01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON

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01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON

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01 isad-information system analysis and design intro by S. A. AHSAN RAJON

  1. 1. INFORMATION SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN<br />S. A. AHSAN RAJON<br />Ahsan.rajon@gmail.com<br />http://sites.google.com/site/ahsanrajon<br />+88-01911510286<br />
  2. 2. About the course…<br />SAD<br />System Analysis and Design<br />ISAD<br />Information System Analysis and Design<br />SAD<br />
  3. 3. Welcome…<br />Easy course; but uninteresting; <br />No math; No programming; No logic;<br />Simply “voluminous” texts.<br />Traditional learning…<br />How to do well in exam?<br />Understand the topic…<br />Note down the “Key points” extracted from the texts.<br />Try to match with your usual “day-to-day” concept.<br />
  4. 4. CLASS TEST…<br />At LEAST THREE class tests…<br />If you want more; ... [ ??? ]<br />Class Test Schedule<br />Week will be fixed by me….<br />Dates will be SELECTED by you<br />DATES are absolute; not even ask…<br />
  5. 5. MATERIALS…<br />BOOKS<br />SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN<br />Author: Elias M. Awad<br />Edition: Second Edition or Any recent<br />Publisher: Galgotia Publications<br />Modern System analysis and Design<br />Author: Jeffery A. Hoffer, Joey F. George, Joseph S. Valacich, Prabin K. Panigrahi<br />Edition: Fourth Edition or recent<br />Publisher: Pearson<br />SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS<br />Author: Jeffery L. Whitten<br />Edition: Fifth Edition or recent<br />Publisher: McGraw Hill<br />
  6. 6. MATERIALS…<br />Reference Book<br />Information Systems: A Management Perspective<br />Author: Steven Alter<br />Edition: Third Edition or Any recent<br />Publisher: Pearson Education<br />OTHER RESOURCES<br />Should be provided<br />Lecture Slides<br />Oops!! SAD with SAD lecture Slides…<br />
  7. 7. Monitoring System<br />Intelligent Systems<br />Hardware System<br />Integration System<br />Validation System<br />Information System<br />Verification System<br />Testing System<br />Interactive Testing<br />SYSTEMS<br />Production System<br />Implementation System<br />Management System<br />Structured System<br />Software Systems<br />Ad-hoc System<br />
  8. 8. Which should be focused???<br />Systems Concepts<br />System Development Life Cycle<br />Role of System Analyst<br />System planning<br />Information gathering<br />Tools for structured analysis<br />Cost and benefit analysis<br />System and system-component design<br />Miscellaneous<br />
  9. 9. Why do we need to study this course?<br />Software Systems are based on Information Systems<br />Development of Software requires understanding the “existing system set-up”<br />Revealing existing set up requires you to understand the organizational paradigm.<br />How to have requirement Analysis?<br />Then you need data collection<br />How to collect data?<br />How to record Data?<br />How to get a result from that data?<br />
  10. 10. Case Study…<br />Consider<br />University Management System.<br />Employee information and Payroll management System.<br />Company Automation System/production control system<br />National ID project.<br />Electronic voting system.<br />SMS-based information management system.<br />
  11. 11. The course will focus on … <br />For any System<br />What is the current system?<br />How the current system works?<br />What are the advantages & disadvantages i.e. problems of present system?<br /> How Information Technology may be applied (if not applied in the current system)? <br />Or how the adopted Information Technology based System may be enhanced?<br />Which advantages are obtained by applying the new systems.<br />What are the limitations/disadvantages/pitfalls of new systems?<br />How to administer/Manage the new system?<br />
  12. 12. SYSTEM…<br />Derived from Greek word “systema” which means <br />An organized relationship among functioning units or components.<br />A system exists because it is designed to achieve one or more objectives.<br />A system is an orderly grouping of interdependent componentslinked together according to a plan to achieve a specific objective.<br />
  13. 13. SYSTEM…<br />Component may refer to <br />Physical parts<br />engines, wings of aircraft or wheels of a car<br />Managerial steps<br />Planning, Organizing, Directing and Controlling<br />Or a subsystem of multilevel structure<br />
  14. 14. SYSTEM…<br />Components of a system may be simple or complex, basic or advanced. <br />There may be a single computer or even be a series of intelligent terminals linked to a mainframe.<br />In either case, each component is part of the total system and has to share do its share of work for the system to achieve the intended goal. <br />
  15. 15. Implications of Studying a System<br />A system must be designed to achieve a predefined objective.<br />Interrelationships and interdependence must exist among the components.<br />The objectives of the organization as a whole has a higher priority than the objectives of the subsystem. <br />
  16. 16. Characteristics of a SYSTEM…<br />Organization<br />Interaction<br />Interdependence<br />Integration<br />Central Objective<br />
  17. 17. System Characteristics: Organization…<br />Implies Structure and Order<br />Arrangements that helps to achieve objectives<br />Hierarchical Relationship<br />Such Arrangement portraying a system—subsystem relationship<br />Defines authority structure<br />Specifies formal flow of communication<br />Formulizes the chain of command<br />
  18. 18. System Characteristics: Interaction…<br />Refers to the manner in which each component functions with other components of the system.<br />Interrelationship among the central processing unit, memory and other hardware components enables the computer system to perform.<br />
  19. 19. System Characteristics: Interdependence…<br />Interdependence means that parts of the organization or computer system works together. <br />They are coordinated and linked together according to a plan.<br />One subsystem depends on input of another subsystem for proper functioning; that is output of one subsystem is required input of another subsystem. <br />No subsystem can function in isolation. <br />
  20. 20. System Characteristics: Interdependence<br />Task interdependence in computer based systems<br />User area<br />System Analysis<br />Design<br />Programming<br />Operations<br />
  21. 21. System Characteristics: Interdependence…<br />University<br />Admission<br />Courses<br />Accounts<br />Grants<br />Administration<br />Internal earnings<br />Finance <br />Research Outcome<br />personnel<br />Consultancy<br />personnel<br />Accounts<br />Major Subsystem<br />Employment<br />Minor Subsystem<br />Safety<br />Benefits<br />Miscellaneous<br />Intermediate Subsystem<br />
  22. 22. System Characteristics: Integration…<br />Refers to the holism of a system.<br />Integration is concerned with how a system is tied together.<br />More than sharing a physical part.<br />It means that parts of the system works together within the system even though the each part performs a unique function.<br />
  23. 23. System Characteristics: Central Objective…<br />Objectives may be real or stated.<br />Achievement of one objective may be a must for moving towards achievement of another one.<br />
  24. 24. INFORMATION SYSTEM…<br />An information system is an <br />arrangement of people, data, process, information presentation and information technology <br />that interact to support an improved day-to-day operations in a business <br />as well as support the problem solving and decision making needs to management and users. <br />[Whitten]<br />
  25. 25. INFORMATION SYSTEM…<br />Information system may be defined as <br />a set of devices, procedures and operating systems <br />designed around user based criteria to produce information and <br />communicate it to the users <br />for planning, control and performance<br />
  26. 26. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY…<br />Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunication technology (data, voice networks)<br />
  27. 27. INFORMATION SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN…<br />Information system analysis and design is the complex organizational process whereby computer based organizational systems are developed and maintained. <br />Main goal is to improve employee efficiency by applying software solutions to key business tasks<br />A structured approach must be used in order to ensure success<br />[ Hoffer ]<br />
  28. 28. Types of Systems<br />Types of Systems<br />Physical and abstract<br />Open or closed<br />Man-made information system<br />
  29. 29. Type of Sys: PHYSICAL & ABSTRACT SYSTEMS…<br />PHYSICAL SYSTEMS…<br />Tangible entities; may be static or dynamic in operation<br />E.g. in computer centers, computer hardware are static, programs stored into computers are dynamic<br />Data, programs, output and applications change as users’ demands<br />ABSTRACT SYSTEMS<br />Conceptual or non-physical entities<br />E.g. model; representation of real or planned systems.<br />
  30. 30. Type of Sys: PHYSICAL & ABSTRACT SYSTEMS…<br />TYPES of SYSTEM MODELS<br />Schematic Model<br />Two dimensional chart describing system elements and linkage<br />Flow-System Model<br />Concerned with flow of information <br />Static system model<br />Exhibits pair relationship; e.g. activity-time or cost-quantity<br />Gantt chart<br />Dynamic System Model<br />Describes ongoing consistently changing system<br />Trend analysis, probabilistic model.<br />
  31. 31. Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…<br />Open Systems<br />Permits interactions across its boundaries.<br />Receives input from and delivers output to outside.<br />Information system falls into this category since it must adapt to the changing demands of the user.<br />Closed Systems<br />Isolated from environmental influences.<br />In reality completely closed system is rare.<br />
  32. 32. Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…<br />CHARACTERISTICS OF OPEN SYSTEMS<br />Input from outside<br />Entropy<br />Process, Output and Cycles<br />Differentiation<br />Equi-finality<br />No matter how you reach the destination; the matter is, the costs and outcome would be the same.<br />
  33. 33. Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…<br />Input from outside<br />Open Systems are Self adjusting and self adapting<br />When functioning properly Open Systems reaches into Steady State or equilibrium<br />Entropy<br />All dynamic systems tend to run down over time resulting in entropy or loss of energy<br />Open systems resist entropy by seeking new inputs or modifying the processes to return to a steady state.<br />
  34. 34. Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…<br />Process, Output and Cycles<br />Produce output, operate in cycles, follows continuous processing path<br />Differentiation<br />Have a tendency towards an increasing specialization of functions<br />Equi-finality<br />Implies that, goals are achieved through differing courses of actions and a variety of paths. <br />
  35. 35. Type of Sys: OPEN or CLOSED SYSTEMS…<br />Man-Made Information systems<br />Recall definition of information systems. <br />
  36. 36. Types of INFORMATION SYSTEMS<br />Types of (Man-made) Information System<br />Formal Information Systems<br />Informal Information Systems<br />Computer-based Information Systems<br />
  37. 37. Formal Information Systems…<br />Based on organization based on organization represented by the organization chart<br />This chart is a Map of positions and their authority relationships, indicated by boxes and connected by straight lines.<br /> concerned with the pattern of authority, communication and work flow<br />Information is formally disseminated in instructions, memos or reports from top management to the intended users in the organizations<br />Also allows feedback up the chain of command for follow-up.<br />
  38. 38. Information Systems in Organizations<br />Organizational charts depict the hierarchy of employees in an organization<br />
  39. 39. CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION…<br />STRATEGIC INFORMATION<br />Refers to long range planning policies that are of direct interest to upper management.<br />Information such as trends in financial investment, human resources changes would be of top company officials who are responsible for developing policies and determining long range goals. <br />This type of information is achieved by DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (DSS)<br />
  40. 40. CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION…<br />MANAGERIAL INFORMATION<br />Of direct use to middle management and department heads for implementation and control<br />E.g. sales analysis, cash flow projections, financial statements<br />This type of information is of use in short and intermediate range planning. <br />Maintained with the aid of Management Information System (MIS)<br />
  41. 41. CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION…<br />OPERATIONAL INFORMATION<br />Short term; daily information used to operate departments and enforce day to day rules and regulations of the business. <br />E.g. daily employee absence sheets, overdue purchase orders, current stock available for sale<br />Operational information is established by Data Processing Systems (DPS)<br />
  42. 42. MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION LEVELS…<br />UPPER<br />DSS<br />Decision Support System<br />MIS<br />Management Information System<br />MIDDLE<br />DPS<br />Data Processing System<br />LOWER<br />
  43. 43. Informal Information System<br />employee based system <br />designed to meet personal and vocational needs and to help solve work related problems. <br />Knowledge about the inner working of the employee based system is useful during the exploratory face of the analysis. <br />Employee co-operation and participation are crucial in training users. <br />Since computer can’t provide reliable information without user staff support, a proper interface with the informal communication channels could mean the difference the between the success and the failure of the system.<br />
  44. 44. Computer Based Information System<br />A third class of the information system realize on the computer for handling the business applications.<br />Transaction processing system (TPS)<br />Management Information System (MIS):<br />Decision Support System (DSS)<br />
  45. 45. Management Information System (MIS)<br />The level of the manager in the organization is an important factor in determining the kind of information needed to solve a problem. <br />Lower level management needs detailed internal information to make day to day relatively structured controlled decisions higher level management. <br />For whom the long range objectives are the primary concerns requires summarized information from a variety of sources to attain goals. <br />MIS is a person machine system and a highly integrated grouping of information processing function designed to provide management with a comprehensive picture of specific information of specific operations. <br />
  46. 46. Management Information System (MIS)<br />The primary users of MIS are middle and top management, operational managers and support staff. <br />Middle and top management use MIS for <br />preparing forecasts,<br />special request for analysis<br />long range plans and <br />periodic reports.<br />Operational managers use MIS primarily for <br />short range planning and <br />periodic and exception reports. <br />The support staff finds MIS useful for the <br />special analysis of information and <br />reports to help management in planning and control.<br />
  47. 47. Decision Support System (DSS)<br />MIS provides limited support to top level management for decision making whereas DSS advances the capabilities of MIS. <br />It assists management in making decisions. <br />Decision support system stands for – <br />Decision<br />emphasizes decision making in problem situation. <br />Support<br />Requires computer added decision situation enough structure to permit computer support. <br />System<br />Combines the integrated nature of problem solving suggesting a combine ‘man’ , machine and decision involvement. <br />
  48. 48. Decision Support System (DSS)…<br />DSS results from adding <br />external data sources, <br />accounting and statistical models and <br />interactive query capabilities. <br />The outcone is a system designed to serve all levels of management and top level managements in particular with “what if” unstructured problem situation. <br />
  49. 49. Decision Support Systems<br />
  50. 50. SIMON’s DECISION MAKING PROCESS…<br />Harvard Simon described decision making as a three phase continuous process model.<br /><ul><li>Problem Recognition
  51. 51. Gathering information about a problem
  52. 52. Calling for a decision
  53. 53. Develop alternative Solutions
  54. 54. Evaluate Alternative Solutions
  55. 55. Actual Selection of a solution for implementation</li></ul>Intelligence<br />Design<br />Choice<br />
  56. 56. Expert Systems and Neural Networks<br />Expert systems are designed to analyze data and produce a recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on a set of facts and rules<br />Knowledge base<br />Inference engine<br />Knowledge engineering<br />Expert system shell<br />Fuzzy logic<br />A neural network uses computer circuitry to simulate the way a brain might process information, learn, and remember<br />
  57. 57. Expert Systems and Neural Networks<br />An expert system is characterized by its ability to:<br /><ul><li> Replicate the reasoning of a human expert
  58. 58. Work with internal or external data
  59. 59. Produce a recommendation or decision</li></li></ul><li>THANK YOU !!!<br />

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