0
How transparency &
accountability can make
    development work:
         Rakesh Rajani
For millions
 of poor people
   in East Africa,
   the best thing
that’s happened
  in recent years
        may be…
radio
(FM stations everywhere)
TV
(many stations, growing coverage)
newspapers
(15+ dailies)
and
most significantly

   mobile phones
(16m subscribers)
Why?
H
H
When it doesn’t work,
we do more of the same, harder
So what can be done?

5 stories from Tanzania
1.   education quality
many schools, but money does not reach them
                   and there is little learning
evidence and advice provided over 6 months
             to ministers, policy-makers, etc
                      but nothing...
until we supported
  five journalist to
        investigate,

   Made headlines
& letters to editors
    & radio call ins
Result:

The Minister of Education personally
visited 4 of 5 districts covered in the news

Instructed districts to releas...
2.   teacher’s wellbeing
teachers are at the heart of education, but
live in terrible conditions and get paid very late
forcing many to have second and third jobs
            morale low, absenteeism high
policy makers informed
some teachers and NGOs protested
             but nothing changed
until research on conditions was publicized
   an advert was broadcast on national TV
        & discussed on dozens of tal...
Result:

Teachers’ welfare rose to the top of the
public agenda

Overdraft deal worked out with leading
banks, so that tea...
3.   reproductive health
thousands of
          women
  continue to die
     in childbirth

  and get injuries
   such as fistula

     this is kno...
WD set up a referral system using maps
 focusing on prevention and treatment
                and let everyone know
made wall posters
    for every clinic
     & other public
             places


  & distributed them
through government
 ...
and through radio
enabling people
    to speak out
about realities on
      the ground

           locally
and nationwide through radio and TV
Result:

More women demand to deliver at
hospitals and being treated right

Thousands of women with fistula treated,
some ...
4.   public money
lots of money
     unaccounted &
    improperly used

Government auditor
  reports problems,
     year after year

but not...
until audit findings

              were
        simplified,
      color coded,
            ranked

      & publicized
   ...
Result:

For the first time people across the nation
knew findings and could discuss them

The President convened an unpre...
5.   energy
Country had a power crisis
Led to a corrupt generator procurement deal
             In the past they got away with it
but this time
people knew what's going on
        through newspapers
and radio
and mobile phone
causing enormous public pressure
compelling Parliament to instigate a probe
Result:

Prime Minister and 2 ministers resigned,
established principle that even top leaders
can be held accountable

The...
what can we learn
from these experiences?
Core problem often not lack of resources, but
  how resources are used
Evidence and policy advice alone don’t lead to
  ch...
Because it allows people to:
• know what's going on
• appreciate rules of the game
• be inspired by what others are doing
...
The challenge is to sustain change,
to make this part of everyday life,
institutionalized in daily practice,
simple, regul...
An example of how
we are doing it at Twaweza
Daraja: Raising the Water Press
For millions of people in Tanzania
  getting water is a daily struggle
Dissatisfied Citizens
• An underperforming sector with unmet demand
• An opportunity? Citizens’ motivated for action
A Sustainability Challenge
                                   Functional Waterpoints Only
                                ...
An Equity Challenge
• Distribution of WPs highly unequal
• Targeting of new funds?
                                 Nzega ...
SMS-based feedback mechanism
  Citizens                                          Database

                             Po...
H
   
Conclusion
transparency and accountability can
             energize development

by creating opportunities for people
   ...
Development doesn’t work when it
places faith and funds in unaccountable
  governments, or
runs short-lived boutique proje...
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania
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How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania

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How can transparency and accountability energize development? This presentation prepared for the Hewlett Foundation Board of Directors provides some lessons based on work in Tanzania

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Transcript of "How transparency & accountability can make development work: Lessons from Tanzania"

  1. 1. How transparency & accountability can make development work: Rakesh Rajani
  2. 2. For millions of poor people in East Africa, the best thing that’s happened in recent years may be…
  3. 3. radio (FM stations everywhere)
  4. 4. TV (many stations, growing coverage)
  5. 5. newspapers (15+ dailies)
  6. 6. and most significantly mobile phones (16m subscribers)
  7. 7. Why?
  8. 8. H
  9. 9. H
  10. 10. When it doesn’t work, we do more of the same, harder
  11. 11. So what can be done? 5 stories from Tanzania
  12. 12. 1. education quality
  13. 13. many schools, but money does not reach them and there is little learning
  14. 14. evidence and advice provided over 6 months to ministers, policy-makers, etc but nothing happened
  15. 15. until we supported five journalist to investigate, Made headlines & letters to editors & radio call ins
  16. 16. Result: The Minister of Education personally visited 4 of 5 districts covered in the news Instructed districts to release funds School committees followed-up on use of these funds
  17. 17. 2. teacher’s wellbeing
  18. 18. teachers are at the heart of education, but live in terrible conditions and get paid very late
  19. 19. forcing many to have second and third jobs morale low, absenteeism high
  20. 20. policy makers informed some teachers and NGOs protested but nothing changed
  21. 21. until research on conditions was publicized an advert was broadcast on national TV & discussed on dozens of talk shows
  22. 22. Result: Teachers’ welfare rose to the top of the public agenda Overdraft deal worked out with leading banks, so that teachers are paid on time Increased resources allocated to teacher housing in subsequent budgets
  23. 23. 3. reproductive health
  24. 24. thousands of women continue to die in childbirth and get injuries such as fistula this is known but little happens
  25. 25. WD set up a referral system using maps focusing on prevention and treatment and let everyone know
  26. 26. made wall posters for every clinic & other public places & distributed them through government & newspapers
  27. 27. and through radio
  28. 28. enabling people to speak out about realities on the ground locally
  29. 29. and nationwide through radio and TV
  30. 30. Result: More women demand to deliver at hospitals and being treated right Thousands of women with fistula treated, some after 30+ years of suffering from the condition National referral network under Ministry of Health established
  31. 31. 4. public money
  32. 32. lots of money unaccounted & improperly used Government auditor reports problems, year after year but nothing happens
  33. 33. until audit findings were simplified, color coded, ranked & publicized all over media & distributed countrywide
  34. 34. Result: For the first time people across the nation knew findings and could discuss them The President convened an unprecedented two-day meeting of all Government CEOs Parliament now takes reports more seriously; energized its oversight role
  35. 35. 5. energy
  36. 36. Country had a power crisis Led to a corrupt generator procurement deal In the past they got away with it
  37. 37. but this time people knew what's going on through newspapers
  38. 38. and radio and mobile phone
  39. 39. causing enormous public pressure compelling Parliament to instigate a probe
  40. 40. Result: Prime Minister and 2 ministers resigned, established principle that even top leaders can be held accountable The Richmond generator deal was cancelled Restored public faith in parliament
  41. 41. what can we learn from these experiences?
  42. 42. Core problem often not lack of resources, but how resources are used Evidence and policy advice alone don’t lead to change Good policies are often in place, but they are not implemented What is needed is openness and sustained public engagement
  43. 43. Because it allows people to: • know what's going on • appreciate rules of the game • be inspired by what others are doing • connect with others • engage with local government and services • exert pressure on leaders to respond
  44. 44. The challenge is to sustain change, to make this part of everyday life, institutionalized in daily practice, simple, regular, reliable a matter of course at scale
  45. 45. An example of how we are doing it at Twaweza
  46. 46. Daraja: Raising the Water Press
  47. 47. For millions of people in Tanzania getting water is a daily struggle
  48. 48. Dissatisfied Citizens • An underperforming sector with unmet demand • An opportunity? Citizens’ motivated for action
  49. 49. A Sustainability Challenge Functional Waterpoints Only All Waterpoints (including • Only 54% of rural water-points non-functional points) functioning in 33 surveyed districts
  50. 50. An Equity Challenge • Distribution of WPs highly unequal • Targeting of new funds? Nzega District Less than half (40%) of new funding going to wards with below average coverage Average coverage
  51. 51. SMS-based feedback mechanism Citizens Database Popularising information Media partnerships for Media accountability Local Government
  52. 52. H
  53. 53.  
  54. 54. Conclusion transparency and accountability can energize development by creating opportunities for people to know, connect and act and by providing incentives for those in charge to be more responsive and deliver
  55. 55. Development doesn’t work when it places faith and funds in unaccountable governments, or runs short-lived boutique projects that reach very few Transparency and accountability work can take the best of the latter to fix the former & enable citizens to reclaim government and make services work for them
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