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Plumbing

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  • 1. Plumbing In Building Systems .
  • 2. Introduction • History. • What is Plumbing and its working. • Components. • Equipments and tools. • What is needed in Plumbing Systems? • What is DWV?
  • 3. History  Major and most essential component of civil engineering.  Must in every field of construction like commercial buildings, houses, industries, school , hospital ,etc.  Pluming science has been developed since medieval period.
  • 4.  Exists from the time when the early human civilization took place.  Earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing from leakages.  Improvement was slow until the growth of modernly populated cities , it took pace in 19th Century.
  • 5.  Lead piping was commonly used until the second world war. But as the awareness of lead poisoning grew it was replaced by copper piping.
  • 6. The Great bath at Mohen jo daro.
  • 7.  Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains fittings, valves, valve assemblies, and devices installed in a building for the distribution of water for drinking, heating and washing, and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems.  The basic part of plumbing is discussed below, yet the input to a plumbing pipes is for fresh water from corporation of the government used in the basic needs of a consumer.
  • 8.  The plumbing system is really made up of two systems: the supply system that brings in fresh water, and the drain-waste-vent system that takes out used water and sewage.  The drain-waste-vent system, commonly abbreviated DWV, also lets air in and waste gases out.  Between these two systems are the fixtures (sinks, tubs, toilets, and so on).
  • 9.  To increase efficiency and reduce costs, design the plumbing so that fixtures are clustered close together.  Well planned buildings have rooms needing plumbing placed back to back or above and below each other.  Every plumbing system design begins with identification of needs.  Consider the kind and number of fixtures along with the quantity of both hot and cold water that will likely be used.  With these needs in mind, select adequate piping for water supply and DWV for each fixture.
  • 10. Components of Water Distribution System 1. Water Services 2. Backflow preventer 3. Main shut off valve 4. Pressure reducing valve 5. Isolation valve
  • 11. Water services  1.Corporation valve  A connection to the street main that is approved by the municipal water authority , consisting of a connection or tap and a valve  2.Curb valve  An underground valve accessible from the surface to enable shut-off of the water services outside of a building  3.Water meter  Records water consumption for revenue billing and other purposes
  • 12. Backflow preventer Prevents water from within a building from flow back into the public water main, which would otherwise contaminate the public water supply. Types: •Double check valve •Reduced pressure zone Main shut off valve A means to shut off all water supply from within a building
  • 13. Pressure reducing valve • Required where pressure exceeds 80 psi • High water pressure can damage plumbing fixtures, cause leaks Isolation valves •Isolation valves required at each riser •“stop valves” required at each plumbing fixture
  • 14. Equipment and tools It includes : water meters , pumps, expansion tanks, water filters , water softeners, water heaters, heat exchangers, gauges . Specialized plumbing tools includes : Pipe wrenches , flaring pliers , pipe bending machine , pipe cutter . Joining tools such as soldering torches and crimp tools.
  • 15.  New tools have been developed to help plumbers fix problems more efficiently.  For example,  Plumbers use video cameras for inspections of hidden leaks or problems, high pressure hydraulic pumps
  • 16. What is needed for the plumbing supply system? •Supply by tapping into the city’s water mains. •Water meter to measure water usage. •Pressure to circulate water into a building. •Water towers to store water.
  • 17.  Short and direct supply lines to minimize the number of fittings  Use of pipe of adequate size but not larger than needed.  Estimating the demand for water at each fixture.  Suitable pipe for supply lines.  Some measurements
  • 18. What is DWV? How DWV is done in rural and urban area?  DWV system connections are simpler for city properties.  City employees are responsible for making the connections to the municipal sewer system  If the plumbing system has a storm drain system it is used to carry away only water that comes from guttering, downspouts, driveway drains, sump pumps, floor drains, and foundation drain tiles or perforated pipe.
  • 19. What happens if DWV is not off appropriate size  The ideal slope is ¼ inch per foot of run. If the drain lines are too small they will tend to clog.  If drain lines are too large, they are more difficult to install, cost more, and are not efficient in carrying away the waste.  Waste solids tend to settle in oversized pipes.
  • 20.  The amount of liquid that can flow from a fixture is the basis for determining the size of drain-waste piping.  The load factor is the number of gallons of water that must be discharged per minute from a fixture or group of fixtures
  • 21.  An average bathroom sink can discharge 1 cubic foot (approximately 7 ½ gallons per minute) or a load factor of 1.  Venting is vertical piping that is used to permit air to circulate into the piping resulting in a relatively constant air pressure throughout the system and allows the exhaust of sewer gas buildup above the roof.
  • 22. Design aspects of waste vent system  Good design uses the least possible materials and fewest turns.  All fitting connections should be smooth and all bends or curves gradual.  As previously mentioned, grouping fixtures helps keep the cost down.
  • 23.  A clean-out plug is a removable plug located where the pipe changes from vertical to horizontal.  The DWV system is generally divided into the soil stack, waste lines, vents, and traps.  Traps also help stop air from entering the waste pipe while liquid is flowing and thus eliminate noise. Traps may be P, S, or drum.