Internet e ICT4D


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Intervento al corso "Salute Globale e Sviluppo" organizzato dall'Università di Milano Bicocca, Gennaio-Febbraio 2011

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Internet e ICT4D

  1. 1. <ul><li>Roberto Polillo </li></ul><ul><li>Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e Comunicazione </li></ul><ul><li>Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca </li></ul><ul><li>Corso “Salute globale e sviluppo” Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca </li></ul><ul><li>Villa Breme-Forno, Cinisello, 9 febbraio 2011 </li></ul>Internet and ICT4D
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>What is ICT4D </li></ul><ul><li>ICT development and digital divide </li></ul><ul><li>Internet evolution and ICT4D </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples </li></ul><ul><li>Some conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. What is ICT4D
  4. 4. ICT4D <ul><li>Information and Communication Technologies for Development “ The application of ICT within the field of socio-economic development, international development and human rights ” (Wikipedia) </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinariety, different approaches, philosophies, goals, ... </li></ul><ul><li>We bring with ourselves our story, … </li></ul>
  5. 5. What does it mean &quot;development&quot;? <ul><li>Development means different things to different people </li></ul><ul><li>At its core, it involves concepts of &quot;progress&quot; and &quot;growth&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot be simply equated to the growth of GNP or personal purchasing power… </li></ul><ul><li>Development is a multi-dimensional entity, involving empowerment, participation, …. </li></ul>
  6. 6. HDI : H uman D evelopment I ndex <ul><li>Developed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme, ), from 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Covering almost 200 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic dimensions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HEALTH : Life expectancy at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDUCATION : Education Index ( adut literacy and enrolment at the primary, secondary and tertiary schools) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INCOME : Per-capita GDI Index </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. HDI divide in 2010 See
  8. 8. Why ICT can contribute to development <ul><li>Information and Communication </li></ul>Supporting and managing interaction processes of any kind Collecting, storing, processing and making available data and information Providing media for human communication, interaction, collaboration and socialization
  9. 9. Indeed… <ul><li>There is a strong correlation between the HDI of a Country and its &quot;level of ICT development &quot; (see later on) </li></ul>
  10. 10. But ICT paradigms are changing fast… 1965 1985 2005+ Mainframe computing Client-server computing Cloud computing Mobile access
  11. 11. Evolution of ICT devices
  12. 12. Three phases of ICT4D <ul><li>ICT4D 0.0: mid 1950s -late 1990s Focus on computing/data processing for back-office applications in large governement and private sector organizations in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>ICT4D 1.0: late 1990s – late 2000s Millennium Development Goals and development of Internet in rich countries  investment in ICT infrastructure and programmes. The diffusion on Telecentres. </li></ul><ul><li>ICT4D 2.0: late 2000s onwards The impact of mobile phones, Web 2.0, and more emphasis on “ bottom up ” innovation </li></ul>
  13. 13. WSIS <ul><li>World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) (held Geneva, 2003 and Tunis, 2005) to discuss ICT4D issues </li></ul><ul><li>The Geneva Action Plan of Action identified 10 targets to be achieved by 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2010, ITU issued the report &quot;Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review&quot;, 2010 (available on the net) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The WSIS 10 targets (2003-5) <ul><li>1. To connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points </li></ul><ul><li>2. To connect universities, colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>3. To connect scientific and research centres with ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>4. To connect public libraries, cultural centres, museums, post offices and archives with ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>5. To connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>6. To connect all local and central government departments and establish websites </li></ul><ul><li>and e-mail addresses </li></ul><ul><li>7. To adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the </li></ul><ul><li>information society, taking into account national circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>8. To ensure that all of the world ’ s population have access to television and radio services </li></ul><ul><li>9. To encourage the development of content and put in place technical conditions in </li></ul><ul><li>order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>10. To ensure that more than half the world ’ s inhabitants have access to ICTs within their reach </li></ul>
  15. 15. Target 5: Connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs <ul><li>&quot;The health sector stands to benefit greatly from the use of ICTs and ICT applications, for example through the more efficient delivery of healthcare services and the provision of health information to the general public. The use of ICTs in the health sector also improves the collection, storage, retrieval and transmission of individual patient information. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, given the soaring use of mobile technologies worldwide, m-health (which refers to medical and public-health practices supported by mobile devices) holds huge promise for improving the delivery of health services to an increasing share of the world ’ s population. Thus, ICTs have the potential to contribute to more effective delivery of health services and to increase the efficiency of health systems. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of 2009, some progress had been made in establishing basic Internet access in health institutions, including in developing countries, but much more needs to be done if all health institutions are to enjoy Internet access by 2015. It is likely that progress will initially be made in the major cities of developing countries, and less so in the remote and isolated regions, even though ICTs can potentially bring even greater benefits in remote geographical areas. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to growing access to the Internet, health institutions are increasingly using ICTs for their own ends, for example through the connection of health institutions to HINARI (an online initiative to provide access to health research). While most countries have introduced some form of electronic patient records, in low-income countries this facility is not yet used intensively, and most patient records are still kept primarily in paper format. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 75 per cent of countries report at least one m-health initiative. This is an area which has great potential for further growth, especially in the developing world. Mhealth or other applications, including telemedicine, can deliver healthcare services at a distance, by providing and exchanging information for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and injuries. They can also promote research and evaluation, and helping in the education of healthcare providers.&quot; </li></ul>
  16. 16. (follows) <ul><li>&quot;Governments in developing countries should therefore ensure the effective implementation of such initiatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments need to recognize the importance of ICT access and use in the health sector, and the benefits it will bring for the health of citizens, not to mention the potential for cost savings, including through increased efficiencies. Policy-makers need to put in place and implement enabling framework conditions for e-health, which will be critical for increasing ICT in the health sector. Government support needs to be reflected in the policy environment as well as the funding environment. Today, funding constitutes an important barrier to the spread of e-health. Governments can look to alternative funding sources, such as donor or private funds, as well as public-private partnerships, in order to complement public funding used for providing Internet access to health institutions and supporting the use of ICTs for the delivery of health services. </li></ul><ul><li>Interministerial cooperation is also crucial in the area of e-health. Any significant ICT initiatives in the e-health domain will need to be agreed on and governed by several ministries, usually those in charge of health, ICTs and finance. The successful development and implementation of e-health projects requires a common understanding by all parties of some of the key issues, including the strategic approach and goals, costs and financing mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides establishing basic Internet access, health institutions are starting to increase their use of ICTs, for example by introducing electronic patient records </li></ul><ul><li>M-health has great potential for growth, and for delivering innovative health applications </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial efforts are required if Target 5 is to be achieved by 2015, including interministerial cooperation and adequate funding.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>ITU, &quot;Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review&quot;, 2010 </li></ul>
  17. 17. ICT4D: two basic approaches - ICT for productivity - From the experience and models of developed countries - Emphasis on [large] organizations - ICT for human development - From the needs of local communities and individuals - New models of services, collaboration and interaction based on local needs and experiences &quot;TOP DOWN&quot; &quot;BOTTOM UP&quot;
  18. 18. <ul><li>&quot;What happens when you start to connect the world ’s poor into the infrastrucure for a digital economy? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens is some of the basic assumptions about barriers to development might no longer apply &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>R.Heeks </li></ul>
  19. 19. Some examples <ul><li>Crowdsourcing to mobile phone owners simple jobs requiring cellular (e.g. translation in local language,, input of local data,…) ( , Kenia) </li></ul><ul><li>Posting requests of low-skilled jobs to web sites and SMS ( , India) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>&quot;How we see ICT4D depends fundamentally on the place from which we are looking&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Unwind &quot;ICT4D&quot;, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009 </li></ul>
  21. 21. 2. ICT development and digital divide
  22. 22. How can we measure and compare ICT development? (can be downloaded from the net at no cost) Two important sources, highly recommended:
  23. 23. Global ICT developments, 1998-2009 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 4,6 Billions subscriptions 12%
  24. 24. Mobile cellular subscription by level of development, 1998-2009 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 1,4 Billions Subscriptions (China+India alone: 1,2 B) 3,2 Billions subscriptions
  25. 25. Mobile cellular penetration by 2009* ITU, &quot;Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review&quot;, 2010 CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States
  26. 26. <ul><li>&quot;Available data suggest that by the end of 2008 almost three quarters of the world's rural inhabitants were covered by a mobile cellular signal, up from 40% in 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest coverage is in Africa, where just over 50% of the rural population is within reach of a mobile cellular network. This still represents a significant improvement from 2003, when coverage stood at only 20%&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>ITU, &quot;Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review&quot;, 2010 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Rural population covered by a mobile signal, 2002-2008 ITU, &quot;Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review&quot;, 2010
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Internet Users by level of development, 1998-2009 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 1,7 Billions People (1/3 in China)
  30. 30. Internet penetration, by region, 2009* ITU, &quot;Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review&quot;, 2010
  31. 31. Broadband divide, 1998-2009 Fixed broadband subscribers Mobile broadband subscribers Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 «Mobile broasband subscriptons can be expected to increase significantly in the near future, though.»
  32. 32. IDI ( I CT D evelopment I ndex) <ul><li>Developed by ITU to measure the level and evolution over time of ICT in different countries, and to measure the digital divide </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a 3 stage model of ICT development </li></ul><ul><li>Computed for 159 countries, 2002, 2007 & 2008 </li></ul>
  33. 33. IDI is based on an ICT development model 3 stages in the evolution towards the information society 1 2 3 Access sub-index Use sub-index Skills sub-index 11 indicators IDI
  34. 34. IDI components Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2009
  35. 35. IDI 2008: Examples Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010
  36. 36. IDI and GNI per capita correlation Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010
  37. 37. HDI & DOI correlation for selected countries Source: Silvia Masiero, Digital Technologies and Human Development, Think! Paper, Oct 2010 DOI: Digital Opportunity Index is a first version of IDI, 2004-2006 CUBA INDIA INDONESIA EGYPT COLOMBIA PERU CHINA MEXICO MALAYSIA RUSSIA CHILE UAE ESTONIA KOREA SPAIN ITALY US FINLAND CANADA SINGAPORE UK SWEDEN BRASIL
  38. 38. DOI: Digital Opportunity Index (ITU) <ul><ul><li>Opportunity of Digital Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage of population covered by mobile telephony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile cellular tariffs as a % of per-capita income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet cellular tariffs as a % of per-capita income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent of households with a fixed line, with internet access and with a PC at home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile cellular and internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet users per 100 inhabitants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of fixed and mobile broadband internet subscribers to total subscribers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Digital divide CAGR 2002-2008: 6,8% CAGR 2002-2008: 6,4% Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010
  40. 40. Digital divide Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 ACCESS USE SKILLS
  41. 41. Digital divide by IDI values Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010
  42. 42. Evolution of digital divide, 2002-2008 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 Argentina Chile Nicaragua Cuba Italia
  43. 43. 3. Internet evolution and ICT4D
  44. 44. At the beginning, our view of the internet was like this... A network of computer networks…
  45. 45. (una rete telefonica con i PC al posto dei telefoni…)
  46. 46. Typical applications <ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>File transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>
  47. 47. ... then our view changed (circa 1995+)... A gigantic hypertext …
  48. 48. Typical applications <ul><li>Company web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Web portals </li></ul><ul><li>Search engines </li></ul><ul><li>E-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Web as an interface </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul>
  49. 49. Then the crisis… Nasdaq Composite Index 10 March 2000: 5049 9 Oct 2002 : 1114 Google IPO 19 Aug 2004 IPO Netscape 9 Augt 1995:
  50. 50. ... Then our view changed again (circa 2005+) A network of people …
  51. 51. Typical applications <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Social network sites </li></ul><ul><li>User generated contents </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale cooperative creation </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable contents </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>“ SOCIAL MEDIA”
  52. 52. TIME Man of the Year Xmas 2006 Xmas 2010
  53. 53. Then the cloud (2010+) ... A gigantic computer …
  54. 54. Three big revolutions… These tools can change completely the approach of ICT4D, and its results… Never, in the story of technology, we had at our disposal a set of powerful tools like those resulting from the evolution of the internet in the last few years…
  55. 55. 1. Communications <ul><li>Cellular telephony </li></ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging </li></ul><ul><li>IP telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Web radio </li></ul><ul><li>Tele-conference </li></ul>
  56. 56. 1. Communications <ul><li>Cellular telephony </li></ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging </li></ul><ul><li>IP telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Web radio </li></ul><ul><li>Tele-conference </li></ul>
  57. 57. 1. Communications <ul><li>Cellular telephony </li></ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Mail </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging </li></ul><ul><li>IP telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Web radio </li></ul><ul><li>Tele-conference </li></ul>
  58. 58. 2. Software as a service <ul><li>Software applications accessible from the net </li></ul><ul><li>Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs </li></ul>
  59. 59. 2. Software as a service t Entry barrier Entry barrier (CAPEX) <ul><li>- Hw & sw client & server </li></ul><ul><li>- K-H (systems & apps) - Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Organization set-up </li></ul>Sustainability (OPEX) <ul><li>- hw & sw maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>- Recurrent fees </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul>
  60. 60. 2. Software as a service t - Hw client - Client maintenance - Recurrent fees (applications and connevctivity) Entry barrier (CAPEX) Sustainability (OPEX) Entry barrier
  61. 61. 2. Software as a service Developing country Developed country A new role for NGO?
  62. 62. Evolution 2. Web 1.0 Provider hosting my site with my data 1. Local infrastructure My data and applications 3. Web 2.0 My data, and 3d party applications as a service broadband Low cost PC
  63. 63. <ul><ul><li>“ Ecosystems” of open-source software components, developed and maintained by large communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online services easily integrable to provide higher level services (embedding & mashup technologies) </li></ul></ul>3. Applications building blocks 3. I building block per le applicazioni
  64. 64. Application virtualization
  65. 65. The pace of change… <ul><li>Piattaforme open source </li></ul><ul><li>Servizi di hosting </li></ul><ul><li>Servizi online per costruzione e hosting </li></ul><ul><li>Servizi di pagamento online </li></ul><ul><li>Social network sites </li></ul><ul><li>Photo, video, slides and document sharing sites </li></ul><ul><li>Telefonia IP </li></ul><ul><li>Microblogging </li></ul><ul><li>Online application suites </li></ul><ul><li>Online intranet </li></ul>Skype Twitter Google Apps Paypal Drupal Wordpress Joomla Altervista Wikia Webs Ning Weebly Socialgo LinkedIn Facebook YouTube Slideshare Flickr Google Docs Zoho
  66. 66. 4. Some examples
  67. 67. Esempio 1 . La rete informatica per l ’emergenza pediatrica in Nicaragua <ul><li>Obiettivo : collegare via Internet i 16 ospedali dipartimentali del Nicaragua all ’ospedale pediatrico La Mascota di Managua, per l’emergenza pediatrica </li></ul><ul><li>Progetto finanziato dalla Regione Lombardia nell ’ambito del gemellaggio Ospedale Policlinico di Milano – Ospedale pediatrico La Mascota di Managua, in collaborazione con l’Associazione per il Bambino Nefropatico Onlus </li></ul><ul><li>Durata 2,5 anni, iniziato luglio 2010 </li></ul>Ospedale Pediatrico «La Mascota», Manuagua
  68. 68. The network Policlinico Milan La Mascota Managua Phase 1 Phase 2 VPN
  69. 69. Esempio 2 : <ul><li>A web-based education project of St.Jude Children ’ s Research Hospital (Memphis, USA) to help health professionals in countries with limited resources to improve survival rates of children with catastrophic deseases </li></ul><ul><li>A free, global online medical education and collaboration network </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars, papers, oncopoedia, interest groups, international live online web conferences </li></ul>
  70. 70.
  71. 71. growth Start: Oct 2002 Oggi: 23.000 utenti in 176 Paesi
  72. 72. 5. Some conclusions
  73. 73. One <ul><li>ICT is changing fast… </li></ul>My grandaddy (born 1883) typewriter: I learned typing on it
  74. 74. Two <ul><li>People is changing slowly… </li></ul><ul><li>… but the world is getting younger and younger </li></ul><ul><li>… and the new generations have grown (and will grow) with technology </li></ul>We must target the new generations as the driving force for change
  75. 75. Three <ul><li>The “new” ICT (Internet) is different, and can give a lot of value… </li></ul><ul><li>… for a low cost </li></ul>
  76. 76. Four <ul><li>The main enabler will be broadband [mobile] access to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>… because it gives access to lots of things (definitely, not only information!) </li></ul>
  77. 77. All this suggests the following strategy <ul><li>Invest in broadband [mobile] access, not in software development </li></ul><ul><li>The software is there, and is (almost) free </li></ul><ul><li>Develop skills to identify, mix and integrate existing software and services </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of utility computing to avoid building local infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on applications requirements, prototyping and experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute results over the net </li></ul>
  78. 78. In three words… 1. Connect, connect, connect 2. Learn and experience the new paradigms 3. Understand local needs
  79. 79. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>