Growing plants
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Growing plants

on

  • 2,266 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,266
Views on SlideShare
2,266
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
35
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Revision presentation for Mammalian Physiology and behaviour. Recap on main points of specification, and on what pupils should still be able to recall from KS3 and KS4 Next slide to summarise the topic before going into detail on each one.
  • SQA- List the functions of 3 main parts of the seed of a dicotyledon ie. seed coat, embryo, food store
  • SQA Outline the effect of temperature, and availability of water and oxygen on germination Describe the changes in percentage germination that occur over a range of temperatures
  • SQA- List the functions of the parts of flowers i.e. sepal, petal, stamen, anther, stigma, ovary, nectary
  • Botanical gardens booklet 1- flowers and pollination (blue)
  • SQA- Explain the structure of wind and insect-pollinated flowers in relation to sexual reproduction
  • B
  • Botanical gardens booklet 2 World of plants –fruits and seeds green
  • SQA- Describe the growth of a pollen tube and fusion of gametes SQA- Describe fertilisation and fruit formation Botanics fruit formation Tomato- juicy fruit Bean- pod Sycamore- small dry nut Hazelnut- hard outer wall Botanics info Pollen tubes measured were 6, 9, 11 cm long!!
  • Soft and juicy- tomato, plum and apple Hard and dry- sycamore, dandelion
  • Botanical gardens booklet 2 World of plants –fruits and seeds green
  • SQA- Give one example for each of the following different dispersal mechanisms: wind, animal – internal, animal - external Plus water but rare and don’t need to know about it. Water- seeds float and can travel for miles down rivers and into sea Parachute/wings- sycamore, dandelion Pepperpot- poppy Botanics Animal external Mule grab- wool/hair, trample burr-foot, hooked burr-wool, mistletoe-beak Animal internal Brightly coloured to attract animal Like to eat as sweet, nutrient source Seeds pass through stomach must be able to resist acid Wind Sycamore 110cm, dandelion 163cm, elm 50cm, pine 79cm (by throwing seeds in air?)
  • SQA- Give one example for each of the following different dispersal mechanisms: wind, animal – internal, animal – external Examples animal internal- Cherry, tomato
  • SQA- Give one example for each of the following different dispersal mechanisms: wind, animal – internal, animal – external animal external Mistletoe has a sticky substance on the outside. Hooks on outside- burdock Carried and dropped- hazelnuts
  • Photocopied handout of seed to cut and stick.
  • File in box in animal house with polypocketed commentary (white paper) of tape
  • SQA Describe asexual reproduction by runners and tubers Botanics book 3 asexual reproduction Yellow
  • Tuber info from http://www.foodsubs.com/Tubers.html
  • ACTIVITY WORKBOOK p 39 Growing potatoes PS
  • Bulb drawings tulip and non-t from www.hort.cornell.edu/.../wmiller/bulb/type.html
  • Source www.tulips.com/all-about-bulbs.cfm?body=bulbs...
  • Info card in box file in animal house- blue sheet polypocketed.
  • SQA- List the advantages of both sexual and asexual reproduction to plants
  • SQA- State what Is meant by the term “clone”
  • ACTIVITY WORKBOOK p40 Dandelion roots PS
  • SQA- Describe ways of propagating flowering plants artificially by cuttings and graftings Source counties.cce.cornell.edu/.../propagation.htm
  • SQA- Explain the advantages to man of artificial propagation in flowering plants
  • ACTIVITY WORKBOOK p42 Air Layering in clematis PS
  • Q from Leckie book

Growing plants Growing plants Presentation Transcript

  • Topic 2 The World of Plants Standard Grade Biology
  • World of Plants is divided into: A- Introducing plants B- Growing plants (Pollination, Fertilisation, Asexual reproduction) C- Making food
  • The life cycle of a plant
    • There are 7 stages in the life cycle of a plant.
    seed / fruit Formation seed dispersal germination flower formation pollination fertilisation development
  • Seed Structure
    • Parts are:
    Seed coat Forms a tough protective layer Food store Provides the embryo plant with food. Embryo shoot Embryo root Embryo – grows into plant
  • Seed Dissection
    • Using a scalpel, carefully dissect your seed in half lengthways.
    • Draw a diagram of what you can see.
    • Identify the parts,
    • and label your drawing
    • (workbook p13).
  • Seeds
  • Investigation: Germination
    • This is an Exam Board Investigation that makes up part of your Practical Abilities grade (20% of finals)
    • Planning may be done in small groups but after this you must work on your own
    • Write in your Investigation booklet.
  • What affects germination?
    • 3Bio2 Brainstorm 16/03/07
    • Spacing / number of seeds
    • Humidity / water volume
    • Type of seeds
    • Size of seeds
    • Type of soil / mass
    • Temperature
    • Depth of planting
    • Gases / oxygen levels
    • Measure by % germination after set time
  • Germination and Temperature
    • Example of results table. Also draw a graph.
    • What conclusions can you draw from your experiment?
    • How could you have improved it?
    Temperature o C No. of seeds No. of seeds germinated Percentage germination 4 25 20 25 50 25
  • Germination conditions
    • Seeds need certain conditions to germinate:
      • Water
        • to activate enzymes which digest stored food
      • Oxygen
        • Needed for the production of energy for germination
      • Warmth
        • Needed for the enzymes to work effectively.
    • Germination is the development of a new plant from the embryo in a seed.
  • Germination and Temperature
    • The best temperature for germination of a species of plant is known as the optimum temperature .
    • The optimum temperature is normally between 15 o C and 30 o C.
  • Structure of a Flower
  • Petal Stigma Anther
  • Petals Stigma Anther Filament Ovary Sepals Ovules Nectaries Style Collect a cut-out flower, colour it in and put it together. Carpel female parts Stamen male parts
  • What do the parts do? Sepals- protect the flower when it is a bud Petals- colourful to attract the insects Nectaries- give out sugary liquid to attract insects Stamen - anther produces male sex cells (pollen) Carpel- stigma traps pollen Style is where pollen tube grows down to female sex cells. Carpel- ovary produces female sex cells (ovules)
  • Quick Test
    • Why is the seed coat important?
    • Name the parts of the embryo plant.
    • Why is the food store in a seed important?
    • Name the three factors required for germination.
    • Where are a plant’s sex organs found?
    • Name two parts of a flower that attract insects.
    • Name the male part of a flower.
    • Which part of the flower contains ovules?
    • Which part of the flower produces pollen?
    • Which part of a flower catches pollen grains?
  • Pollination
    • Pollination involves the transfer of pollen (male gamete ) from the anther to the stigma (outermost female part)
    • If it is in the same flower it is called
    • self-pollination .
    • If between different flowers it is called
    • cross-pollination
    • Plants are pollinated by insects or the wind .
  •  
  • Insect Pollinated Plants
  • Wind Pollinated Plants
  • Pollination Activity
    • Look at the Botanics Posters
    • Which features are from wind pollinated or insect pollinated plants?
    • Workbook p28
      • Construct a table to show the differences between insect and wind pollinated plants.
  • Pollination Summary dull light dangling feathery none bright colour sticky inside flower sticky makes sugar Structure Wind Pollinated Insect Pollinated Petals Pollen Stamen Stigma nectar
  • Hayfever
    • World of plants workbook
      • G – pages 34 &35
      • C- pages 36 & 37
        • Answer Q 1 – 5 on hayfever
        • and
        • Answer Q 1 – 5 on pollen
        • in the air from Feb - Sept
  • Fertilisation
    • Fertilisation involves the fusion of the nucleus of the male gamete (in the pollen) with the nucleus of the female gamete (in the ovules).
  • Fertilisation
  • Pollen tubes
    • The pollen grain grows a tube.
    • The tube reaches an ovule.
    • The gamete nuclei fuse (fertilisation) and a zygote (seed) forms.
  • Pollen tube growth
  • Fertilisation Once fertilisation has taken place the zygote (fertilised ovule )becomes a seed , and the ovary becomes a fruit . The petals die and fall off. The plant seeds are in the fruit .
  • What are fruits like?
    • The fruits can be:
    • - soft & fleshy
    • - hard & dry
    • What fruits can you think of?
    • What are their seeds like?
    • Draw a table with headings for each type and write some examples for them.
  • Types of Fruits Soft & fleshy Hard & dry Apple Tomato Hazelnut
  • Seed Dispersal- why?
    • Seeds must be carried away (dispersed / scattered) from the parent plant to:
    • Reduce overcrowding
    • Reduce competition for:
    • - Water
    • - Light
    • - Nutrients
  • Seed Dispersal Dispersal method Description Seeds/ Fruits Wind Seeds are designed to travel as far as possible. May have extensions which act as parachutes or wings. Fruits may be shaken like a pepper pot.
  • Seed Dispersal Dispersal method Description Seeds/ Fruits Animal (internal) Fruit is brightly coloured to attract animals. When eaten the seed travels with the animal, survives acidic digestive juices and is passed out in the faeces.
  • Seed Dispersal Dispersal method Description Seeds/ Fruits Animal (external) Some have little hooks or sticky substances so they stick onto the animal’s fur, are carried away and rubbed off later. Some carried away by animals and dropped.
  • Activity
    • Cut out the seeds, match and stick them into appropriate columns in a table, for:
    • Wind
      • Animal (external)
      • Animal (internal)
      • [There is also mechanical (eg broom, sea cucumber) and water (eg coconut) but you don’t need to know them for Standard grade]
  • Activity
    • Listening exercise on seed dispersal
      • Listen to the tape,
      • Use the commentary to help you answer questions on your handout.
    World of Plants Workbook p41 Comparing Lime and Sycamore seeds. Go through the problem solving activity
  • Quick Test-A
    • What term is used to describe male and female gametes?
    • What is pollination?
    • Name the two types of pollination.
    • Describe the differences in the pollen between insect and wind pollinated plants.
    • Explain why the stigmas of wind pollinated flowers hang outside the flowers.
  • Quick test-B
    • Why do wind pollinated flowers not produce nectar?
    • How does the male gamete reach the female gamete?
    • What is a fruit?
    • Name three ways in which fruits and seeds are dispersed.
    • Why is it important that fruits and seeds are carried away from the parent plant?
  • Types of reproduction Sexual reproduction Involves 2 parents and sex cells ie. pollen and ovule join to make a new individual.
    • Asexual reproduction
    • Involves 1 parent and no sex cells.
    • Ways they naturally reproduce include:
    • - Tubers
      • - ( Bulbs )
      • - Runners
  • Tubers Tubers are underground food stores which stores food over the winter and provides a new plant with food until it can make its own. Food made by the new plant is sent to make new tubers. Thereby reproducing itself. Examples: potato, artichoke, yam, cassava, water chestnut, arrowroot Taro- Japanese potato
  • Arrowroot arrowroot = arrow root = Chinese potato (this name also is used for jicama ) = goo = seegoo = arrowhead = Chinese arrowhead = tse goo = ci gu = tsu goo Notes:   The name arrowroot is more commonly associated with a thickener that's made from the plant. A fresh arrowroot tuber looks like a small onion, only without the layers. It should be peeled, and then it can be boiled or stir-fried. Look for it in Chinese markets during the winter.
  • Cassava cassava = casava = manioc = mandioca = tapioca root = yucca = yucca root = yuca root = Brazilian arrowroot   Pronunciation:    kuh-SAH-vuh Notes:   People in Hispanic countries use cassavas much like Americans use potatoes.  There's both a sweet and a bitter variety of cassava. The sweet one can be eaten raw, but the bitter one requires cooking to destroy the harmful prussic acid it contains. 
  • Topinambour tapioca root Notes:  Water chestnuts are delightfully sweet and crisp- if you buy them fresh. You need to peel off their brown jackets and simmer them for five minutes before stir-frying. Tinned Water chestnuts are easily available but not nearly as good. If you use them, blanch them first in boiling water for thirty seconds.  Topinambour Water chestnut Chinese water chestnut
  • Bulbs Bulbs are also underground food stores which work in the same way as tubers. The difference is that bulbs have thick fleshy ‘leaves’. Keukenhof gardens near Amsterdam Holland.
  • Examples: snowdrop, crocus, daffodil, iris, lily, hyacinths, amaryllis, onion, garlic. Stargazer lily
  • 3. Dec. - Jan. Cooling Period Rest period. In order for bulbs to bloom in the spring they need weeks of at least 5 o C. Frost at this time doesn’t harm them. 1. Sept.- Oct. Planting Time The tulip bulbs are going to be planted twice as deep as the bulb is high. They have no roots at this stage. 2. November Making Roots The roots start growing out of the base, establish themselves taking nutrients from the soil. Mother bulbs get ready for winter. 4. Feb. – March G rowing Period The bulbs begin to change as the starch, or carbohydrates in them turns to sugar. As this occurs, the leaves and flower gradually push up-wards out of the bulb. 5. April – May B looming Time The tulips are in bloom-they receive their nourishment from the roots-only the brown skin of the bulb remains as all of the energy has gone to the bloom. 6. May – June Regeneration After flowering the blooms are cut and the leaves are left on the plant. The new daughter-bulbs use the food in the leaves to grow. 7. July - Sept. Multiplying Up to five small bulbs can be expected to grow out of the mother bulb. They form their roots slowly, and develop their blooms and leaves within the bulb, for next year's plant.
  • Runners Runners are side shoots which grow out from the parent plant. Buds form at points along the runner and eventually these buds form roots and grow into new plants. Examples: spider plant ( Anthericum ), strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa)
  • Flame violet ( Episcia reptans ) Collect Information Card “ Asexual Reproduction” Take short notes from it.
  • Activity
    • World of plants workbook
    • Read p20
    • “ Advantages of asexual reproduction”
    • Read p32 & 33.
      • Copy and complete the table.
      • Summarising advantages & disadvantages of sexual versus asexual reproduction
  • Reproduction- advantages Asexual Sexual Genetically identical offspring (clones) which have parent’s strong characteristics (but weak ones also passed on) and are suited to their environment. Narrow distribution spreading over the area quickly as no vulnerable stages involved. Genetically different offspring- variation . More chance of survival if conditions change. Wide distribution Reduces competition for water/light/nutrients as no dense growth around the parent. Using seeds allows the offspring to travel to new areas.
  • Clones
    • A clone is the name given to the genetically identical plants produced from a single parent plant.
    • They are formed during asexual reproduction only.
  • Artificial Propagation People can make use of plants’ ability to reproduce asexually (instead of using seeds) by using methods of artificial propagation such as: - Cuttings - Graftings Again this produces genetically identical offspring (clones).
  • Cuttings They can be placed in moist soil or water (and sometimes dipped in rooting powder). Cuttings are small pieces of stem with some leaves attached, the new plant grows from this.
  • Grafting A cut stem of one plant (with good flower or fruit growth) (the graft) is taken and firmly attached to the rootstock of another plant (which has a strong, established root system) (the stock) . Examples- roses, fruit trees
  • Grafting- advantages Allows you to clone the commercial qualities of a particular fruit variety on another tree. Seed trees have highly variable fruit quality. They come into production much earlier (2-3 years) than trees grown from seed (5-10 years).
  • Activity World of Plants Workbook p42 The effect of rooting powder on cuttings Collect some graph paper and work through the problem solving activity
  • Activity World of plants workbook p33 “ Artificial propagation- commercial advantages” Read page. Collect Information sheet Write short notes on it.
  • Commercial aspects Artificial propagation has allowed us to adapt and improve plants for our own use. Some of the benefits include:
    • Quick production of large numbers of genetically identical plants.
    • Specific varieties, desired features or consistent quality can be produced especially in fruit, flowers.
  • Quick Test-C
    • How many parents are involved in asexual reproduction?
    • Name 3 ways in which plants reproduce asexually.
    • Give 2 examples of plants that reproduce asexually by producing runners.
    • What term is used to describe a population of genetically identical plants?
    • Name 2 common methods of artificial propagation.
    • Give the commercial advantages of artificial propagation.
    One Runners, tubers, bulbs Spider plant, strawberry Clones Cuttings, grafting Quick method, producing large numbers of plants, of known quality and specific variety
  • This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.