consumption is increasing due toincreased demandDemand will double in the next 40 yearsWater consumption
  • 51. Making earth little softerHighest Rain fallMawsynram & Cherrapunji is credited as highest& second wettest place on Earth
  • 52. Making earth little softerHighest Rain fallMawsynram & Cherrapunji is credited as highest& second wettest place on EarthCountry IndiaState MeghalayaDistrict East Khasi HillsElevation 1,484 m (4,869 ft)Population (2011)• Total 14,816• Density 397/km2(1,030/sq mi)Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)Precipitation 11,777 millimetres(463.7 in)
  • 53. Making earth little softerWater use in India
  • 54. Making earth little softerWater use in India
  • 55. Making earth little softerChemical Formula• What is the chemical formula of water?• The density of water is 1000 kg per m3• It is measured in cubic foot, gallon (3.7854 lit),liter, quart (0.9463 lit), cup, etcHydrogenHydrogenOxygenH2OLiquid measuringdevice
  • 56. Making earth little softerWater pH7.2 - death7.2 - death7.4 – normal7.4 – normalblood pHblood pHpH potential of Hydrogen ions is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity“Without enough water, body goes acidic, goesinto fat storing.”
  • 57. Making earth little softerWater pHpH Color Chart4.5 6.5 7.0 8.5 9.0 9.5NeutralFor cleanwaterACIDIC ALKALINESicknessSickness HealthHealthpH of better quality ofmineral water – 8.5 to 9.5
  • 58. Making earth little softerWater & Earth• What % of the Earth is made up of water?• What % of water is Salt, Fresh, and Frozen?• The Earth is made up ofapproximately 70% water.• 97% of that water is saltwater. Very little is water thatwe use to drink & cook• 2% of water is frozen.• 1% of water is fresh water
  • 59. Making earth little softerWater & Body• What % of our body is made up of water?• Human body is madeup of ~ 60-70% water• Medical sourcedocuments that menhave 60% and womenhave 50% water.
  • 60. Making earth little softerWater & Blood• What percentage of blood is water?• 92% of 55% which is 50.6%• It is composed of blood cells suspended in aliquid called blood plasma. Plasma, whichconstitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water(92% by volume
  • 61. Making earth little softerFunction of Water in body• Identify main functions of water in the body’smetabolic process.• It delivers oxygen and nutrients to different parts• It removes toxins and waste from the body• Water also has other functions:• Regulates body temperature throughperspiration• Reduces friction between joints and facilitatesmovement• Acts as a cushion between organs to protect• Facilitates normal functions of body processes.
  • 62. Making earth little softerWater & Body• In what way the body lose water & How much?• A person can live without food for weeks but lifecannot last more than few days without water .• Human body is 60-70 % water. We take waterwith food and drink, and lose it in urine, insweat, and in our breath (as water vapor)• A person loses 1.89-2.83 lit of water every dayas a result of their normal body functions• This much loss means if a person doesnt getany fluids for about three days, they will die.• 6-9 quarts (5.678-8.517 l) of water loss wouldcause death.
  • 63. Making earth little softerWater & Body• Percentage of overall water loss occurs when:• Thirst is perceived.• Strength and endurance decrease.• Delirium and blurred vision become a problemand you can not move.• A person dies.
  • 64. Making earth little softerWater & Body• In one day the person loses between 2 to 3quarts of water through their urine, sweat, andnormal breathing. If a person doesnt replacethat lost water, then dehydration begins tooccur.• At 1-2% dehydration, thirst is perceived. (.6-.9quarts)• At 5% dehydration, a person becomes hot andtired, and strength and endurance decrease.(1.5-2.25 quarts)• At 10% dehydration, delirium & blurred visionbecome a problem, can not move. (3-4.5 quarts)
  • 65. Making earth little softerOther Water Facts• 1.2 billion people lack access to safe water,• ~one-sixth of the worlds population lack accessto adequate sanitation services.• 6,000 die every day from diseases associatedwith unsafe water, poor sanitation & hygiene.• Unsafe water & sanitation cause an estimated80 % of all diseases in the developing world.• Women and girls tend to suffer the most as aresult of the lack of sanitation facilities.• One flush of a Western toilet uses as muchwater as the person in the developing worlduses for washing, drinking, cleaning & cooking.
  • 66. Making earth little softerWater facts..Continued• Water use has grown at twice the rate ofpopulation during the past century.• The Middle East, North Africa and South Asiaare chronically short of water.• In developing countries, as much as 90 percentof waste water is discharged without treatment.• Over pumping groundwater for drinking waterand irrigation has caused water levels to declineby tens of meters in many regions, forcingpeople to use low-quality water for drinking.
  • 67. Making earth little softerWater facts..Continued• Losses of water through leakage, illegal hook-ups and waste amount to about 50 percent ofwater for drinking and 60 percent of water forirrigation in developing countries.• Floods affected more than 75 percent of allpeople impacted by natural disasters during the1990s and caused over 33 percent of the totalestimated costs of natural disasters.
  • 68. Making earth little softerProblems using Groundwater Water table lowering Depletion Subsidence Saltwater intrusion Chemical contamination Reduced stream flows
  • 69. Making earth little softerWater and sanitation• Investments in safe drinking water andimproved sanitation show an improvement inhuman health and economic productivity.• Each person needs 20 to 50 liters of water freeof harmful chemical and microbial contaminantseach day for drinking and hygiene.• It’s a challenge to providing this basic service tolarge segments of the human population.
  • 70. Making earth little softerWater - Globally
  • 71. Making earth little softerLearning Objectives• To understand that water is a global issue andnot just within certain countries• That lack of water is not the only issue in waterinsecurity and stress• Access to sanitation is linked to poverty• Development can hinder water quality, accessand supply
  • 72. Making earth little softerHuman water needs• In the US usage in gallons/person/day• A person needs about 1 gallon water/day forhydration• Personal use - 188• Additional 657 used for irrigation, industrial use• Total per capita use is about 2000gal/person/day• If world’s water supply were 100 liters, theusable supply would be about 0.5 tsp(teaspoon)• US has highest per capita water withdrawal,followed by Canada, Australia, Russia, Japan
  • 73. Making earth little softerDistribution
  • 74. Making earth little softerGlobal water situation• Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion peoplelack safe drinking water• At least 5 million deaths per year can beattributed to waterborne diseases.• With over 70 percent of the planet covered byoceans, people have long acted as if thesewater bodies could serve as a limitless dumpingground for wastes.
  • 75. Making earth little softerA very personal look at water• What happens to water before you drink it?• What happens to water after you dispose of it?• Approximately 57% of Canadians are served bywastewater treatment plants, compared with74% of Americans, 86.5% of Germans, and99% of Swedes.• Approximately 99% of Swedes are served bywastewater treatment plants
  • 76. Making earth little softer• The number of people with access to cleanwater has doubled in the last 20 years.• 1.1 billion people in the world still do not haveaccess to safe water. This is nearly 20% of thepopulation.• The number of people with access to cleanwater has doubled in the last 20 years.• 1.1 billion people in the world still do not haveaccess to safe water. This is nearly 20% of thepopulation.Clean water
  • 77. Making earth little softerThe UN estimatesthat by 2025, 75% ofthe world populationwon’t have reliable,clean water.The UN estimatesthat by 2025, 75% ofthe world populationwon’t have reliable,clean water.Water future
  • 78. Making earth little softerWater Resources• Over the last century• Human population has increased 3x• Global water withdrawal has increased 7x• Per capita water withdrawal has increased 4x• About one-sixth of the world’s people don’t haveeasy access to safe water• Most water resources are owned & managedby governments as publicly owned resources
  • 79. Making earth little softerWater issueCharacteristic of Water Issues• Water is an issue of many sectors such asindustry, environment, agriculture, etc• It is the fundamental issue related to the humansecurity and social and economic development• The strong leadership and commitment of thenational leaders are essential.
  • 80. Making earth little softerGlobal Water Issue2.6billionnot have access to proper sanitation facilities(JMP Report, UNICEF/WHO 2006)1.1billionnot have access to proper drinking waterfacilities (JMP Report, UNICEF/WHO 2006)3.8millionPeople die each year of water relateddiseases(UN World Water Dev, 2006)7 billion People in 60 countries will be facing watershortage by the middle of 21stcentury (UNWorld Water Development 2003)2 billion will suffer from food damage stemming frompopulation increase & climate change by themiddle of the 21stcentury (UNU-EHS 2004)
  • 81. Making earth little softerWater Issues in Asia-PacificWater Supply and Sanitation660 million people live without access tosafe drinking water.1.9 billion people live without access tobasic sanitation.Water-related DisasterThe region accounted for 80% of the world’stotal deaths due to water-related disasters(2001-2005).Water and Food80% of water used for agriculture in theregion.60% of the world’s population lives in theregion.1986-19901991-19951996-20002001-20058,15343,16739,68962,2733,3632,94613,80813,432010,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,00070,000Numberofpeoplekilled(5-yearaverage)yearNumber of people killed by water-related disasterother regionsAsia-Pacific60 %80 %
  • 82. Making earth little softerToo Little Water Dry climate Drought Desiccation Water stressAcute shortageAdequate supplyShortageMetropolitan regions withpopulation greater than 1 million
  • 83. Making earth little softerInteresting fact
  • 84. Making earth little softerWater consumption/ countries
  • 85. Making earth little softerWater consumption/use
  • 86. Making earth little softerGlobal Water Crisis
  • 87. Making earth little softersource: Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target : the urban and rural challenge of the decadehttp://www.who.int/whosis/indicators/2007ImprovedAccessWaterSanitation/en/index.htmlAccess to Safe drinking water
  • 88. Making earth little softerImproved DrinkingWater SourcesUnimproved DrinkingWater Sources-Piped water intodwelling, plot or yard-Public tap/standpipe-Tubewell/borehole-Protected dug well-Protected spring-Rainwater collection-Unprotected dug well-Unprotected spring-Cart with smalltank/drum-Bottled water-Tanker-truch-Surface water (river,dm, lake, etc)Access to Safe drinking water
  • 89. Making earth little softersource: Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target : the urban and rural challenge of thedecadehttp://www.who.int/whosis/indicators/2007ImprovedAccessWaterSanitation/en/index.htmlAccess to improved Sanitation
  • 90. Making earth little softerImproved SanitationFacilitiesUnimproved SanitationFacilities-Flush or pour-flush topiped sewer system,septic tank and pitlatrine-Ventilated improved pitlatrine-Pit latrine with slab-Composting toilet-Flush or pour-flush toelsewhere-Pit latrine without slabor open pit-Bucket-Hanging toilet / latrine-No facilities or bush orfieldAccess to improved Sanitation
  • 91. Making earth little softerScarcity1/3 of the world’s population live in basins that have to deal with water scarcityWe already inhabit a water scarce world
  • 92. Making earth little softerMost hungry and poor people live where waterchallenges pose a constraint to food productionHunger Goal Indicator: Prevalence of undernourished indeveloping countries, percentage 2001/2002 (UNstat, 2005)The semi-arid and arid tropics: 840 million malnourished people remainingChallenge
  • 93. Making earth little softerWater InsecurityWhere do you feel there are areas in the worldthat have issues of water Insecurity
  • 94. Making earth little softerWater Security Crisis• 2nd world water forum in 2000 deemed water akey issue• Health, welfare and livelihoods depend onsecure supplies• Demand and misuse are high• World water forum
  • 95. Making earth little softerAsia and Pacific• 1/3 of pop’n lacks access to clean drinkingwater• 500,000 infant related deaths through diarrhoea• Levels of bacteria from human sources is 10xhigher than recommended levels• Agriculture accounts for 90% of freshwaterwithdrawals in S. Asia• Aquifer depletion in Asia has reduced wateravailability per capita by over half• Withdrawals in W. Africa far exceed naturalreplacement levels
  • 96. Making earth little softerAfrica• 25 out of the 57 countries will face either waterstress or scarcity by 2025• Over 300 million lack access to clean water• Sub Saharan Africa this is much worse with over51% without safe water and 41% withoutadequate sanitation• Agriculture accounts for 88% of all groundwaterremoved and has no protection
  • 97. Making earth little softerEurope and Central Asia• Lack of access to clean water in E. Europe andCentral Asia• Over half of all European cities over-exploit theirgroundwater reserves• Declining water quality in countries withgroundwater pollution (Aral Sea) – the Med andScandinavian Lakes
  • 98. Making earth little softerLatin America & Caribbean• Groundwater contamination and depletion fromindustrial, agriculture and mining waste• Poor sanitation on 2% of sewage is treated inLatin America• Economic Scarcity with conflict over access anduse
  • 99. Making earth little softerNorth America• Aquifer depletion in increasing due to urbanpop’n growth, develp’t of industry andagriculture (Cotton in Texas)• Water pollution from agricultural runoff hascontaminated some surface waters. (SaltonSea)
  • 100. Making earth little softerIs that the whole world??
  • 101. Making earth little softerWhat can be done about this?
  • 102. Making earth little softerEmerging pattern• The balance between human demand andavailability is precarious• Access to clean water is not always guaranteedwhen it should be a fundamental right• Pop’n growth especially in the third world meanprospects are not good.• UNs world water development report
  • 103. Making earth little softerMillennium Development Goals• In 2000 had a target to halve by 2015 theproportion of people without access tosustainable water supplies• By 2005 only 12% of developing countries hadmanaged to do this• In some LEDC’s fresh and waste water aren’teven separated. (Cholera and dysentery)
  • 104. Making earth little softerHow water is used• In the western US, irrigation makes up 85% ofall water use• 50% to grow food for livestock• 35% to grow crops• Not sustainable…cost of water is heavilysubsidized by the federal government
  • 105. Making earth little softerKey Areas-Direct Operations• Virtually all business organizations utilize waterin the production of their goods & services, theextent of use varies• For instance, water-infrastructure companiesplay a direct role in working with governmentsand municipalities to manage water andwastewater systems.• In other cases, water is a primary ingredient inan organization’s final product. Water is alsocrucial in the manufacturing or developmentprocess of many companies. In still others,water is a primary resource in the supply chain.
  • 106. Making earth little softerKey Areas-Direct Operations• In areas of water stress, rapid industrializationplace significant demands on water resources.• Therefore, we pledge to undertake the followingactions as appropriate & during the period1.Conduct a comprehensive water-useassessment (audits) to understand the extent towhich the company uses water in the directproduction of goods and services.2.Set targets for operations related to waterconservation and waste-water treatment,framed in a corporate cleaner production andconsumption strategy.
  • 107. Making earth little softerKey Areas-Direct Operations3. Seek to invest in and use new technologies toachieve these goals.4. Raise awareness of water sustainability withincorporate culture.5. Include water sustainability considerations inbusiness decision-making – e.g., facility-siting,due diligence, and production processes.
  • 108. Making earth little softerBenefit of saving• Everyone will also get enough water to use• Save water, reduce electricity & water bills, alsoreduce maintenance efforts, time & cost• Water harvesting• Utilise Grey water• Water efficient garden• Using water efficient products• No waiting or running behind tankers• Save water and protect our environment
  • 109. Making earth little softerBenefit of saving• Covering the swimming pool• Lowers the pool temperature• Decreases evaporation• Prevents debris falling on the pool surface• Reduce sunlight penetration, reduce amountof chemicals needed to keep the pool clean.• By covering your vehicles when not in use, useless water & efforts for washing• Water efficient gardens use plants that attractnative birds, makes it more enjoyable• A water efficient garden directs water to where itis needed, so no problem with runoff or erosion.
  • 110. Making earth little softerBenefit of saving• Conserving water saves money allowingmarketing edge in a very competitive industry.• Protecting valuable water resources maintainscompetitive advantage.• Enhance relationships with staff, customers andthe local community• Enhance organization’s reputation as anenvironmentally responsible employer• Save on energy bills by reducing hot waterusage
  • 111. Making earth little softerBenefit of saving• More water available for local streams,wetlands, and their natural inhabitants• Reducing impact on local water supplies andsystems• Reduced pumping need reduces energy costs• Decreased infrastructure requirements such asmaintenance and upgrades of equipment• Reduced environmental risks associated withwastewater• Preparation of company for future waterrestriction and increased water prices
  • 112. Making earth little softerBenefit of saving• Water recycling and runoff management allowsfurther use of water for free• Increase productivity- efficient water use leadsto greater returns per hectare.• Improve whole farm efficiency and sustainability.• Prevent deep drainage from over-watering.• Saving money through reduced water costs andmore effective use of fertilizers• Lower energy requirements for pumping lesswater reduces costs.• Decreases demand on local water supply.• Allow farmers to maximize irrigated area
  • 113. Making earth little softerBenefit of saving• Increased savings through reduced water andpumping costs• Reduced fertilizer application• Lower energy requirements for pumping• Reduced amount of drainage water and surfacerunoff• Additional water for expansion or trading• Less impact on environment
  • 114. Making earth little softerWhat have we learnt• There is no life without water• Extremely small % of fresh & usable water isavailable for human being out of total stock• That water is a global issue and not just withincertain countries• That lack of water is not the only issue, but alsowater insecurity and water stress• Access to sanitation is linked to poverty• Development can hinder water quality, accessand supply• Using water carefully could minimize thescarcity
  • 115. Making earth little softer
  • 116. Making earth little softerReferences• www.wikipedia.org; www.google.com, www.slideshare.net• Gannon; Osmond, , Humenik, Gale, Spooner, Agricultural Water Quality Water resource• U.S.A. Environmental protection agency, washington, dc (usa)• MacKenzie, SH The Ecosystem ISLAND PRESS, CA (USA), 1996, 240• Water pollution and society ByDavid Krantz and Brad Kifferstein• Water pollution, By Mahesh & Ram, By Shohail Motahir Choudhury, Prasen Raptan,ExecutiveDirector,Jankalyana• Living in the Environment, By G. Tyler Miller’s• Authors Arnone Matteo,Belingheri Omar,Fasce Federico,Migliorino Lorenzo,Ernest Kyć,• Michał Stolarski,Adam Chłąd,Kamil Tratkiewicz• Water Pollution by Dr. B. Victor• Refresher course on sewage treatment plant design by PAUL• Trends and Scenarios in Agricultural Development by COLIN CHARTRES; International Water ManagementInstitute• Diamond Energy Water. The close relationship between Water & Our Body. 19 April 2008• <http://www.be-with-you.com/dew/WaterAndOurBody.html>.• We Rise. Water Facts. Allabout_facts. 15 May 2008 <www.werise.us/allabout_facts.html>• “Olympic Science: The Hydration Rate.” Popular Mechanics. August 2008. 68.• Water Security: Leadership and Commitment by Shuichi Hirayama• Environmental Pollutants By Dr.Rathnakar U.P.MD.DIH.PGDHM (K.M.C. Mangalore)• Water Pollution By DiGiT• Water Pollution & Cleanup By Andrew J Penniman• Water Pollution by Home• Air, Water and Soil pollution - By B.Tungalagtuya• John Rodgers - Lecture 8: Water Pollution• pppst.com• kangenforall.com