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Chapter 1 pharmacy and health care(2)

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  • There were actually many contributors – see noted in the preface of the book – from several pharmacists to nurses and certified pharmacy technicians
  • Welcome! Covering history of pharmacy – taking you through a time line of notable historic marks in pharmacy (ancient roots, medicine in nature, first antibiotic discovered, pharmacy today, educational requirements, computers) Well this will be very interesting; as you may be surprised as well as intrigued with the information I will be sharing
  • There wasn’t always doctors, but priests or advisors/counslers that helped when illness arose. Imhotep was an advisor to many pharaohs of Egypt and eventually became the Eygyptian god of medicine. In ancient history; there was more supernatural background
  • There were egpytian, greek, and chineses roots in medicine. Beginning with Imhotep, who was the first physician known by name
  • “ Deo scora dees” this book was in greek and actually had pictures of the corresponding plants or flowers
  • 4 basic substances of the body that need to be in balance for an individual to be healthy
  • Looking into some of the natural means, even the barks of trees were found to be helpful. (NOW CHANGE SLIDE)
  • Malaria- parasitic infection. Human to human via mosquito. It attacks RBC, inflames liver causing severe flu-like sx. TX-chloroquinine/malarone (proquanil)/lariam(mefloquine)
  • Hipp-ok-cratees
  • Be sure to mention the roots for words helps in knowing the meaning of a word. Ie ology- the study of; pan-all Materia medica- Dioscorides, a Greek physician, wrote original five books describing over 600 plants and their medicinal properties. Later called the pharmacopia
  • 1721 Boylston innoculated his own son and a slave with cowpox to produce immunity against smallpox-never went to medical school- the 1 st medical school wasn’t founded until 1765 UPENN 1796 Jenner innoculated his gardeners son with cowpox to prove it would produce immunity to smallpox
  • Date in time by Years of life expectancy
  • Between 1970 and 2000, total health care costs in the US increased by over 1,500 percent to $1.353 trillion dollars. By 2010 costs are projected to increase to $2.726 trillion dollars.
  • Abx-drug/substance that harms or kills microorganisms like bacteria and fungi. Antitoxin- substance that acts against a toxin in the body-vaccine. Hormones- chemicals produced by our body that regulates body function and processes.Materia Medica- Greek physician Dioscorides wrote – 5 books over 600 plants and their healing properties. Pharmacognosy-study of physical, chemical, biochemical, biological properties of drugs as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Pharmacy Technician 4 th Edition Created by Dr. Bisrat Hailemeskel, Associate Professor and Director of Drug Information Services of the School of Pharmacy at Howard University Copyright © 2010 Morton Publishing and Perspective Press
    • 2. The Pharmacy Technician 4E Chapter 1 Pharmacy & Health Care
    • 3. Chapter Outline
      • Describe the origins of pharmacy
      • Medicine through the ages
      • Medicine in the 20 th Century
      • Pharmacy today
      • Computers in pharmacy
    • 4. Origins
      • In earliest times, medicine was based in magic and religion.
      • Sumerians living around 4,000 BC believed that demons were the cause of illness .
      • In many cultures, physicians were priests, and sometimes considered as gods.
    • 5. Ancient Origins
      • Egyptian
        • Imhotep
        • Papyrus Ebers
      • Greek
        • Aesculapius
        • Hippocrates - Proposed that disease came from natural, not supernatural causes.Established the Hippocratic Oath
      • Chinese
        • Shen Nung Penn Tsao
    • 6. Dioscorides (First century)
      • Wrote the first standard text/manual on drugs called De Materia Medica.
      • Also called PHARMACOPEIA
      • Published 5 books that covered over 600 plants and their healing properties
      • Main influence for Western pharmaceutics for over 1600 years
    • 7. Galen (Second century)
      • Galen
      • Established the theory of humors which needed to be in balance for good health (blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile)
      • Scientific approach – education, observation, and logic which formed the cornerstone for Western medicine
      • Galenical pharmacy
        • The first pharmacy
        • Described the process of creating extracts of active medicinals from plants
    • 8. Natural Medicine
      • Besides looking to the supernatural, ancient man also looked to the natural world for medical answers.
      • Sources of Drugs - Drugs come from various sources and can be classified as:
        • Natural
        • Synthetic: created artificially
        • Synthesized: (created artificially but in imitation of naturally occurring substances)
        • Semisynthetic: (containing both natural and synthetic components)
    • 9. A Treatment for Malaria
      • One of the most deadly disease in world’s history
      • Still deadly in developing countries
      • The first medicine was obtained from the Bark of a Peruvian Tree
      • Cinchona – Quinine
        • Also called “Jesuite’s powder”
    • 10. Cocaine, the First Anesthetic (numbing agent)
      • The Indians of the Andes used to chew coca leaves for its medicinal effects and also to increase endurance
      • Cocaine is the active ingredient in the leaves
      • Carl Koller, a Viennese surgeon in 1884 used it as the first local anesthetic which revolutionized surgery and dentistry
      • Because of its harmful properties when abused, other synthetic substitutes were produced such as procain (Novacain®) and Lidocaine
    • 11. Natural Aspirin
      • The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates and Dioscorides both wrote about the pain relieving ability of a plant
      • The bark of a white willow tree grew in the Mediterranean
      • The active ingredient was identified more than 2,000 years later and called salicylic acid
      • Because of the difficulty of taking salicylic acid by mouth, acetylsalicylic acid, popularly known as aspirin, was developed synthetically (man-made )
      • It is the most widely used drug in the world
    • 12. Foxglove – the First Heart Medicine
      • The British Physician, William Withering published his study of the foxglove plant. 1785
      • The active ingredient was digitalis.
        • Widely used for heart failure, arrhythmyias
        • Now is called – digoxin
        • Narrow therapeutic index window
    • 13. Common Terms Used in Pharmacy
      • Pharmacology -The study of drugs (from the Greek pharmakon means drug)
      • Pharmacognosy - The study of physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs as well as drugs from natural sources
      • Pharmacopeia – An official listing of drugs and issues related to their use
      • Pharmaceutical – Of or about drugs; also, a drug product
      • Panacea – A cure-all (from the Greek panakeia)
      • Materia Medica – A dictionary of medicinal plants
    • 14. Medicine History Timeline
      • Boylston (18 th Century) - The first person to administer smallpox vaccine.
        • Edward Jenner – successfully uses vaccine from milder cowpox disease to inoculate against smallpox
      • Serturner (19 th Century) - Extracts morphine from opium.
      • Pasteur (19th Century) – Proved that heat can be used to kill microorganisms associated with food spoilage. Wide acceptance of the “Germ Theory”
      • Banting & Best (20 th Century) - Show that insulin lowers blood sugar in dogs and became a known drug to treat diabetes.
    • 15. The First Antibiotic - Penicillin
      • Alexander Fleming discovered a fungus which produces a chemical that kills bacteria.
      • He named it penicillin.
      • Penicillin was the first antibiotic drug.
      • A pharmaceutical company Pfizer developed a method to mass produce it, and it was used to save millions of lives during the World War era .
    • 16. Medicine History Timeline
      • 1950’s
        • Watson and Crick : the two people who identified the structure of DNA genetic make up
      • 1960 – 1990’s
        • The birth control pill was introduced
        • AZT becomes the first drug approved by the FDA for AIDS treatment.
        • HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) is introduced for AIDS treatment .
    • 17. The 20 th Century
      • The average life span in the United States increased by over twenty years in the 20th Century.
      • 1900 – early 50’s……….. 2000 – 77.9 years
      • In the US the life span increased about 64% in the last century
    • 18. The 20 th Century
      • A major factor in the increased health and life expectancy seen in this century, was the dramatic growth in pharmaceutical medicine.
      • With the increasing availability of powerful drugs, their regulation became more important than ever.
      • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was established in response to this need to regulate the sale and use of medication in the US.
    • 19. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
      • Monitors drugs before a drug is marketed in the United States
      • Also monitors after the drug is approved for sale to the public for any adverse effects – called Post Marketing Surveillance
      • Recalls drugs if they have proven dangerous within public safety
    • 20. Discovery of New Drugs
      • Pharmaceutical companies spend 1/6 of their income on research and development.
      • Bringing drugs to market is a long and difficult process. Thousands of chemicals must be tried.
      • Drugs must go through an extensive testing and approval process before it can be made available to the public.
      • The length of time from the beginning of development through testing and to ultimate FDA approval is often more than ten years .
    • 21.
      • Pharmacists : Consistently rated among top trusted professionals in US
      • Gallop poll (2008)
        • Nurses
        • Pharmacists
        • Medical Doctors
        • Police Officers
        • Clergy
    • 22. Pharmacy Today
      • Prescription is a written paper for a drug product by a licensed prescriber to treat a patient.
      • Prescriptions filled increased by 72% while the number of pharmacists increased by 15% (1997 – 2007).
    • 23. Education and Licensing Requirements
      • Pharmacists Education - Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree - 6 year program – the only degree program to become a pharmacist
        • 2 years Pre-Pharmacy (calculus, chemistry, biology)
        • + 4 years of pharmacy education
        • Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT)
        • Completes required Internship or practice setting experience
      • Residency in specialty area is optional
    • 24. Education and Licensing Requirements
      • Pharmacists Licensing
        • Required by all states, and overseen by board of pharmacy
        •  Pass certification exams: law and national boards
        • Perform experiential training under a licensed pharmacist
      • Continuing education for license renewal
        • 30 hours every two years
        • States may differ on the type of continuing education
    • 25. Pharmacy Settings
      • Community Pharmacies - Over 50,000 community pharmacies account for approximately half of the distribution of prescription drugs.
      • Hospitals - The next greatest area of employment
      • Mail order pharmacies sell drugs by mail to patients.
        • The fastest growing area.
      • Long-term care pharmacies provide drugs to patients in nursing homes and other long-term facilities.
      • Managed care pharmacies provide service to patients in managed care insurance.
      • Home care pharmacies provide drugs to patients in their home.
    • 26. Economic Trends
    • 27. Computers in Pharmacy
      • Patient Profile
        • Allows complete information about patients, including prescribers, insurer, and medication history, and allergies; identifies drug interactions for patients taking multiple medications
      • Billing
        • Checks policies of third parties such as HMOs and insurers; authorizes third party transactions and credit cards electronically
      • Prescriber Profile
        • Includes state identification numbers and affiliations with facilities and insurers
      • Labeling
        • Creates label, receipt, customer information, and usage instructions
    • 28. Computers in Pharmacy
      • Pricing
        • Provides prices for medications and possible substitutes, automatically updates prices, scans prices from bar codes.
      • Education/Counseling
        • Patient information about drugs, usage, interactions, allergies, etc.
      • Product Selection
        • Locates items by various means (brand name, generic name, product code, category, supplier, etc.). Gives updates of prices and other product information.
      • Inventory
        • Adjusts inventor y as prescriptions are filled, analyzes turnover, produces status reports, automatically re-orders based on inventory levels, and generates purchase orders.
    • 29. Terms To Remember
      • Antibiotic
      • Antitoxin
      • Data
      • Hormones
      • Human genome
      • Materia medica
      • Panacea
      • Pharmaceutical
      • Pharmacognosy
      • Pharmacology
      • Pharmacopeia
      • Synthetic