ICT4D, Digital technologies for development

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Lezione tenuta il 15 giugno 2012 al Master di II livello in "Management dei sistemi informativi per l'area del Mediterraneo - SI4MED", MEDAlics (Pizzo Calabro)

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  • Title of Presentation Client Copyright 2007 IDC. Reproduction is forbidden unless authorized. All rights reserved. Needs to be redesigned so that it shows within the template frame. Bulleted text and title should be easy for anyone to change (i.e, not part of the graphic)
  • Title of Presentation Client Copyright 2007 IDC. Reproduction is forbidden unless authorized. All rights reserved. Needs to be redesigned so that it shows within the template frame. Bulleted text and title should be easy for anyone to change (i.e, not part of the graphic)
  • Title of Presentation Client Copyright 2007 IDC. Reproduction is forbidden unless authorized. All rights reserved. Needs to be redesigned so that it shows within the template frame. Bulleted text and title should be easy for anyone to change (i.e, not part of the graphic)
  • Title of Presentation Client Copyright 2007 IDC. Reproduction is forbidden unless authorized. All rights reserved. Needs to be redesigned so that it shows within the template frame. Bulleted text and title should be easy for anyone to change (i.e, not part of the graphic)
  • ICT4D, Digital technologies for development

    1. 1. ICT4D: TECNOLOGIE DIGITALI PER LO1 SVILUPPO Roberto Masiero 1 Roberto Polillo 1, 2 1 Think! The innovation Knowledge Foundation 2 Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e Comunicazione, Università di Milano Bicocca Master Universitario di II livello in "Management dei sistemi informativi per larea del Mediterraneo – MaSI4MED" 15 giugno 2012
    2. 2. The discipline: ICT4D2  Information and Communication Technologies for Development “The application of ICT within the field of socio- economic development, international development and human rights” (Wikipedia)  Interdisciplinariety, different approaches, philosophies, goals, ...  We bring with ourselves our story, …
    3. 3. Agenda3 1. What is development – and how to measure it 2. ICT penetration and digital divide 3. Evolution of the Internet as a global resource 4. Internet for development: a quantic gap 5. Approaches to ICT4D 6. ICT4D: some good practices 7. Think! research methodology: the diamon of digital innovation
    4. 4. 1. What is development4 – and how to measure it
    5. 5. What does it mean "development"?5  Development means different things to different people  At its core, it involves concepts of "progress" and "growth"  Development is a multi-dimensional entity, involving empowerment, participation, ….  It cannot be simply equated to the growth of GNP or personal purchasing power…
    6. 6. However you measure it…6 A world of differences
    7. 7. GDP per capita, 20107 Blue: above world GDP per capita (USD 10,700, purchasing power parity) Orange: below world GDP per capita Source: IMF International Monetary Fund, from Wikipedia
    8. 8. Country classification by yearly GNI per capita (World Bank, 2008) 35.50048.000 GNI per capita (US$) > 11.906 ≤ 11.905 (In 2010, tresholds increased by 3%) ≤ 3.855 ≤ 975 8
    9. 9. Least Developed Countries9 LDC defined by UN, based on 3 criteria: Low income Human resources weakness Economic vulnerability In 2010: •49 countries •833 ml people LDC in 2007, from Wikipedia
    10. 10. Almost half the world live on less than $2.50 a dayhttp://www.globalissues.org
    11. 11. HDI: Human Development Index11  Developed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme, www.undp.org ), from 1992  Covering almost 200 countries  Three basic dimensions :  HEALTH: Life expectancy at birth  EDUCATION: Education Index (various indices, changed in 2011)  INCOME: Per-capita GNI Index
    12. 12. HDI divide in 201112 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index
    13. 13. Other indicators Life expectancy13 Poverty rates Unenployment rates Disposable income Education levels … Satisfaction with life Health conditions Standard of living Family life Jobs …. Natural resources Pollution & waste Human health www.beyond-gdp.eu …
    14. 14. 14 2. ICT penetration and digital divide
    15. 15. What a decade!15  The first decade of the new millennium saw extraordinary progress in ICT – globally:  Global mobile cellular penetration  Global internet penetration  Enormous technological improvements in ICT  The Internet as a pervasive resource  The lag between developed and developing world can be considered to be less that 10 years – on average
    16. 16. A fundamental source, highly recommended: www.itu.org16 (can be downloaded from the net at no cost)
    17. 17. The global picture17  Mobile  With 5.9 billion mobile-cellular subscriptions, global penetration reaches 87%, and 79% in the developing world  In LDCs two thirds of people have cellular coverage and mobile cellular penetration has reached 34% - up from 5% five years earlier  Internet  One third of the world population is online  45% of Internet users are below the age of 25  25% of internet users are in China Source: ITU Fact and figures, 2011
    18. 18. The global growth, 2000-201018 2011 est: 86.7% 12% Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    19. 19. Mobile cellular penetration growth19 Source: ITU
    20. 20. Mobile cellular subscription divide, 2000-201020 6 yrs lag Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    21. 21. Mobile cellular penetration by 2011*21 Much higher that the USA penetration in 2004 (43%) CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/
    22. 22. Rural population covered by a mobile signal, 2002-200822 ITU, "Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review", 2010
    23. 23. 23
    24. 24. 24
    25. 25. Internet Users divide, 2000-201025 This is higher than global fixed (16%) and mobile (12%) telephone penetration in 2000 Lag about 11 years Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    26. 26. Internet users growth26 • In developing countries, 30% of those under 25 use the Internet Source: ITU Fact and figures, 2011
    27. 27. Internet penetration, by region, 2011*27 http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/
    28. 28. Global bandwidth growth28 7x in 5 years
    29. 29. Broadband: what is it?29  "Broadband" is a technology neutral term, often used as a marketing buzzword, with different meanings  ITU defines broadband internet access as a [fixed or wireless] public access to the internet at a downstream speed equal or greater than 256 Kbps (March 2010)  Broadband is supported by different technologies with different speed
    30. 30. Broadband requirements: examples30  YouTube:  min 500 Kbps; optimal: 1 Mbps or higher  Skype:  voice call: 100 Kbps recommended  video call: 128-500 Kbps  group video call (3 people): 512 Kbps – 2 Mbps download  Streaming movies:  2,5 Mbps suggested  10 Mbps suggested for HD
    31. 31. Broadband on Europe Digital Agenda31  By 2013:  bring basic broadband to all Europeans  By 2020:  ensure that all Europeans have access to internet speed of above 30 Mbps and  50% or more European households subscribe to Internet connections above 100 Mbps
    32. 32. Broadband divide32 Fixed broadband subscribers Mobile broadband subscribers Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    33. 33. Cost: IPB (ICT Price Basket)33  Developed by ITU to compare the price of TLC in different countries  Based on a mix of use using fixed telephone, mobile cellulare and fixed broadband  Measured in % to the average monthly income  2010: Ranges from 0,2% (Monaco) to 71,6% (Niger) Italy: 0,9% (28th); USA: 0,6% (12th)
    34. 34. IPB index34 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    35. 35. Price divide by IPB values (2010)35 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    36. 36. Price divide by IPB values (2010)36 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    37. 37. Ultra-low cost mobiles37
    38. 38. IDI (ICT Development Index)38  Developed by ITU to measure the level and evolution over time of ICT in different countries, and to measure the digital divide  Based on a 3 stage model of ICT development  Computed for 159 countries, 2002, 2007 & 2008
    39. 39. The 3 stages model of IDI39 1 2 3 Access Use Skills 11 IDI sub-index sub-index sub-index indicators
    40. 40. IDI components40 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2009
    41. 41. Digital divide by IDI values (2010)41 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    42. 42. 3. Evolution of the Internet as a global42 resource
    43. 43. Evolution of ICT paradigms43 Mainframe Client-server Cloud computing computing computing 1965 1985 2005+
    44. 44. Evolution of the Internet44 1985 1995+ 2005+ + COMMUNICATION HYPERTEXT, SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORK  Company web eCOMMERCE sites  E-mail  Web portals logs  File transfer  Search engines  Newsgroups  E-commerce ocial networks  ….  Web as an interface  …. GC ooperative creation
    45. 45. Time person of the year45 Christmas Christmas Christmas 2006 2010 2011
    46. 46. Evoluzione di Internet46 2010+ Mobile access
    47. 47. Internet for development47 E-health E-education E-communication E-commerce E-government E-inclusion E-entertainment Broadband Internet access
    48. 48. Broadband as an enabler48  Telehealth & telemedicine: broadband can facilitate provision of medical care to unserved and underserved population through remote diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and consultation with specialists (telehealth & telemedicine)  Education, culture & entertainment: broadband can overcome geographical and financial barriers to provide access to a wide range of educational, cultural and recreational opportunities and resources  Economic development / E-commerce: broadband can promote economic development and revitalization through electronic commerce by creating new jobs and attracting new industries; providing access to regional, national, and worldwide markets  E-government: e-government can help streamline peoples interaction with government agencies, and provide information about government policies, procedures, benefits and programs  Public safety and homeland security: broadband can help protect the public by facilitating and promoting public safety information and procedures Broadband communication services: broadband provides access to new telecommunications technologies such as VOIP  People with disabilities: … www.broadband.gov
    49. 49. Example: E-health49  Electronic health records: enabling the communication of patient data between different healthcare professionals  Telemedicine: physical and psychological treatments at a distance  Consumer health information: use of online resources on medical topics by healthy individuals or patients  Health knowledge management: best practice guidelines, online resources for the healthcare professionals, epidemiological tracking  Virtual healthcare teams: healthcare professionals collaborating and sharing information on patients through online communication tools  M-health: using mobile devices in collecting patient health data, providing healthcare information, real-time monitoring of patient vitals, and direct provision of care  Healthcare online information systems: for hospital and healthcare professionals: appointment scheduling, patient data management, work schedule management and other administrative tasks surrounding health
    50. 50. ICT4D: two basic approaches50 - ICT for productivity "TOP DOWN" - From the experience and models of developed countries - Emphasis on [large] organizations - ICT for human development - From the needs of local communities and individuals "BOTTOM UP" - New models of services, collaboration and interaction based on local needs and experiences
    51. 51. The application long-tail51 Source: www.kiwania.net
    52. 52. 52 4. Internet for development: a quantic gap
    53. 53. Never, in the story of technology, we had at our disposal a set of powerful tools like those resulting from the evolution of the internet in the last few years… These tools can change completely the approach of ICT4D, and its results… Three big revolutions…53
    54. 54. 1. Communications54  Cellular telephony  SMS  Mail  Forum  Chat  Blog  Social networks  Microblogging  IP telephony  Web radio  Tele-conference
    55. 55. 1. Communications55  Cellular telephony 2011 est:  SMS 86.7%  Mail  Forum  Chat  Blog  Social networks  Microblogging  IP telephony  Teleconference  Web radio/TV Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
    56. 56. 1. Communications56  Cellular telephony 2003: Skype, Linkedin, MySpace,  SMS 2004: Facebook, Flickr, Orkut  Mail 2005: Youtube, Ning, Zoho  Forum 2006: Twitter , Google Docs 2007:  Chat 2008: Livestream  Blog 2009: Foursquare  Social networks 2010: 2011: Google+  Microblogging  IP telephony  Web radio  Tele-conference
    57. 57. 2. Cloud computing57  Computing power accessible from the net (cloud)  Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed  Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs
    58. 58. 2. Software as a service58 Application  Computing power accessible from the net (cloud)  Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed  Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs
    59. 59. Before59 Entry barrier (CAPEX) Sustainability (OPEX) - Hw & sw client & server - hw & sw maintenance - K-H (systems & apps) - Recurrent fees - Infrastructure - Technical support - Organization set-up - Operations Entry barrier t
    60. 60. After60 Entry barrier (CAPEX) Sustainability (OPEX) - Hw/sw client - Client maintenance - Recurrent fees (applications and connectivity) Entry barrier t
    61. 61. 2. Software as a service61 Developing country Developed country A new role for NGO?
    62. 62. Application virtualization 62
    63. 63. 3. I Applications building blocks 3. building block per le applicazioni63  “Ecosystems” of open-source software components, developed and maintained by large communities  Online services easily integrable to provide higher level services (embedding & mashup technologies)
    64. 64. The pace of change64  ICT is changing fast… My grandaddy (born 1883) typewriter: I learned typing on it …and now I use this
    65. 65. The pace of change…65 • Piattaforme open source o oh • Servizi di hosting Z • Servizi online per costruzione e hosting cs Do • Servizi di pagamento online gle • Social network sites oo ps eG • Photo, video, slides and document sharing sites Ap ub •Telefonia IP le uT og Yo • Microblogging Go ng • Online application suites Ni e er yp itt • Online intranet Sk m eTw r d p ck . co n dI • Geolocalizzazione Fli ar ss ke al sh re laW ok yp in re de s bo ss L Pa eb ua Sli or ce W a re sq i st y Fa dp al bl rv ur a up om ee or te iki Fo W Dr W Al W Jo
    66. 66. The pace of change66  People is changing slowly…  …but the world is getting younger and younger  …and the new generations have grown (and will grow) with technology We must target the new generations as the driving force for change
    67. 67. Internet is a lot more…67  The “new” ICT (Internet) is different, and can give a lot of value…  …for a low cost  The main enabler will be broadband [mobile] access to the Internet  … because it gives access to lots of things (definitely, not only information!)
    68. 68. An agenda for change68  Invest in broadband [mobile] access  The software is there, and is (almost) free  Develop skills to identify, mix and integrate existing software and services  Take advantage of utility computing to avoid building local infrastructures  Concentrate on applications requirements, prototyping and experimentation  Share results over the net
    69. 69. In three words…69 1. Connect, 2. Learn and 3. Understand connect, experience the local needs connect new paradigms
    70. 70. 70 4. Approaches to ICT4D
    71. 71. Two possible approaches 71• ICT for Productivity• ICT for Human Development
    72. 72. From IT Investment to Higher GDP72 HIGHER INCREASED TAX GDP REVENUES LOWER HIGHER PRICES WAGES ECONOM IC COMPETITIVENESS INNOVATIVE LESS SEVERE FASTER PRODUCTS ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY LOWER MORE JOBS AND DOWNTURNS GROWTH INFLATION SERVICES ACCESSIBLE HIGHER BETTER LARGER AND FLEXIBLE NEW AND FLEXIBLE INCREASED QUALITY DECISIONS MORE SUPPLY RESEARCH WORK EFFICIENCY GOODS AND M AKING EFFICIENT CHAINS TOOLS OPPORTUNITIES SERVICES TOOLS MARKETS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (hardware, software, applications and telecommunications) Source: ITIF
    73. 73. Positioning mature & emerging Countries in terms of innovation-based global competitiveness73 Overall Score ITIF : T h e Atlantic C e ntu ry S ou rce :
    74. 74. Positioning mature & emerging Countries in terms of innovation-based global competitiveness74 Change Score 1999-2009 ITIF : T h e Atlantic C e ntu ry S ou rce :
    75. 75. IT drives productivity growth75 IT investment as a share Annual labor productivity growth of total capital investment S ou rce : IT IF : D igital Pros p e rity
    76. 76. Sources of total factor productivity growth76 S ou rce : ITIF : D igital Pros p e rity
    77. 77. The growth of productivity & the internet77 S ou rce : ITIF : D igital Pros p e rity
    78. 78. Beyond the productivity concept: ICT for Human Development78 3 gu id e line s for an e xte nd e d conce p t of “ H u m an d e ve lop m e nt” : 2.D e ve lop m e nt as e m p owe rm e nt, not a s h e e r e conom ic growth 3.Ap p roach ing IC T4D in a conte xt-b as e d way, nor th rou gh d e te rm inis tic s tance s 4.P re d om inance of p olitical analys is ove r p e rform ance e valu ation S ou rce : S ilvia M as ie ro, D igital Te ch nologie s and H u m an D e ve lop m e nt, Th ink! P ap e r, O ct 201 0
    79. 79. From IT Investment to Human Development79 HIGHER HUMAN DEVELOPMENT HDI POVERTY HIGHER BETTER QUALITY HPI-2 PER-CAPITA GDP OF LIFE REDUCTION HIGHER NEW SECTORAL BETTER REDUCTION ACCESS TO MORE EFFICIENCY TOOLS REDUCTION IN PUBLIC IN GLOBAL MORE JOBS EFFICIENT OF INTERNAL (E-HEALTH, INFORMATION SERVICE HUM AN MARKETS FOR SUPPLY CHAINS RETAIL E-SCHOOL, ASYMMETRIES DELIVERY ISOLATION LOCAL SMEs SYSTEM S E-INCLUSION) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES S ou rce : S ilvia M as ie ro, D igital Te ch nologie s and H u m an D e ve lop m e nt, Th ink! P ap e r, O ct 201 0
    80. 80. 80 5. ICT4D: some good practices
    81. 81. Idee da alcune esperienze internazionali: Hole-In-the-Wall Education, India, Bhutan, Cambogia, Africa81 Hole-In-the-Wall Education S ou rce : Th ink! Innovation M ap
    82. 82. eHomemarkets, Malesia82 eHomemarkets S ou rce : Th ink! Innovation M ap
    83. 83. Sambaina Villaggio ICT, Madagascar83 Sambaina Villaggio ICT Connessione satellitare attraverso la piataforma satellitare Infopoverty Centro d’azione remoto a Centro di supporto Mahobong al DiPSA – Milano S ou rce : Th ink! Innovation M ap
    84. 84. Idee da alcune esperienze internazionali: Akshaya e-Centres, Kerala, India84 Akshaya e-Centres S ou rce : Th ink! Innovation M ap
    85. 85. NETRA: visita oculistica a costo zero attraverso liPhone85 S ou rce : Th ink! Innovation M ap
    86. 86. E-Toilet: improving sanitation facilities in developing countries86 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYsygg1ZJAg&feature=player_embedded# ! S ou rce : Th ink! Innovation M ap
    87. 87. 87 6. Think! research methodology
    88. 88. 89 Roberto Masiero rm as ie ro@ th inkinnovation.org Roberto Polillo rob e rto.p olillo@ u nim ib .it www.rp olillo.it The Innovation Knowledge Foundation Via P ale rm o 5 201 21 M ilan o www.th inkinnovation.org Join our Innovator Community: http://theinnovationknowledgefoundation.ning.com//

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