Story elements power point

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  • 1. Short Story Elements What parts make up a story?
  • 2. Story Terms
    • Plot and Conflict
    • Setting
    • Characters
    • Point of View
    • Theme
  • 3. Plot
    • Definition: what happens and how it happens in a narrative.
      • A narrative is any text that tells a story.
        • Ex: short story, novel, drama, epic poem, etc…
  • 4. Parts of Plot
    • Exposition - establishes characters and setting.
    • Inciting Incident - propels plot forward; usually introduces primary conflict.
    • Rising Action - events that complicate or intensify the central conflict.
    • Climax - moment of highest interest or emotional involvement in the story.
    • Falling Action - logical result of the climax.
    • Resolution - final outcome of the story.
  • 5.  
  • 6. Conflict
    • Definition: struggle between opposing forces.
    • Plot must contain conflict(s).
    • Conflicts can be internal or external:
      • External conflict: conflict with an outside force (person, group, animal, nature, fate, or the supernatural).
      • Internal conflict: conflict against oneself.
  • 7. Plot Techniques
    • Atmosphere - overall effect of the setting and descriptive details to create an emotional response in the reader.
    • Suspense - excitement or tension.
    • Foreshadowing - hints about what will happen later on in the story.
    • Flashback - interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past.
    • Surprise Ending - conclusion that the reader does not expect (use of irony).
    • Symbol - something concrete that represents something abstract.
  • 8. Setting
    • Definition: time, place, and society within which the action occurs.
      • Time: day, era, history, time of life, etc…
      • Place: physical environment, weather, scenery, buildings, rooms, furniture, etc…
      • Society: companions, dialects, customs, occupation, way of life, morality, psychological conditions, etc...
  • 9. Function of a Setting
    • Creates mood and atmosphere.
    • Makes action seem more real.
    • Can be the source of conflict or struggle.
    • Can symbolize an idea.
  • 10. Character
    • Types of Characters:
      • Major characters
        • Protagonist
        • Antagonist
      • Minor characters
        • Stock character
        • Foil character
      • Round characters
      • Flat characters
      • Dynamic characters (undergo change)
      • Static characters (stay the same)
  • 11. Characterization
    • Definition: how an author reveals what a character is like and how they change throughout the story.
    • Two methods:
      • Direct presentation - the author tells the reader about the character directly.
      • Indirect presentation - the author reveals a character through a physical description, their thoughts and actions, as well as the thoughts and actions of other characters in the story.
  • 12. Direct Characterization
    • … and I don’t play the dozens or believe in standing around with somebody in my face doing a lot of talking. I much rather just knock you down and take my chances even if I’m a little girl with skinny arms and a squeak voice, which is how I got the name Squeaky.
            • From “Raymond’s Run” by T. Bambara
  • 13. Indirect Characterization
    • The old man bowed to all of us in the room. Then he removed his hat and gloves, slowly and carefully. Chaplin once did that in a picture, in a bank - he was the janitor.
            • From “Gentleman of Rio en Medio” by J. Sedillo
  • 14. Types of Character
    • There are two primary types of character:
      • Flat character - only one or two distinguishing traits; not fully developed
      • Round character - fully developed character; reader may feel they exist in life.
  • 15. Analyzing Character
    • Considering the following when completing a literary analysis of a character:
      • Physical appearance
      • Personality
      • Background / personal history
      • Motivation
      • Relationships
      • Conflict
      • Do they change?
  • 16. Point of View
    • Definition: the perspective from which a story is told.
    • Two main types:
      • First Person - told from perspective of a character in the story.
      • Third Person - told from a removed perspective.
        • Third Person Omniscient = all-knowing perspective.
        • Third Person Limited = access to inner thoughts of some characters, but not all.
  • 17. Theme
    • A central message, concern, or insight into life that is expressed through a literary work.
    • Stated in one or two sentences about human beings or about life.
    • Interpretation uncovers theme.
    • All story elements should be interpreted in how they contribute to the development of theme.
    • Example: Sleeping Beauty - true love conquers all.