Accountability is Political:   Citizen Monitoring in Tanzania Rakesh Rajani U4 Donor Anti-Corruption Meeting 18 September,...
1.1 Introduction <ul><li>Three main challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to shift focus from policies/plans/ budgets to m...
1.2 Introduction <ul><li>Theory of Change Premises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change is rarely driven by a positivistic relatio...
Outline <ul><li>Can citizens hold government to account? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven concrete examples from HakiElimu’s wo...
2.1 Media Investigations <ul><li>PEDP capitation grant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known not reaching school on time </li></ul><...
2.2 Media Spots <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key issues identified from research, depicted in scenario, question...
2.3 Media Tips <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuable information not accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within...
2.4 Simplifying Information <ul><li>Sending information not enough </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex, dense, inaccessible </li...
2.5 Public competitions <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite public views and suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
2.6 Monitoring Tools <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens monitoring systematically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
2.7 Friends of Education <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning private concern into public action </li></ul></ul><...
In summary <ul><li>7 examples show public engagement is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on implementation and what is h...
3.1 What can donors do? <ul><li>Make Information Public </li></ul>
3.2 What can donors do? <ul><li>Follow the Money Better </li></ul>
3.3 What can donors do? <ul><li>Make Evaluations Truly Independent </li></ul>
3.4 What can donors do? <ul><li>Make Evaluations Truly Independent </li></ul>
3.5 What can donors do? <ul><li>Innovate/Incentivize accountability </li></ul>
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Accountability Is Political, not Technical: Lessons for promoting Accountability in Tanzania

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How does one foster accountability? Lessons from the experience of HakiElimu in Tanzania

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Accountability Is Political, not Technical: Lessons for promoting Accountability in Tanzania

  1. 1. Accountability is Political: Citizen Monitoring in Tanzania Rakesh Rajani U4 Donor Anti-Corruption Meeting 18 September, 2007
  2. 2. 1.1 Introduction <ul><li>Three main challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to shift focus from policies/plans/ budgets to monitoring implementation/ following the money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donors not well placed to evaluate, need truly independent evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments/donors face inevitable conflict of interest, need third parties to drive accountability </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 1.2 Introduction <ul><li>Theory of Change Premises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change is rarely driven by a positivistic relation between evidence/ policy and practice/effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead informed and active citizens are essential… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… to act to improve their situations as well as put pressure on governments to account </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Can citizens hold government to account? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven concrete examples from HakiElimu’s work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Can Donors do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 suggestions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 2.1 Media Investigations <ul><li>PEDP capitation grant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known not reaching school on time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All inside the process efforts tried but no change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media covers it from 5 regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within a month Minister visits 4/5 regions and demands action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other media investigation examples </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2.2 Media Spots <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key issues identified from research, depicted in scenario, questions asked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast nationwide on radio/TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrivalled reach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public debate and action </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 2.3 Media Tips <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuable information not accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within closed door settings not effective (e.g. audit findings) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link info holders with disseminators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some cases forward it on (e.g. to media) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100s stories published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations demanded, + in some cases action as well </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2.4 Simplifying Information <ul><li>Sending information not enough </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex, dense, inaccessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key points lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HakiElimu simplifies, key points (sees forest from tress), gets it out </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PEDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit leaflets (2 Years) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2.5 Public competitions <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite public views and suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On a specific hot topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2004: Corruption in schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Sexual corruption’ identified as No 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis, best entries published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt tries to dismiss exercise … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… which only fuels national debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now (2007) issues are widely acknowledged </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2.6 Monitoring Tools <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens monitoring systematically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First for use/debate at local levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then for national compilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PEDP implementation cf policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local level revelations and debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National level data and understandings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(but bans thwarted work) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 2.7 Friends of Education <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning private concern into public action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends pursue in agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esp. historically excluded groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly mailings, answer questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26,000 Friends to date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept a challenge (development corrupting?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some making a difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their stories inspiring others </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. In summary <ul><li>7 examples show public engagement is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on implementation and what is happening/not plans </li></ul><ul><li>None of the activities explicitly anti-corruption (HakiElimu does not see itself as anti-corruption group) </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3.1 What can donors do? <ul><li>Make Information Public </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3.2 What can donors do? <ul><li>Follow the Money Better </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3.3 What can donors do? <ul><li>Make Evaluations Truly Independent </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3.4 What can donors do? <ul><li>Make Evaluations Truly Independent </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3.5 What can donors do? <ul><li>Innovate/Incentivize accountability </li></ul>

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