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# Chapter 5

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### Chapter 5

2. 2. Purpose of an IP Address  A logical network address that identifies a host  A host (end-user) must have a NIC card – workstations – servers – printers – router interface  Each packet will contain a source and destination IP address Packet Tracer Activity 5.1.1 – Section 2ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
3. 3. IP addresses  32 binary digits  4 octets  Dotted decimal notation  IP Version 4 – most common form of IP addresses  Over 4 billion possible IP addressesITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
4. 4. Binary Numbers  The IP address is made up of binary numbers (1 or 0)  Humans must be able to talk computer language to send data  We do this by converting our numbering system (Base 10 to binary)  Let’s try some . . . Convert 140 to binary Convert 10 to binary Convert 11010111 to Base 10 Convert 11111110 to Base 10 Time to play a game -- Online Activity 5.1.2 – Section 3ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
5. 5. Parts of an IP Address  Hierarchial – made up of 2 parts • network • host – determined by IP class  Similar to your phone number – Area code = network – phone number = hostITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
6. 6. Purpose of the Subnet Mask  Helps identify network bits (all 1s) and host bits  Boolean math or “ANDING”  What happens if both source and destination IP are on the same network??ITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
7. 7. Types of IP Addresses  Class A – Range 1-127 – N.H.H.H – First bit in octet will be a 0 – Default subnet mask • 255.0.0.0 – can create over 16 million host addresses • 224 – 2 = 16,777,214 to be exact • why do you subtract 2??? – Used in large organizationsITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
8. 8. Types of IP Addresses  Class B – Range 128-191 – N.N.H.H – First bit in octet will be a 1 – Default subnet mask • 255.255.0.0 – can create over 65,000 host addresses • 216 – 2 = 65,534 to be exact – Used in medium-sized organizationsITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
9. 9. Types of IP Addresses  Class C – Range 192 -223 – N.N.N.H – First two bits in octet will be a 11 – Default subnet mask • 255.255.255.0 – can create 254 hosts • 28 – 2 = 254 to be exact – Used in small organizationsITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
10. 10. Types of IP Addresses  Class D – Range 224 - 239 – used for multicasting – not for commercial use  Class E – Range 240 - 255 – reserved for experimental use – not for commercial useITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
11. 11. Private IP Addresses  Helps avoid the problem of limited IP addresses  Allows hosts to communicate locally without each device needing a public IP address  Not routed on the Internet; blocked by the ISP router  Private address ranges assigned by RFC 1918 – Request for comment – all classes can be used for any size network – most use Class AITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
12. 12. Unicast Address  Most common type of address  Intended for a specific host  Must have both destination IP and MAC in the headerITE PC v4.0Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12