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Session7 handout


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  • 1. Brand Positioning and Values
  • 2. Where we have been
    • We understand
      • Brand equity and the psychology behind it
      • A function of awareness, strength, favorability, and uniqueness of the nodes and links in memory
    • BE is created in a progressive fashion
      • Establish proper Brand Identity
      • Create Brand meaning
      • Elicit positive Brand responses
      • Forge strong Brand relationship
  • 3. Identifying and establishing Brand Positioning
    • The Integrated Brand Model
      • Six elements that define a brand
        • Unified
        • Leverage each other
        • Brand Drivers a function of Organization Drivers
      • These six elements serve as a “roadmap” to our Brand Equity model
        • At every step, we can figure out what to do from our Brand and Organization Drivers
  • 4. Brand Positioning
    • Brand Positioning
      • Brand positioning is all about identifying the optimal location in our customers’ minds for our Brand and our competitors
      • Proper positioning makes it easier to facilitate understanding of our Brand
    • Taken to its’ logical conclusion, you might think of the Principle as an indicator of a brand’s position
  • 5. First Steps
    • The first step is to identify and establish Brand positioning and brand values (Keller)
    • Positioning is the foundation for creating and fostering the desired knowledge and perceptions of your customers
      • remember our 3 types of associations in memory?
      • We can really only manage one (positive), can respond to a second (negative), and have no control over the third (idiosyncratic)
  • 6. Proper Positioning
    • Proper positioning
      • Clarifies what the Brand is all about
      • How it is both unique and similar to competitive brands
      • Why customers should purchase and use the Brand
  • 7. Example: Pepsi One
    • Millions in R&D for ingredient Ace-K (artificial sweetener)
    • 37,000 hours to design the can
    • 100 Million Marketing budget
    • Original Target Market
      • 20-30 yo Males who did not like taste of diet colas
  • 8. Pepsi One Brand Conveyors: Then and now
    • Full flavored, healthy alternative to regular cola
    • “ Only one has it all”
    • “ True cola taste, one calorie”
    • “ Tastes like regular cola”
    • Celeb: Tom Green
    • “ Breakthru Sweetener”
    • “ Too good to be one calorie, but it is”
    • Celeb: Kim Katrell
      • Better for 20-30 yos?
  • 9. In order to Position a Brand…
    • … you must decide
      • Who the Target Consumer is
      • Who your main competitors are
      • How the Brand is similar to your competitors
      • How the Brand is different from your competitors
    • Where do you get this information?
      • Your BRAND INVENTORY!!
  • 10. Target Market Segmentation
    • A market segment should have similar knowledge structures and brand knowledge
      • Similar knowledge structures might mean similar perceptions and beliefs about your Brand
    • There are 2 ways to segment
      • Descriptive: characteristics of the individuals in the market
      • Behavioral: grouped by how individuals in the market perceive or use the product
  • 11. Toothpaste Segmentation
    • Four main segments
    • Sensory segment
      • Flavor and product appearance
    • Sociables
      • Brightness of teeth
    • Worriers
      • Decay Prevention
    • Independent
      • Low Price
    3 stripes, one for each of the 3 main segments Flavor, Brightness Decay Prevention
  • 12. Target Market Segmentation
    • Which works better? Behavioral
      • Easier to match perceptions (right/wrong) or beliefs (right/wrong) with strategy (reinforce/change).
      • Many times, behavior and descriptive go hand in hand
    • Demographics may be basis of targeting, but tend to represent some underlying behavioral reason
      • In some cases, demographics may mask underlying differences
  • 13. Advantages of demographic segmentation
    • Demographic segmentation is well known, easier to buy media on that basis
    • However, with the emergence of non-traditional media, this advantage is getting smaller
      • Web ads can target by demographics traditionally difficult to access
        • AA, Asian Americans, College students
  • 14. Criteria for a Segment
    • Identifiability
      • Can the segment be easily identified?
    • Size
      • It is big enough to bother?
    • Accessibility
      • Are distribution outlets and media available to us to reach the segment?
    • Responsiveness
      • How favorably will the segment respond to a tailored marketing program? (this one is tough to quantify)
  • 15. Segmentation Example
    • Mobil’s 5 types of gasoline buyers
      • Price Drivers
        • Not brand loyal, driven by price, has been focus for years
      • Road Warriors
        • Upper income, MAMen, 25-50k/year, buy food and services with credit card (Premium gas)
      • True Blues
        • Brand loyal, Mid income, pay with cash
      • Generation F3
        • Fuel, food, fast: half under 25 yo, in and out quickly
      • Homebodies
        • Soccer moms using whatever is on their route
  • 16. The Competition
    • Market Segments define competitors
      • They are targeting the same segments 
    • Don’t be too narrow in your definition of competitors
    • Consider Sprite
      • Product Type (non-cola soft drinks)
      • Product Category (all soft drinks)
      • Product Class (all beverages)
  • 17. Baskin-Robbins Competitive analysis
    • Original Tagline:
      • 31 Flavors
    • 100 M$ facelift in late 1990s
    • Expanded from Ice cream
      • Frozen coffee drinks
      • Fruit Smoothies
    • Perceived competitors
      • Starbucks
      • Jamba Juice
      • TCBY
      • (and still Dairy Queen)
  • 18. Part 3: POP and POD
    • POD (Point of Difference)
      • Strong, favorable, unique brand associations
      • May be any kind of attribute or benefit
    • Two types of PODs
      • Attribute Based
        • Functional, performance related differences
      • Image Based
        • Affective, experiential, brand image related differences
  • 19. Part 3: POP and POD
    • POP (Point of Parity)
      • Associations that are shared with other brands
    • Two types
      • Category: attributes that are required to include your product as a member of that category
      • Competitive: POP that negate your competitors PODs
    • POPs can be “good enough”, but PODs should be “superior
  • 20. Similar concepts
    • Unique Selling Proposition (USP; Reeves and Bates)
      • Advertisers should give a compelling reason to buy a product that competitors could not match
        • What component of the IBM reflects this?
    • Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA)
        • The advantage of delivering superior value in the marketplace for a prolonged period of time
        • Further, SCAs can result from any component of the firm
          • Similar to notion that Principle exists in every part of the firm
  • 21. POP AND POD: BMW over the years 1971 1975 1985 1991
    • International
    • Desirability
    • Fun to drive
    • Economical
    • Affluence, exclusivity
    • Fun to drive
    • Affluence, exclusivity
    • Fun to drive
  • 22. Managerial Issues
    • How do I begin to position my Brand?
      • Communicate category membership
      • This is the “frame of reference”, where customers can activate what they know about the category and apply it to your POPs and PODs
    • How?
      • Communicate category benefits
      • Compare your product to exemplars
      • Rely on product descriptor
  • 23. Sneaky psychology sidebar - Exemplars
    • Memory is modeled in a hierarchical was as well
      • Exemplars can be real or amalgamated (prototypes)
      • Generated from experiences and exposures from the environment
    • Exemplar example (heh)
    • Compare your picture to your other team members
      • Is it the same or different
  • 24. Ways to convey category membership (cont): Comparison to Exemplars
    • Thus, two strategies:
      • Created exemplar (not a real product)
      • Real exemplar (coke when talking about cola-based carbonated beverages)
    • NOTE: Keller defines exemplars as
      • Well known, noteworthy brands in a category
    • Pepsi One example (after repositioning)
  • 25. Nuts and Bolts
    • How do I decide on my PODs and POPs?
    • POPs
      • Analysis of category
        • What attributes do all of my competitors have? I probably need to have those, or my competitors automatically have a POD
        • POPs get you included in category
    • PODs are more difficult
      • Don’t use PODs that are product centric (dominate competition) but customer centric (uniquely address need of customer)
  • 26. Managerial issues
    • Criteria for POD
      • Desirability
        • Must be Relevant
        • Must be Distinctive
        • Must be Believable
      • Deliverability
        • Feasibility
        • Communicability
        • Sustainability
  • 27. Establish POP and POD in marketplace
    • Difficulty: Many attributes that make up POP and PODs are negatively opposed
      • Low price vs. High quality
      • Tastes Great vs. Less filling
    • Separate the attributes
    • Leverage equity in another entity
    • Redefine the relationship
  • 28. Defining Values and Principle
    • You already know how to do this
      • Your values and principle are part of your Org and Brand drivers!!!
      • Keller calls principle “Brand Mantra”
    • Your Values, Principle, and position all are related
      • NOTE: Keller says that associations are values, but we have a stricter definition of associations from the IBM
  • 29. Principles a la Keller: What makes a good Principle?
    • Three components
      • Emotional component (Comfortable)
      • Descriptive modifier (Casual)
      • Brand function (clothing)
    • Other Examples
      • Nike: Authentic, Athletic Performance
      • Fun Family Entertainment