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Transcript

  • 1. Mendel’s Laws of Heredity Why we look the way we look...
  • 2. What is heredity ?
    • The passing on of characteristics (traits) from parents to offspring
    • Genetics is the study of heredity
  • 3. Mendel used peas...
    • They reproduce sexually
    • They have two distinct, male and female , sex cells called gametes
    • Their traits are easy to isolate
  • 4. Mendel crossed them
    • Fertilization - the uniting of male and female gametes
    • Cross - combining gametes from parents with different traits
  • 5. Questions
    • What did Mendel cross?
    • What are traits ?
    • What are gametes ?
    • What is fertilization ?
    • What is heredity ?
    • What is genetics ?
  • 6. What Did Mendel Find?
    • He discovered different laws and rules that explain factors affecting heredity .
  • 7. Rule of Unit Factors
    • Each organism has two alleles for each trait
        • Alleles - different forms of the same gene
        • Genes - located on chromosomes, they control how an organism develops
  • 8. Rule of Dominance
    • The trait that is observed in the offspring is the dominant trait (uppercase)
    • The trait that disappears in the offspring is the recessive trait (lowercase)
  • 9. Law of Segregation
    • The two alleles for a trait must separate when gametes are formed
    • A parent randomly passes only one allele for each trait to each offspring
  • 10. Law of Independent Assortment
    • The genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
  • 11. Questions...
    • How many alleles are there for each trait?
    • What is an allele ?
    • How many alleles does a parent pass on to each offspring for each trait
  • 12. Questions...
    • What do we call the trait that is observed ?
    • What case (upper or lower) is it written in?
    • What about the one that disappears ?
    • What case is it written in?
  • 13. Phenotype & Genotype
    • Phenotype - the way an organism looks
        • red hair or brown hair
    • genotype - the gene combination of an organism
        • AA or Aa or aa
  • 14. Heterozygous & Homozygous
    • Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different ( Aa )
    • Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same ( AA or aa )
  • 15. Dihybrid vs Monohybrid
    • Dihybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in two traits ( AAEE with aaee )
    • Monohybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in only one trait ( AA with aa )
  • 16. Questions...
    • What is the phenotype ?
    • What is the genotype ?
    • What is homozygous ?
    • What is heterozygous ?
    • What is monohybrid crossing ?