• What is Plumbing and its working.
• Equipments and tools.
• What is needed in Plumbing Systems?
• What is DWV?
Major and most essential component of civil
Must in every field of construction like commercial
buildings, houses, industries, school , hospital ,etc.
Pluming science has been developed since medieval
Exists from the time when the early human civilization
Earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making
use of asphalt for preventing from leakages.
Improvement was slow until the growth of modernly
populated cities , it took pace in 19th Century.
Lead piping was commonly used until the second
world war. But as the awareness of lead poisoning grew
it was replaced by copper piping.
Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains fittings,
valves, valve assemblies, and devices installed in a
building for the distribution of water for drinking,
heating and washing, and the removal of waterborne
wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes,
tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems.
The basic part of plumbing is discussed below, yet the
input to a plumbing pipes is for fresh water from
corporation of the government used in the basic needs
of a consumer.
The plumbing system is really made up of two systems:
the supply system that brings in fresh water, and the
drain-waste-vent system that takes out used water and
The drain-waste-vent system, commonly abbreviated
DWV, also lets air in and waste gases out.
Between these two systems are the fixtures (sinks,
tubs, toilets, and so on).
To increase efficiency and reduce costs, design the
plumbing so that fixtures are clustered close together.
Well planned buildings have rooms needing plumbing
placed back to back or above and below each other.
Every plumbing system design begins with
identification of needs.
Consider the kind and number of fixtures along with the
quantity of both hot and cold water that will likely be
With these needs in mind, select adequate piping for
water supply and DWV for each fixture.
Components of Water Distribution
1. Water Services
2. Backflow preventer
3. Main shut off valve
4. Pressure reducing valve
5. Isolation valve
A connection to the street main that is approved by
the municipal water authority , consisting of a connection
or tap and a valve
An underground valve accessible from the surface to
enable shut-off of the water services outside of a building
Records water consumption for revenue billing and
Prevents water from within a building from
flow back into the public water main, which
would otherwise contaminate the public water
•Double check valve
•Reduced pressure zone
Main shut off valve
A means to shut off all water supply from
within a building
Pressure reducing valve
• Required where pressure exceeds
• High water pressure can damage
plumbing fixtures, cause leaks
•Isolation valves required at each riser
•“stop valves” required at each plumbing
Equipment and tools
It includes :
water meters , pumps, expansion tanks, water
filters , water softeners, water heaters, heat exchangers,
Specialized plumbing tools includes :
Pipe wrenches , flaring pliers , pipe bending machine ,
pipe cutter .
Joining tools such as soldering torches and crimp tools.
New tools have been developed to help plumbers
fix problems more efficiently.
Plumbers use video cameras for inspections
of hidden leaks or problems, high pressure
What is needed for the plumbing
•Supply by tapping into the city’s water mains.
•Water meter to measure water usage.
•Pressure to circulate water into a building.
•Water towers to store water.
Short and direct supply lines to minimize the number
Use of pipe of adequate size but not larger than
Estimating the demand for water at each fixture.
Suitable pipe for supply lines.
What is DWV? How DWV is done in
rural and urban area?
DWV system connections are simpler for city properties.
City employees are responsible for making the connections
to the municipal sewer system
If the plumbing system has a storm drain system it is used
to carry away only water that comes from guttering,
downspouts, driveway drains, sump pumps, floor drains,
and foundation drain tiles or perforated pipe.
What happens if DWV is not off
The ideal slope is ¼ inch per foot of run. If the drain lines
are too small they will tend to clog.
If drain lines are too large, they are more difficult to install,
cost more, and are not efficient in carrying away the waste.
Waste solids tend to settle in oversized pipes.
The amount of liquid that can flow from a fixture is
the basis for determining the size of drain-waste
The load factor is the number of gallons of water that
must be discharged per minute from a fixture or group
An average bathroom sink can discharge 1 cubic foot
(approximately 7 ½ gallons per minute) or a load
factor of 1.
Venting is vertical piping that is used to permit air to
circulate into the piping resulting in a relatively
constant air pressure throughout the system and
allows the exhaust of sewer gas buildup above the roof.
Design aspects of waste vent
Good design uses the least possible materials and
All fitting connections should be smooth and all bends
or curves gradual.
As previously mentioned, grouping fixtures helps keep
the cost down.
A clean-out plug is a removable plug located where the
pipe changes from vertical to horizontal.
The DWV system is generally divided into the soil
stack, waste lines, vents, and traps.
Traps also help stop air from entering the waste pipe
while liquid is flowing and thus eliminate noise. Traps
may be P, S, or drum.