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01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON
 

01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON

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01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON

01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON

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    01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON 01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON Presentation Transcript

    • INFORMATION SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
      S. A. AHSAN RAJON
      Ahsan.rajon@gmail.com
      http://sites.google.com/site/ahsanrajon
      +88-01911510286
    • About the course…
      SAD
      System Analysis and Design
      ISAD
      Information System Analysis and Design
      SAD
    • Welcome…
      Easy course; but uninteresting;
      No math; No programming; No logic;
      Simply “voluminous” texts.
      Traditional learning…
      How to do well in exam?
      Understand the topic…
      Note down the “Key points” extracted from the texts.
      Try to match with your usual “day-to-day” concept.
    • CLASS TEST…
      At LEAST THREE class tests…
      If you want more; ... [ ??? ]
      Class Test Schedule
      Week will be fixed by me….
      Dates will be SELECTED by you
      DATES are absolute; not even ask…
    • MATERIALS…
      BOOKS
      SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
      Author: Elias M. Awad
      Edition: Second Edition or Any recent
      Publisher: Galgotia Publications
      Modern System analysis and Design
      Author: Jeffery A. Hoffer, Joey F. George, Joseph S. Valacich, Prabin K. Panigrahi
      Edition: Fourth Edition or recent
      Publisher: Pearson
      SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS
      Author: Jeffery L. Whitten
      Edition: Fifth Edition or recent
      Publisher: McGraw Hill
    • MATERIALS…
      Reference Book
      Information Systems: A Management Perspective
      Author: Steven Alter
      Edition: Third Edition or Any recent
      Publisher: Pearson Education
      OTHER RESOURCES
      Should be provided
      Lecture Slides
      Oops!! SAD with SAD lecture Slides…
    • Monitoring System
      Intelligent Systems
      Hardware System
      Integration System
      Validation System
      Information System
      Verification System
      Testing System
      Interactive Testing
      SYSTEMS
      Production System
      Implementation System
      Management System
      Structured System
      Software Systems
      Ad-hoc System
    • Which should be focused???
      Systems Concepts
      System Development Life Cycle
      Role of System Analyst
      System planning
      Information gathering
      Tools for structured analysis
      Cost and benefit analysis
      System and system-component design
      Miscellaneous
    • Why do we need to study this course?
      Software Systems are based on Information Systems
      Development of Software requires understanding the “existing system set-up”
      Revealing existing set up requires you to understand the organizational paradigm.
      How to have requirement Analysis?
      Then you need data collection
      How to collect data?
      How to record Data?
      How to get a result from that data?
    • Case Study…
      Consider
      University Management System.
      Employee information and Payroll management System.
      Company Automation System/production control system
      National ID project.
      Electronic voting system.
      SMS-based information management system.
    • The course will focus on …
      For any System
      What is the current system?
      How the current system works?
      What are the advantages & disadvantages i.e. problems of present system?
      How Information Technology may be applied (if not applied in the current system)?
      Or how the adopted Information Technology based System may be enhanced?
      Which advantages are obtained by applying the new systems.
      What are the limitations/disadvantages/pitfalls of new systems?
      How to administer/Manage the new system?
    • SYSTEM…
      Derived from Greek word “systema” which means
      An organized relationship among functioning units or components.
      A system exists because it is designed to achieve one or more objectives.
      A system is an orderly grouping of interdependent componentslinked together according to a plan to achieve a specific objective.
    • SYSTEM…
      Component may refer to
      Physical parts
      engines, wings of aircraft or wheels of a car
      Managerial steps
      Planning, Organizing, Directing and Controlling
      Or a subsystem of multilevel structure
    • SYSTEM…
      Components of a system may be simple or complex, basic or advanced.
      There may be a single computer or even be a series of intelligent terminals linked to a mainframe.
      In either case, each component is part of the total system and has to share do its share of work for the system to achieve the intended goal.
    • Implications of Studying a System
      A system must be designed to achieve a predefined objective.
      Interrelationships and interdependence must exist among the components.
      The objectives of the organization as a whole has a higher priority than the objectives of the subsystem.
    • Characteristics of a SYSTEM…
      Organization
      Interaction
      Interdependence
      Integration
      Central Objective
    • System Characteristics: Organization…
      Implies Structure and Order
      Arrangements that helps to achieve objectives
      Hierarchical Relationship
      Such Arrangement portraying a system—subsystem relationship
      Defines authority structure
      Specifies formal flow of communication
      Formulizes the chain of command
    • System Characteristics: Interaction…
      Refers to the manner in which each component functions with other components of the system.
      Interrelationship among the central processing unit, memory and other hardware components enables the computer system to perform.
    • System Characteristics: Interdependence…
      Interdependence means that parts of the organization or computer system works together.
      They are coordinated and linked together according to a plan.
      One subsystem depends on input of another subsystem for proper functioning; that is output of one subsystem is required input of another subsystem.
      No subsystem can function in isolation.
    • System Characteristics: Interdependence
      Task interdependence in computer based systems
      User area
      System Analysis
      Design
      Programming
      Operations
    • System Characteristics: Interdependence…
      University
      Admission
      Courses
      Accounts
      Grants
      Administration
      Internal earnings
      Finance
      Research Outcome
      personnel
      Consultancy
      personnel
      Accounts
      Major Subsystem
      Employment
      Minor Subsystem
      Safety
      Benefits
      Miscellaneous
      Intermediate Subsystem
    • System Characteristics: Integration…
      Refers to the holism of a system.
      Integration is concerned with how a system is tied together.
      More than sharing a physical part.
      It means that parts of the system works together within the system even though the each part performs a unique function.
    • System Characteristics: Central Objective…
      Objectives may be real or stated.
      Achievement of one objective may be a must for moving towards achievement of another one.
    • INFORMATION SYSTEM…
      An information system is an
      arrangement of people, data, process, information presentation and information technology
      that interact to support an improved day-to-day operations in a business
      as well as support the problem solving and decision making needs to management and users.
      [Whitten]
    • INFORMATION SYSTEM…
      Information system may be defined as
      a set of devices, procedures and operating systems
      designed around user based criteria to produce information and
      communicate it to the users
      for planning, control and performance
    • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY…
      Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunication technology (data, voice networks)
    • INFORMATION SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN…
      Information system analysis and design is the complex organizational process whereby computer based organizational systems are developed and maintained.
      Main goal is to improve employee efficiency by applying software solutions to key business tasks
      A structured approach must be used in order to ensure success
      [ Hoffer ]
    • Types of Systems
      Types of Systems
      Physical and abstract
      Open or closed
      Man-made information system
    • Type of Sys: PHYSICAL & ABSTRACT SYSTEMS…
      PHYSICAL SYSTEMS…
      Tangible entities; may be static or dynamic in operation
      E.g. in computer centers, computer hardware are static, programs stored into computers are dynamic
      Data, programs, output and applications change as users’ demands
      ABSTRACT SYSTEMS
      Conceptual or non-physical entities
      E.g. model; representation of real or planned systems.
    • Type of Sys: PHYSICAL & ABSTRACT SYSTEMS…
      TYPES of SYSTEM MODELS
      Schematic Model
      Two dimensional chart describing system elements and linkage
      Flow-System Model
      Concerned with flow of information
      Static system model
      Exhibits pair relationship; e.g. activity-time or cost-quantity
      Gantt chart
      Dynamic System Model
      Describes ongoing consistently changing system
      Trend analysis, probabilistic model.
    • Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…
      Open Systems
      Permits interactions across its boundaries.
      Receives input from and delivers output to outside.
      Information system falls into this category since it must adapt to the changing demands of the user.
      Closed Systems
      Isolated from environmental influences.
      In reality completely closed system is rare.
    • Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…
      CHARACTERISTICS OF OPEN SYSTEMS
      Input from outside
      Entropy
      Process, Output and Cycles
      Differentiation
      Equi-finality
      No matter how you reach the destination; the matter is, the costs and outcome would be the same.
    • Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…
      Input from outside
      Open Systems are Self adjusting and self adapting
      When functioning properly Open Systems reaches into Steady State or equilibrium
      Entropy
      All dynamic systems tend to run down over time resulting in entropy or loss of energy
      Open systems resist entropy by seeking new inputs or modifying the processes to return to a steady state.
    • Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…
      Process, Output and Cycles
      Produce output, operate in cycles, follows continuous processing path
      Differentiation
      Have a tendency towards an increasing specialization of functions
      Equi-finality
      Implies that, goals are achieved through differing courses of actions and a variety of paths.
    • Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…
      Man-Made Information systems
      Recall definition of information systems.
    • Types of INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      Types of (Man-made) Information System
      Formal Information Systems
      Informal Information Systems
      Computer-based Information Systems
    • Formal Information Systems…
      Based on organization based on organization represented by the organization chart
      This chart is a Map of positions and their authority relationships, indicated by boxes and connected by straight lines.
      concerned with the pattern of authority, communication and work flow
      Information is formally disseminated in instructions, memos or reports from top management to the intended users in the organizations
      Also allows feedback up the chain of command for follow-up.
    • Information Systems in Organizations
      Organizational charts depict the hierarchy of employees in an organization
    • CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION…
      STRATEGIC INFORMATION
      Refers to long range planning policies that are of direct interest to upper management.
      Information such as trends in financial investment, human resources changes would be of top company officials who are responsible for developing policies and determining long range goals.
      This type of information is achieved by DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (DSS)
    • CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION…
      MANAGERIAL INFORMATION
      Of direct use to middle management and department heads for implementation and control
      E.g. sales analysis, cash flow projections, financial statements
      This type of information is of use in short and intermediate range planning.
      Maintained with the aid of Management Information System (MIS)
    • CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION…
      OPERATIONAL INFORMATION
      Short term; daily information used to operate departments and enforce day to day rules and regulations of the business.
      E.g. daily employee absence sheets, overdue purchase orders, current stock available for sale
      Operational information is established by Data Processing Systems (DPS)
    • MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION LEVELS…
      UPPER
      DSS
      Decision Support System
      MIS
      Management Information System
      MIDDLE
      DPS
      Data Processing System
      LOWER
    • Informal Information System
      employee based system
      designed to meet personal and vocational needs and to help solve work related problems.
      Knowledge about the inner working of the employee based system is useful during the exploratory face of the analysis.
      Employee co-operation and participation are crucial in training users.
      Since computer can’t provide reliable information without user staff support, a proper interface with the informal communication channels could mean the difference the between the success and the failure of the system.
    • Computer Based Information System
      A third class of the information system realize on the computer for handling the business applications.
      Transaction processing system (TPS)
      Management Information System (MIS):
      Decision Support System (DSS)
    • Management Information System (MIS)
      The level of the manager in the organization is an important factor in determining the kind of information needed to solve a problem.
      Lower level management needs detailed internal information to make day to day relatively structured controlled decisions higher level management.
      For whom the long range objectives are the primary concerns requires summarized information from a variety of sources to attain goals.
      MIS is a person machine system and a highly integrated grouping of information processing function designed to provide management with a comprehensive picture of specific information of specific operations.
    • Management Information System (MIS)
      The primary users of MIS are middle and top management, operational managers and support staff.
      Middle and top management use MIS for
      preparing forecasts,
      special request for analysis
      long range plans and
      periodic reports.
      Operational managers use MIS primarily for
      short range planning and
      periodic and exception reports.
      The support staff finds MIS useful for the
      special analysis of information and
      reports to help management in planning and control.
    • Decision Support System (DSS)
      MIS provides limited support to top level management for decision making whereas DSS advances the capabilities of MIS.
      It assists management in making decisions.
      Decision support system stands for –
      Decision
      emphasizes decision making in problem situation.
      Support
      Requires computer added decision situation enough structure to permit computer support.
      System
      Combines the integrated nature of problem solving suggesting a combine ‘man’ , machine and decision involvement.
    • Decision Support System (DSS)…
      DSS results from adding
      external data sources,
      accounting and statistical models and
      interactive query capabilities.
      The outcone is a system designed to serve all levels of management and top level managements in particular with “what if” unstructured problem situation.
    • Decision Support Systems
    • SIMON’s DECISION MAKING PROCESS…
      Harvard Simon described decision making as a three phase continuous process model.
      • Problem Recognition
      • Gathering information about a problem
      • Calling for a decision
      • Develop alternative Solutions
      • Evaluate Alternative Solutions
      • Actual Selection of a solution for implementation
      Intelligence
      Design
      Choice
    • Expert Systems and Neural Networks
      Expert systems are designed to analyze data and produce a recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on a set of facts and rules
      Knowledge base
      Inference engine
      Knowledge engineering
      Expert system shell
      Fuzzy logic
      A neural network uses computer circuitry to simulate the way a brain might process information, learn, and remember
    • Expert Systems and Neural Networks
      An expert system is characterized by its ability to:
      • Replicate the reasoning of a human expert
      • Work with internal or external data
      • Produce a recommendation or decision
    • THANK YOU !!!