CONVERSION OF WASTE MATERIAL
INTO USEFUL PRODUCTS
MAJOR SOURCES OF WASTE MATERIAL
1. Municipal sources of waste:
waste from household, different
organization, schools, colleges, other
institutions, restaurant & other public
eg. remnant food, used plastic bottles,
plastic/polythene bags, broken
utensils/furniture, old cloths/shoes,
food/product packets, used papers etc.
2. Medical sources of waste:
waste from different health care institute
like hospitals, nursing homes
involves items like different expired
medicines, operational ingredients, used
needles & syringes, used bandage, blood,
3. Waste from Automobiles:
includes exhaust contain various poisonous
gases due to incomplete combustions of
petrol in cars.
old not working vehicles are dumped that adds
more waste to the environment.
4. Industrial sources of waste:
types of fossils fuel for energy which produces
poisonous smoke containing hydrocarbon and
5. Construction sources of waste:
•waste from different construction activities
of building roads
• involves different concrete waste, wood,
plastic bags of cements & building
6. Electronic sources of waste:
• different electrical/electronic waste that
•involves TV, computers, vacuum cleaners,
telephones, AC machines etc.
WHAT IS RECYCLING?
Recycling is a process in which waste materials are treated in a
way that they can be used again.
Recycling is a key component of modern waste
management and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse,
Recycle" waste hierarchy.
Recyclable materials include many kinds
of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics.
Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center
or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and
reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing.
NEED FOR RECYCLING
It reduces the demand up
on new resources.
Cuts down the cost and
effort of transport and
Use waste which would
otherwise be lost to landfill
COLLECTION and PROCESSING:
- drop-off centers
- buy-back centers
-waste collection vehicle
Recyclables are then sent to a material
recovery facility to be SORTED and
PREPARED for MANIFACTURING.
Recyclables are bought and sold like any
More and more of today’s products are made with total or
partial recycled content
i.e., newspapers, paper ,towels, soft drink containers,
detergent bottles, steel cans,etc.
Recyclables are also used in innovative applications such as
asphalt, carpeting, benches, pedestrian bridges
Buying/Selling recycled products completes
the recycling loop.
As consumers demand more environmentally
sound products, manufacturers will continue
to produce high quality recycled products.
FACTS ON RECYCLING WATER
Water is a very precious resource and needs
to be used carefully
Conserve water in your everyday routine
There are several countries in the world,
where people still do not have clean drinking
Sanitize grey water
Problem faced by Israel.
They are recycling 75% waste water next to
them are spain 12%
How to face this problem-
Conscious collection and storage of rainwater to
cater to demands of water, for drinking, domestic
purpose & irrigation is termed as Rainwater
There are two types of rainwater harvesting
1.surface run of harvesting
2.Rooftop rainwater harvesting
USES OF RECYCLED WATER
golf course irrigation
cooling water for power plants and oil refineries
processing water for mills, plants
COMMANLY USED CONSTRUCTION
Land Clearing Residuals
o Concrete is one of the most important construction material.
o Approximately one ton of concrete is used per capita per
year throughout the world.
o Recycling of concrete –
o irreversible process
o crushed into thin particles
o mixed as aggregate
o Benefits of
recycling concrete -
• Cost of aggregates
• Disposal costs
• Environmental damage
• Less consumption of
• Valuable landfill space
SOURCES OF WOOD WASTE
Fence panels & posts
Tree branches and green
Wooden garden sheds
Removal of woods , bushes & grass
For agriculture, urban &
other land purposes
Trees and bushes—can be
recycled as compost or
PROCESS OF RECYCLING
Metals, glass, Papers, Rubbers &
Wood crushing :
1) It reduces the size of wood
into small pieces.
2) Oversize pieces are recirculated
fine particles are obtained.
RECYCLED WOOD PRODUCTS
Horse bedding, pet bedding, poultry bedding
Mulch and pathway covering
Reduce cutting of new trees
Preserves forests habitats for animals and birds
Increase the job in economy
o Broken & discarded brick can be used as
construction infill or as aggregate for non-structural
o Brick that are part of demolish rubble can be
crushed and used in the same way.
o Brick masonry rubble contains mortar upto
20% by volume.
o Crushed brick & roofing tiles are the bulk of
demolition waste which were earlier being dumped
in landfills, but now they can be recycled into mortar
plaster & building blocks.
Recycle clean brick by crushing material. Market
outlets for recycled brick include aggregate,
drainage media, and general fill.
Producing bricks from waste
combination of vegetable oil-
based binders which are mixed
with waste aggregates.
mixture is shaped into bricks and
During the heating process the oil
undergoes a number of complex
chemical reactions which
transforms it from a viscous liquid
into a solid binding matrix.
Producing the products uses no
water, and creates no waste.
Reuse sheathing, terracotta, slate, or
untreated cedar tiles, Metal materials can also
o One ton of recycled waste glass corresponds
to savings in energy equivalent to 125lit of fuel
oil & 1.2tons of raw materials.
o Recycling of glass reduces non-biodegradable
glass out of landfills.
o Glass can be used as substitute for Quartz &
Feldspar in the manufacturing of high strength
procelain sanitary ware.
o It can also be used to make mineral wool- an insulation product & in
granular form as part of the aggregate in concrete mixes.
o In USA an experiment was conducted on metal free-glass constituents
separated from municipal incinerator residue. This glass was used to
produce brick, glass-wool thermal insulation & as a major component
of a light weight aggregate used in structural concrete.
o There is an over abundance of waste plastic.
o It is very difficult to dispose plastics.
o Waste plastics can be shredded & used as
filler in other materials such as concrete
& also in construction of roads
o House hold plastic waste can also be recycled
to obtain artificial light weight aggregates
o Plastics reduces the possibilities of cracking.
This material is man made and is a by
product of the oil industry.
There are two types of plastic :
These are described as plastics that can
be reformed using heat : this plastic has
a memory, it returns to its original flat
shape when re-heated.
Acrylic , ABS , Styrene
These are described as plastics that do
not reform using heat, they “SET” and
cannot be reshaped .
Melamine , Polyester resin ,Urea
Here are some examples :
Reusing as Bags
Pack things with plastic bags
Crafting with Plastic Bags
Store perishable food in plastic bags
Reuse them for their initial purpose
Make use of plastic bags for traveling
Use plastic bags for household needs
RECYCLING - FACTS AND FIGURES
Today USA recycles 28 % of its waste, a rate that has
almost doubled during the past 15 years
Recycling of specific materials has grown even more
42% of PAPER
40% of all PLASTIC soft drink bottle
55% of all ALLUMINIUM beer and soft drink cans
57%of all STEEL packaging
52 % of all major APPLIACES are now RECYCLED
RECYCLING IS GROWING
Twenty years ago only one curbside
recycling program existed in the USA
-9,000 curbside programs,
-12,000 recyclables drop-off centers and
- 480 material recovery facilities
had been established in the USA