ICT4D: Tecnologie digitali per lo sviluppo

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Intervento al Master in Project and Information Management dell'Università Bocconi

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ICT4D: Tecnologie digitali per lo sviluppo

  1. 1. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D Master in Project andInformation ManagementICT4D: tecnologie digitali per lo sviluppo Roberto Masiero e Roberto Polillo Think! The Innovation Knowledge Foundation 2 Febbraio 2012
  2. 2. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D Sommario 1. What is ICT4D? 2. Digital divide 3. Internet evolution & ICT4D 4. Approaches to ICT4D 5. ICT4D: some good practices 6. Think! research methodology: the diamond of digital innovation2
  3. 3. THINK!: un think tank internazionale,indipendente e non-profitTHINK! (The Innovation Knowledge Foundation)intende dar vita a un Istituto di ricerca internazionaleindipendente e non-profit – un Think Tank – che siponga l’obiettivo di raccogliere, elaborare, condividere ediffondere conoscenze sull’utilizzo delle tecnologie ICT,digitali e science-driven per promuovere i processi diinnovazione, la crescita economica e lo sviluppoumano nelle economie mature, emergenti ed in via disviluppo, in un’epoca caratterizzata dalla centralità deitemi della sostenibilità ambientale ed energetica. THINK! The Innovation Knowledge Foundation
  4. 4. 4 1. What is ICT4D
  5. 5. ICT4D5  Information and Communication Technologies for Development “The application of ICT within the field of socio- economic development, international development and human rights” (Wikipedia)  Interdisciplinariety, different approaches, philosophies, goals, ...  We bring with ourselves our story, …
  6. 6. What does it mean6 "development"?  Development means different things to different people  At its core, it involves concepts of "progress" and "growth"  It cannot be simply equated to the growth of GNP or personal purchasing power…  Development is a multi-dimensional entity, involving empowerment, participation, ….
  7. 7. HDI: Human Development7 Index  Developed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme, www.undp.org ), from 1992  Covering almost 200 countries  Three basic dimensions :  HEALTH: Life expectancy at birth  EDUCATION: Education Index (adut literacy and enrolment at the primary, secondary and tertiary schools)  INCOME: Per-capita GDI Index
  8. 8. HDI divide in 20118 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index
  9. 9. Why ICT can contribute to development9 Information and Communication E- EDUCATION Collecting, storing, processing Providing media for and making available data and human communication, information interaction, collaboration and socialization Supporting and managing POVERTY E-HEALTH interaction processes of REDUCTIO any kind N
  10. 10. But: What do we intend by ICT?10 ICT paradigms are continuously changing…. Mainframe Client-server Cloud Mobile computing computing computing access 1965 1985 2005+
  11. 11. Three phases of ICT4D11  ICT4D 0.0: mid 1950s -late 1990s Focus on computing/data processing for back-office applications in large governement and private sector organizations in developing countries  ICT4D 1.0: late 1990s – late 2000s Millennium Development Goals and development of Internet in rich countries investment in ICT infrastructure and programmes. The diffusion on Telecentres.  ICT4D 2.0: late 2000s onwards The impact of mobile phones, Web 2.0, and more emphasis on “bottom up” innovation
  12. 12. WSIS12  World Summit on Information Society (held Geneva, 2003 and Tunis, 2005) to discuss ICT4D issues  The Geneva Action Plan of Action identified 10 targets to be achieved by 2015  In 2010, ITU issued the report "Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review", 2010 (available on the net)
  13. 13. The WSIS 10 targets (2003-5)13 1. To connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points 2. To connect universities, colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs 3. To connect scientific and research centres with ICTs 4. To connect public libraries, cultural centres, museums, post offices and archives with ICTs 5. To connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs 6. To connect all local and central government departments and establish websites and e-mail addresses 7. To adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the information society, taking into account national circumstances 8. To ensure that all of the world’s population have access to television and radio services 9. To encourage the development of content and put in place technical conditions in order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on the Internet 10. To ensure that more than half the world’s inhabitants have access to ICTs within
  14. 14. ICT4D: two basic approaches14 - ICT for productivity "TOP DOWN" - From the experience and models of developed countries - Emphasis on [large] organizations - ICT for human development - From the needs of local communities and individuals "BOTTOM UP" - New models of services, collaboration and interaction based on local needs and experiences
  15. 15. 15 2. Digital divide
  16. 16. Fasce di reddito secondo World Bank (2008) 35.50048.000 GNI per capita (US$) > 11.906 ≤ 11.905 ≤ 3.855 ≤ 975 16 R.Polillo - Ottobre 2011
  17. 17. How can we measure and compare ICT development?17 Two important sources, highly recommended: (can be downloaded from the net at no cost)
  18. 18. Global ICT developments, 2000-18 2010 2011 est: 86.7% 12% Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  19. 19. Mobile cellular subscription by level of development, 2000-201019 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  20. 20. Mobile cellular penetration by20 2011* CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/
  21. 21. Rural population covered by a mobile signal, 2002-200821 ITU, "Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review", 2010
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. Internet Users by level of development, 2000-101024 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  25. 25. Internet penetration, by region,25 2011* http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/
  26. 26. Broadband divide26 Fixed broadband subscribers Mobile broadband subscribers Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  27. 27. IDI (ICT Development Index)27  Developed by ITU to measure the level and evolution over time of ICT in different countries, and to measure the digital divide  Based on a 3 stage model of ICT development  Computed for 159 countries, 2002, 2007 & 2008
  28. 28. The 3 stages model of IDI28 1 2 3 Access Use Skills 11 IDI sub-index sub-index sub-index indicators
  29. 29. IDI components29 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2009
  30. 30. Digital divide by IDI values30 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010
  31. 31. 31 3. Internet evolution & ICT4D
  32. 32. Evoluzione di Internet32 1985+ 1995+ 2005+ COMMUNICATION HYPERTEXT, eCOMMERCE SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORK  Company web sites  Blogs  E-mail  Web portals  Social networks  File transfer  Search engines  UGC  Newsgroups  E-commerce  Cooperative  ….  Web as an interface creation  ….  Sharing  Reusable contents  …
  33. 33. Natale 2006 Natale 2010 Natale 2011 33
  34. 34. Evoluzione di Internet34 2010+ Mobile access
  35. 35. Never, in the story of technology, we had at our disposal a set of powerful tools like those resulting from the evolution of the internet in the last few years… These tools can change completely the approach of ICT4D, and its results… Three big revolutions…35
  36. 36. 1. Communications36  Cellular telephony  SMS  Mail  Forum  Chat  Blog  Social networks  Microblogging  IP telephony  Web radio  Tele-conference
  37. 37. 1. Communications37  Cellular telephony 2011 est:  SMS 86.7%  Mail  Forum  Chat  Blog  Social networks  Microblogging  IP telephony  Teleconference  Web radio/TV Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  38. 38. 1. Communications38  Cellular telephony 2003: Skype, Linkedin, MySpace,  SMS 2004: Facebook, Flickr, Orkut  Mail 2005: Youtube, Ning, Zoho 2006: Twitter , Google Docs  Forum 2007  Chat 2008: Livestream  Blog 2009: Foursquare  Social networks 2010 2011: Google+  Microblogging  IP telephony  Web radio  Tele-conference
  39. 39. 2. Utility computing39  Computing power accessible from the net (cloud)  Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed  Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs
  40. 40. 2. Software as a service40 Application  Computing power accessible from the net (cloud)  Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed  Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs
  41. 41. Before41 Entry barrier (CAPEX) Sustainability (OPEX) - Hw & sw client & server - hw & sw maintenance - K-H (systems & apps) - Recurrent fees - Infrastructure - Technical support - Organization set-up - Operations Entry barrier t
  42. 42. After42 Entry barrier (CAPEX) Sustainability (OPEX) - Hw/sw client - Client maintenance - Recurrent fees (applications and connectivity) Entry barrier t
  43. 43. 2. Software as a service43 SaaS Provider / Cloud Provider SaaS User Cloud User Developing country Developed country A new role for NGO?
  44. 44. Application virtualization 44
  45. 45. 3. IApplications building applicazioni 3. building block per le blocks45  “Ecosystems” of open-source software components, developed and maintained by large communities  Online services easily integrable to provide higher level services (embedding & mashup technologies)
  46. 46. The pace of change…46 • Piattaforme open source • Servizi di hosting • Servizi online per costruzione e hosting • Servizi di pagamento online • Social network sites • Photo, video, slides and document sharing sites •Telefonia IP • Microblogging • Online application suites • Online intranet • Geolocalizzazione 00 01 02 09 10
  47. 47. An agenda for change47  Invest in broadband [mobile] access  The software is there, and is (almost) free  Develop skills to identify, mix and integrate existing software and services  Take advantage of utility computing to avoid building local infrastructures  Concentrate on applications requirements, prototyping and experimentation  Share results over the net
  48. 48. 48 4. Approaches to ICT4D
  49. 49. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D Two possible approaches • ICT for Productivity • ICT for Human Development49
  50. 50. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D From IT Investment to Higher GDP HIGHER INCREASED TAX GDP REVENUES LOWER HIGHER PRICES WAGES ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS INNOVATIVE LESS SEVERE FASTER PRODUCTS ECONOMIC MORE JOBS PRODUCTIVITY LOWER INFLATION AND DOWNTURNS GROWTH SERVICES ACCESSIBLE HIGHER BETTER LARGER AND FLEXIBLE NEW AND FLEXIBLE INCREASED QUALITY DECISIONS MORE SUPPLY RESEARCH WORK EFFICIENCY GOODS AND MAKING EFFICIENT CHAINS TOOLS OPPORTUNITIES SERVICES TOOLS MARKETS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (hardware, software, applications and telecommunications) Source: ITIF50
  51. 51. Positioning mature & Roberto Masiero on ICT4D emerging Countries in terms of innovation-based global Overall Score competitiveness ITIF: The Atlantic Century Source:51
  52. 52. Positioning mature & Roberto Masiero on ICT4D emerging Countries in terms of innovation-based global Change Score competitiveness 1999-2009 ITIF: The Atlantic Century Source:52
  53. 53. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D IT drives productivity growth IT investment as a share Annual labor productivity growth of total capital investment Source: ITIF: Digital Prosperity53
  54. 54. Sources of total Roberto Masiero on ICT4D factor productivity growth Source: ITIF: Digital Prosperity54
  55. 55. The growth of Roberto Masiero on ICT4D productivity & the internet Source: ITIF: Digital Prosperity55
  56. 56. Beyond the productivity Roberto Masiero on ICT4D concept: ICT for Human Development 3 guidelines for an extended concept of “Human development”: 1.Development as empowerment, not a sheer economic growth 2.Approaching ICT4D in a context-based way, nor through deterministic stances 3.Predominance of political analysis over performance evaluation Source: Silvia Masiero, Digital Technologies and Human Development, Think! Paper, Oct 201056
  57. 57. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D From IT Investment to Human Development HIGHER HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HDI POVERTY HIGHER BETTER QUALITY HPI-2 PER-CAPITA GDP OF LIFE REDUCTION HIGHER NEW SECTORAL BETTER REDUCTION ACCESS TO MORE EFFICIENCY TOOLS REDUCTION IN PUBLIC IN GLOBAL MORE JOBS EFFICIENT OF INTERNAL (E-HEALTH, INFORMATION SERVICE HUMAN MARKETS FOR SUPPLY CHAINS RETAIL E-SCHOOL, ASYMMETRIES DELIVERY ISOLATION LOCAL SMEs SYSTEMS E-INCLUSION) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Source: Silvia Masiero, Digital Technologies and Human Development, Think! Paper, Oct 201057
  58. 58. 58 5. ICT4D: some good practices
  59. 59. Idee da alcune esperienze Roberto Masiero on ICT4D internazionali: Hole-In-the-Wall Education, India, Bhutan, Cambogia, Africa Hole-In-the-Wall Education Source: Think! Innovation Map59
  60. 60. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D eHomemarkets, Malesia eHomemarkets Source: Think! Innovation Map60
  61. 61. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D Sambaina Villaggio ICT, Madagascar Sambaina Villaggio ICT Connessione satellitare attraverso la piataforma satellitare Infopoverty Centro d’azione remoto a Centro di supporto Mahobong al DiPSA – Milano Source: Think! Innovation Map61
  62. 62. Idee da alcune esperienze Roberto Masiero on ICT4D internazionali: Akshaya e-Centres, Kerala, India Akshaya e-Centres Source: Think! Innovation Map62
  63. 63. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D NETRA: visita oculistica a costo zero attraverso liPhone Source: Think! Innovation Map63
  64. 64. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D E-Toilet: improving sanitation facilities in developing countries http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYsygg1ZJAg&feature= player_embedded#! Source: Think! Innovation Map64
  65. 65. 65 6. Think! research methodology
  66. 66. Roberto Masiero on ICT4D Roberto Masiero rmasiero@thinkinnovation.org Roberto Polillo roberto.polillo@unimib.it www.rpolillo.it The Innovation Knowledge Foundation Via Palermo 5 20121 Milano www.thinkinnovation.org Join our Innovator Community: http://theinnovationknowledgefoundation.ning.com/ /67

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