Definition• The Social Control theory explains how socialfactors such as religion, economics, family andeducation relate to the choices and actions ofan individual.
Travis Hirschi• Author of the Social Bond Theory• Hirschi was born in 1935 and graduated fromUniversity of Arizona• His theories integrated different theories andattempted to disprove the consistencies ofother theories.• His theories show little interest in race,gender, and class.
Hirschi’s PerspectiveBenefits• People feel something theylike.• People are motivated toacquire wants.• People assert a desired levelof control.• People have an attraction toillegal temptationsConsequences• People feel or would feelsomething they don’t like.• The cost of acquiring thewant is severe• Social control strengthaffects criminal activity.• Social Bonds control theattraction to illegaltemptations and ensureconformity. (Hancock,2004)
Hirschi’s Social Bond Theoryof Deliquency• Attachments• Commitment• Involvement• Belief
Attachments(Hirschi’s Social Bond)• The relationships established withothers, especially parents. Attachments areformed through the use of intimatecommunication.• Parents can develop a method of indirectcontrol. Which means, youngsters refrain fromdeviant behavior because the parentsrelationship is psychologically present. Theydo want to disappoint.
Attachments• “Social attachments can also be fruitfully thought of as investments. The developmentand cultivation of enduring attachments to family, friends, and co-workers requirespersonal sacrifice -- committing ones time and energy and, frequently, financialresources to meeting the needs of others rather than oneself. Attachments also yield areturn, albeit intangible -- the long-term good esteem, companionship, and love ofothers (Nagin 1994,581)”.
Commitment• The higher educational and occupational aspirations anindividual holds, the higher the cost for turning to crime.Conforming to social standards becomes a higher priority inachieving specific set goals. (Lily,2011)• It is only rational for a person to be concerned with his or herown self-interest
Involvement• People are less likely to be involved in criminal activitywhen involved in activities such as sports, schoolactivities, homework, and thier recreational pursuits.• The less time available for leisure equals less time toget in trouble.• Devoting energy to productive task reduces thechances to offend.
Belief• People with a strong moralbelief in the law are less likelyto engage in criminal activity.• Beliefs are based on a constantsocial reinforcement.• A fundamental understandingof right and wrong is crucial toreducing criminal activity.• Core Values
Juvenile Delinquency and Social ControlSocial Control• Under the Social ControlTheory, delinquency increaseswhen the social bond betweenchild and society is broken.• The relationship between thesocial environment andattitudes contribute toadolescent delinquentbehavior.• Weakened social bonds areprecursors to juveniledelinquency (Menasco,2005 ).Juveniles• Crime rates are higher injuveniles and decline with age(Hopson,2002 ).• There are at least 3 millionjuveniles under 18 arrestedyearly of arrests(Menasco,2005 ).• “A 70% increase of juvenilestransferred to adult courtbetween the late 1980s andthe beginning of the 1990s(Menasco, 2005 para3 ).”
Benefits in Applying the Social ControlTheory to Juveniles• Juveniles are impressionable and can beinfluenced by positive social bonds.• Juveniles are not as set in their ways asadults. Overcoming bad habits is easier.• Juveniles have several life decisions tomake which affect them for years to come.• Juveniles also undergo many physicalchanges which adjust hormone levels .
Conclusion• Juveniles need to be provided with theappropriate social bonds. Future crimerates can only be affected if theCriminal Justice System begins to applythe principles of the Social ControlTheory. Give the youth of America setexpectations, guidance, support, and thesolution begins.
Work Cited.• Hopson, R. K., & Obidah, J. E. (2002). When getting tough means getting tougher: Historical and conceptual understandingsof juveniles of color sentenced as adults in the united states. The Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 158-174. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/222122598?accountid=27966• Nagin, D. S., & Paternoster, R. (1994). Personal capital and social control: The deterrence implications of a theory ofindividual differences in criminal offending. Criminology, 32(4), 581-581. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/220697081?accountid=27966• Lilly, J. R., Cullen, F. T. & Ball, R. A. (2011). Criminological theory: Context and consequences (5th Ed.). Washington D.C: SagePublications.• Menasco, M. A. (2005). A reconsideration of social control theory: Understanding the interwoven nature of the socialbond, academic performance and juvenile delinquency. State University of New York at Buffalo). ProQuest Dissertations andTheses, , 232-232 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/305382943?accountid=27966. (305382943).