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  • 1. Network Addressing Networking for Home and Small Businesses – Chapter 5ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1
  • 2. Purpose of an IP Address  A logical network address that identifies a host  A host (end-user) must have a NIC card – workstations – servers – printers – router interface  Each packet will contain a source and destination IP address Packet Tracer Activity 5.1.1 – Section 2ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  • 3. IP addresses  32 binary digits  4 octets  Dotted decimal notation  IP Version 4 – most common form of IP addresses  Over 4 billion possible IP addressesITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  • 4. Binary Numbers  The IP address is made up of binary numbers (1 or 0)  Humans must be able to talk computer language to send data  We do this by converting our numbering system (Base 10 to binary)  Let’s try some . . . Convert 140 to binary Convert 10 to binary Convert 11010111 to Base 10 Convert 11111110 to Base 10 Time to play a game -- Online Activity 5.1.2 – Section 3ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
  • 5. Parts of an IP Address  Hierarchial – made up of 2 parts • network • host – determined by IP class  Similar to your phone number – Area code = network – phone number = hostITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  • 6. Purpose of the Subnet Mask  Helps identify network bits (all 1s) and host bits  Boolean math or “ANDING”  What happens if both source and destination IP are on the same network??ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  • 7. Types of IP Addresses  Class A – Range 1-127 – N.H.H.H – First bit in octet will be a 0 – Default subnet mask • 255.0.0.0 – can create over 16 million host addresses • 224 – 2 = 16,777,214 to be exact • why do you subtract 2??? – Used in large organizationsITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  • 8. Types of IP Addresses  Class B – Range 128-191 – N.N.H.H – First bit in octet will be a 1 – Default subnet mask • 255.255.0.0 – can create over 65,000 host addresses • 216 – 2 = 65,534 to be exact – Used in medium-sized organizationsITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  • 9. Types of IP Addresses  Class C – Range 192 -223 – N.N.N.H – First two bits in octet will be a 11 – Default subnet mask • 255.255.255.0 – can create 254 hosts • 28 – 2 = 254 to be exact – Used in small organizationsITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
  • 10. Types of IP Addresses  Class D – Range 224 - 239 – used for multicasting – not for commercial use  Class E – Range 240 - 255 – reserved for experimental use – not for commercial useITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  • 11. Private IP Addresses  Helps avoid the problem of limited IP addresses  Allows hosts to communicate locally without each device needing a public IP address  Not routed on the Internet; blocked by the ISP router  Private address ranges assigned by RFC 1918 – Request for comment – all classes can be used for any size network – most use Class AITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  • 12. Unicast Address  Most common type of address  Intended for a specific host  Must have both destination IP and MAC in the headerITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  • 13. Broadcast Address  All ones in the host portion of the IP address – Class C address: 204.33.4.0 (N.N.N.H) – Broadcast address: 204.33.4.255  MAC address all Fs – FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FFITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  • 14. Multicast Address  Send packet to a group of devices  Must use multicast address range  Range 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255  Used for remote gaming  MAC address begins with: – 01-00-5EITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  • 15. Using Static IP Addressing  Manually configured by the network administrator  Advantages – useful for printers, servers, etc – increased control of resources (security)  Disadvantages – time consumingITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  • 16. Using Dynamic IP Addressing  Automatic assignment of IP addresses  Useful if frequent change in users (wireless hotspot)  Uses DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server  IP addresses leased for a period of time – if host is removed from the network (turned off), the IP address goes back into the pool of IP address  Preferred method for large networks – reduces the burden of network supportITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  • 17. Configuring DHCP  If host is configured as DHCP client, it will not have a – IP address – Subnet Mask – Default Gateway  Clients send a DHCP address – Broadcast IP and MAC • only DHCP server replies  Server responds with DHCP offer of an IP address  Host/client sends DHCP request asking server to use the IP address  Server responds with DHCP acknowledgmentITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  • 18. Obtaining an IP address from DHCP server  Multifunction device (Linksys Router) provides services to clients (SOHO network)  Configuring the DHCP server – Enter router default IP address and subnet mask for internal interface • IP = 192.168.1.1 • Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.0 –On DHCP screen • check range • number of users • lease time (24 hours by default)ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  • 19. Purpose of a Gateway  Used by the router to provide the path through which hosts on one network can communicate with hosts on a different network  Default gateway address – IP address of the router interface  If DHCP is being used – the DHCP server will automatically send the correct IP interface to the host to use as the default gatewayITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  • 20. Address Assignment  ISR (Integrated Services Router)  Default IP address – Class C Private Address – Configured on router interface  Internal hosts must be assigned addresses within the same networkITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
  • 21. Address Management  Direct Connection – direct connection from PC to ISP through modem – public address assigned to the host  Connection through Integrated Router – more than one host needs access to the Internet – modem connected to ISR  Connection through Gateway Device – ISR and modem in one unit – connect directly to ISPITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  • 22. Using NAT with a Home or Small Business Network  NAT (Network Address Translation)  Translates private IP addresses into unique public address for Internet communication  Only packets destined for different network use NATITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  • 23. ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23