Performance Enhancement From A Psychological Perspective

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  • 1. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT FROM A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
  • 2. Psychological Skills Training
    • Psychological skills are the same as physical skills in that they can be taught, learned and practised.
    • Performance can be radically improved by employing psychological skills training.
  • 3. Psychological Skills Training
    • Programs can focus on one or more principles, depending on which areas need improvement, and these might include:
    • - goal setting
    • - arousal
    • - mental rehearsal
    • - confidence building
    • - concentration
  • 4. Psychological Skills Training
    • It is best if psychological skills become automatic via overlearning
    • That athletes make them an integral part of their training
    • That skills are practised to replicate real game scenarios
  • 5. GOAL SETTING
    • Has been shown to increase work output by up to 40-50%
    • Goals need to be set for both training and competitions
  • 6. GOAL SETTING
    • There are three types of sporting goals:
    • Outcome goals focus on end result, times, finishing place or medals
    • Performance goals focus on comparing present performance levels with those attained previously, and are independent of other competitors
    • Process goals focus on actions such as physical movements and game strategies that athletes must execute during a game in order to maximise their performance
  • 7. GOAL SETTING
    • Short-term goals:
    • continually provide a more manageable focus point for athletes
    • act as the stepping stones for achieving long-term goals
    • bring about improved performances
  • 8. GOAL SETTING
    • The acronym SMARTER is an effective way of goal setting:
    • S pecific – clear goals
    • M easurable – assess progress
    • A ccepted – by all (ie. coach, family, etc.)
    • R ealistic – achievable
    • T ime phased – within a time frame
    • E xciting – challenged, inspired, rewarded
    • R ecorded – written down
  • 9. AROUSAL
    • The relationship between arousal and performance is commonly referred to as the “inverted-U” hypothesis
    • It is possible to experience situations of: * under-arousal
    • * optimal arousal (in the “zone”)
    • * over-arousal
  • 10. AROUSAL
    • Arousal reduction techniques include:
    • Controlled breathing
    • Progressive muscular relaxation
    • Biofeedback
    • Stress-inoculation training (SIT)
    • Listening to calming music
    • Using routines
  • 11. AROUSAL First    Previous    Next    Last       Index    Home    Text                                                                                                                                                     
  • 12. AROUSAL
    • Arousal promotion techniques include:
    • Rapid breathing
    • Acting energetically
    • Positive talk
    • Energising imagery
    • Pre-game workout
  • 13. IMAGERY
    • Athletes can attain optimal arousal and concentration levels by trying to imagine themselves performing skills before actually doing them
    • This is known as - mental rehearsal
    • - mental imagery
    • - visualisation
  • 14. IMAGERY
    • Effective imagery involves a lot more than simply “seeing” how a performance should be executed
    • It calls on as many senses as possible during the rehearsal stage, typically:
    • * kinaesthetic
    • * auditory
    • * tactile
  • 15. IMAGERY
    • Imagery improves performance by:
    • Improving neural pathways between the brain and the muscles
    • Providing a mental template of rehearsed sequences
    • Enabling athletes to prepare for a range of events and eventualities
    • Working in conjunction with other psychological skills
    • Allowing athletes to pre-experience the achievement of goals that build confidence
  • 16. SIMULATION
    • Is carried out by making the physical training environment as similar as possible to the game setting
    • Thoughts are actually taken through to the physical application stage
  • 17. CONCENTRATION (ATTENTION)
    • Consists of three parts:
    • Focusing on relevant environmental cues
    • Maintaining attention focus over time
    • Having awareness of the situation
  • 18. CONCENTRATION (ATTENTION)
    • There are four possible types of attention:
    • Broad-internal focus – on thoughts and feelings
    • Broad-external focus – outwards on opponent’s actions
    • Narrow-internal focus – thoughts and mentally rehearse upcoming movements
    • Narrow-external focus – on very few external cues
  • 19. CONCENTRATION (ATTENTION)
    • Choking – a situation where performance deteriorates because a heightened sense of pressure or importance is placed on an upcoming event or action
    • Factors causing this include:
    • Focusing on environmental distractions
    • Focusing on past performances
    • Future-orientated thinking
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle tension
    • Negative self-talk
    • Poor handling of game pressure(s)
    • Not sticking to game plans
  • 20. CONCENTRATION (ATTENTION)
    • Concentration can be improved by:
    • Use of cue words
    • Selective attention training
    • Routines
    • Overlearning
    • Confidence
  • 21. CONFIDENCE
    • Confidence levels and performance attainment closely reflect the inverted-U shape demonstrated by the arousal theory
    • It is possible to lack confidence
    • Be over-confident
    • Be in “the zone”
  • 22. CONFIDENCE
    • Confidence levels remain high if athletes feel that they are adequately trained to succeed in the activity being undertaken – both physically and psychologically
    • Knowing what to expect by having practised many physical and mental scenarios, and knowing how to respond to them, removes uncertainty and ensures optimal performance levels